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DR. HORTON GUYFORD STEVER

H. Guyford Stever came to Carnegie Mellon University, formerly Carnegie Institute of Technology, in February 1965, as its fifth President. During his tenure, the Mellon Institute has been merged with Carnegie Tech to form Carnegie-Mellon.

Prior to becoming President, he served for more than twenty years on the faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, during which time he achieved national prominence both as an educator and in service to the Federal Government. Among other government activities he serves as a member of the Advisory Panel to the House of Representatives Committee on Science and Astronautics.

Following the 1968 elections, Dr. Stever was appointed by President-elect Nixon as chairman of an ad hoc science task force to advise on important scientific issues facing the incoming administration. He and his committee of distinguished scientists presented their report to the President Nixon just prior to the Inauguration.

He has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors from various govcrnmental agencies including the Certificate of Merit, the Exceptional Civilian Service Award and the Distinguished Public Service Medal. He holds eight honorary degrees.

Dr. Stever serves as consultant in the aerospace industry and is a Director or Trustee of several leading corporations, cultural organizations, schools, foundations, and charitable agencies. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, the Royal Aeronautical Society, and the Royal Society of Arts. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi among other honorary fraternities. In 1966 he was among the first group elected to membership in the National Academy of Engineering, served as first Chairman of its Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, and is now a member of the Council.

Dr. Stever and his wife, the former Louise Risley, have four children, Horton Guyford, Sarah Newell, Margarette Risley, and Roy Risley.

DR. MYRON TRIBUS

Dr. Myron Tribus was born in San Francisco, California, on October 30, 1921. He attended the University of California at Berkeley where he received a B.S. Degree in Chemistry in 1942. He received a Ph. D. in Engineering in 1949 from the U'niversity of California at Los Angeles where from 1946 to 1960 he taught engineering, rising from instructor to professor. He became Dean of the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College in 1961.

In 1950 he served as a consultant in heat transfer at General Electric Company and has worked as a consulting engineer since that time.

In 1951–54 he was director, Aircraft Icing Research, at the University of Michigan.

Dr. Tribus is not a stranger to the Department of Commerce where he has been a member of the Commerce Technical Advisory Board. He also served as a consultant to the Federal Office of Saline Water for the Department of Interior.

He also has served as an advisor to NATO in 1953. He has been a director of the Carpenter Technology Corporation, a major producer of specialty steels.

He has had numerous awards for outstanding achievements, including: the Thurman H. Bane Award, Institute of Aerospace Sciences, in 1945; the Wright Brothers Medal of the Society of Automotive Engineers, 1945; and the Alfred Noble Prize of the Engineering Founder Societies in 1952.

He is the author of a textbook, Thermostatics and Thermodynamics, 1961 and a new book, Rational Descriptions, Decisions and Designs, is now in press. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; and the American Society for Engineering Education.

Dr. Tribus is married to the former Sue Davis of Ezel, Kentucky, who is the author of two cookbooks. They have two daughters, Louanne, 13, and Kamala, 9. Their honie is in Hanover, New Hampshire.

DR. ERIC A. WALKER

Eric A. Walker was born in Long Eaton, England, April 29, 1910, and came to this country as a young boy. He received his Bachelor's, Master's and Doctor of Science degrees from Harvard, and holds honorary doctorates from many universities.

As an engineer, he has made significant contributions in the fields of acoustic properties of liquids, high voltage insulation, and electromagnetic precipitation. During World War II, he helped develop the acoustic homing torpedo, which was instrumental in breaking the submarine blockade. For this and other war research, he won the Naval Ordnance Development Award and the Presidential Certificate of Merit.

He headed the department of electrical engineering at Tufts College, at the University of Connecticut, and at The Pennsylvania State University, where he also directed the Ordnance Research Laboratory. At Penn State he was later Dean of the College of Engineering and Architecture, and since 1956 has been President of the University. He has been a member of the Board of Visitors of both the U.S. Naval Academy and the U.S. Military Academy. He was a founder of the National Conference on the Administration of Research, and has held leading positions in many educational associations and commissions at both state and national levels. He has been President of the American Association for Engineering Education, and of the Engineers' Joint Council.

He was a member of the Army Scientific Advisory Panel, Vice-Chairman of the President's Committee for Scientists and Engineers, and Chairman of the National Research Council's Committee on Undersea Warfare. He is currently Chairman of the Naval Research Advisory Committee, Chairman of the Board of the National Science Foundation, and a member of the Defense Science Board. He was one of the prime movers in the establishment of the National Academy of Engineering and is now its president.

Dr. Walker's accomplishments have been widely recognized by many awards and other honors. He has received the Horatio Alger Award, the Tasker E. Bliss Award of the American Society of Military Engineers, and the American Legion Distinguished Service Award. Early in 1969 he was named a Benjamin Franklin Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, London. He served as board member of a number of organizations and is a consultant to various industrial companies.

From: Department of Public Information, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

DR. EDWARD WENK, JR. Edward Wenk, Jr., a research engineer with experience in marine affairs, laboratory management and public administration, was re-appointed by President Nixon in January, 1969, as Executive Secretary of the Cabinet-level National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development. The Council, chaired by Vice President Agnew, is composed of the heads of the 8 Federal agencies with programs in the marine sciences. Located in the Executive Office of the President, the Council is responsible to the President for planning policy and for coordinating the $530 million marine science programs across the Federal Government, in relation to defense, foreign policy, fishing, shipping, coastal development, weather prediction, recreation, pollution abatement, and maritime exploration.

Dr. Wenk received a Bachelor of Engineering degree, with honors, in civil engineering from The Johns Hopkins University in 1940. He studied architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design; received a Master of Science degree in applied mechanics from Harvard University in 1947, and a Doctor of Engineering in civil engineering from Johns Hopkins in 1950.

From 1942 until 1956—as a research administrator and Naval Officer at the Navy's David Taylor Model Basin-Dr. Wenk was responsible for the Navy's ship structural research program. He received the Navy Civilian Meritorious Service award for developing structural modeling techniques to predict dynamic strength of ships. Subsequently, as a specialist in submarine strength, he developed criteria for hull design of nuclear and POLARIS vessels, and was in charge of the first deep dive of new submersibles, including the NAUTILUS. The research team he assembled gained wide recognition for their contributions in mathematics of thin elastic shells and for precision in experimental stress analysis.

From 1956 until 1959, Dr. Wenk served as Chairman of the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas. There he directed industrial and governmental research on liquid-fuel sloshing in missiles, low-cycle fatigue analysis of pressure vessels, flutter of hydrofoils, and low cost systems of building construction. In 1957 he originated the concepts for deep-running submarines reflected in both naval and research submersibles, and designed the deep diving research submersible ALUMINAUT.

Entering the field of science policy, Dr. Wenk was appointed in 1959 the U.S. Congress' first advisor on science and technology in the Library of Congress' Legislative Reference Service, and authored policy studies on space telecommunications that underlie legislation establishing COMSAT; on management of scientific information; and on oceanography.

In 1961 he was appointed to the White House staff as Assistant to the President's Science Advisor (the staff became, the following year, the Office of Science and Technology). There he served as executive secretary of the Federal Council for Science and Technology—a "science cabinet” dealing with Presidential questions of science programs involving 23 Federal agencies, patent policy, laboratory administration, and university grants. He also served as staff specialist on Federal organization for science, on science legislation, long-range planning, and on oceanography; and as staff director for a Presidential study on engineering and scientific manpower.

Dr. Wenk returned in 1964 to the Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress, to head a new Science Policy Research Division, in response to Congressional recommendations for strengthening its own advisory staff. Studies were undertaken for committees in both House and Senate, and members of Congress of both parties on legislative issues concerning weather modification, space exploration, environmental pollution, aeronautical reseach, technical aids to small business, ADP for the Congress, and science policy planning. He authored an analysis of Presidential advisory machinery and policy studies underlying the National Science Foundation Act of 1968 and the Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act. He served concurrently as science advisor to the Librarian of Congress.

Dr. Wenk was appointed to his present position by President Johnson in August, 1966, and served under Vice President Humphrey when the Marine Sciences Council was first established by law to advise and assist the President to advance effective use of the sea. During this time, the Council undertook new initiatives to extract marine protein to meet world hunger, to launch an International Decade of Ocean Exploration, to begin framing an international legal regime for seabed development, and to formulate contingency plans for oil tanker disasters. Three annual reports were prepared by the Council for the President and transmitted to Congress.

Dr. Wenk has been a special university lecturer; is author of numerous professional articles in applied mechanics, submarine design, ocean engineering, marine affairs and science policy. He has served as reviewing editor of journals Engineering Mechanics and Experimental Mechanics, and has been national president of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis; Chairman of the ASCE Research Committee and a member of the executive committee of its Engineering Mechanics Division; and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is also a Registered Professional Engineer and a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessel Research Committee, and the National Society of Professional Engineers.

He was elected to honorary societies Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and Chi Epsilon ; has been a Sigma Xi and William M. Murray lecturer, is recipient of Dr. Sci. (Hon.) degree from the University of Rhode Island, and in April 1969 was elected to the National Academy of Engineering.

Mrs. Wenk is the former Miss Carolyn Lyford of Melrose, Massachusetts. They have three sons, and live in Garrett Park, Maryland.

APPENDIX B

STATEMENTS—LETTERS FROM WITNESSES UNABLE To BE PRESENT

LITTON INDUSTRIES, INC.,

Beverly Hills, Calif., July 22, 1969. Hon. EMILIO Q. DADDARIO, House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Washington, D.C.

DEAR CONGRESSMAN DADDARIO: Your May 27 letter arrived as I had begun an extended trip out of the country. I have just returned and am pleased to reply at this time.

I expect the subject of organization of Federal Science activities will be considered by the President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization of which I am Chairman. My remarks at the moment, however, are not on behalf of that Council; they are my own preliminary thoughts which deal more with the principles I believe are applicable to the consideration of science in our society than they offer an explicit and detailed response to the many points so well discussed in your report.

Executive organizations are most effective, in my experience, when their primary levels of responsibility are centered on the results they are expected to achieve, and only subordinately on the means for achieving those results. To get to the moon is an end objective; to develop better vehicles for doing so is a means, as are better fuels and control systems for those vehicles. It is true that better fuels, control systems, and a myriad of other technologies used in our moon program also have applications other than in that program. Yet true effectiveness in spurring the development and application of science and technology comes from an organization challenged and motivated, and responsible, for end results. Such an undivided responsibility to perform has the same effect in obtaining the best use of our resources as does the force of the market in the private sector.

Science, one of our most potent resources, is a means, not an end of itself.

In my mind, to organizationally centralize the means, that is science, and then expect the most desirable ends to flow out of the undirected pursuit of the means will not only fail to enlist the marvels of science toward realization of our national objectives, but will be enormously more wasteful of our scarce scientific resources (by mis- or non-application) than any savings that might be made in overhead by centralization or even in eliminating “duplication”. Those arguing for centralization will say the scientific endeavors will not be undirected but will be directed by the best scientific leadership available. But is that leadership responsible for and measured by the results to which the means (science) are applied-improved defense, improved health, improved education, improved transportation, improved environment, improved housing, etc.? Scientific bureaucracy is no different than administrative bureaucracy. If not led in executive and goal oriented fashion, the continued practice of the means soon becomes an end of itself, the original goal having been subverted by the practitioners of the means to ones of their own organizational survival and perpetuation, regardless of changing need.

In allegory fashion, suppose that in the very early days of man when the wheel, a sharpened stone, and fire were the only "sciences” known, it had been proposed to have a department of science, regardless of end application. Do you suppose that the water wheel, the cart wheel, the grinding wheel, cooking, tempering, smelting, hunting, fighting, and stone carving would have evolved in their increasingly perfected forms? Each need gives rise to its own particular

variations in the development and application of the "scientific” means, and provides the impetus for their development and use, rather than the reverse. It is true that the discovery of new means open new vistas for need fulfillment, but once these discoveries are exposed as feasible, or possible, the needs finally assume command and develop the means to their utmost.

In effect, scientific knowledge is centrifugal. New scientific knowledge arises at a point, information of its existence spreads, then knowledge about how it can be applied spreads further, not by being pushed from the point of discovery but by being pulled by need to the “rim” of application. Science is perfected, advanced and is adapted to all possibly useful ends under the impetus of need fulfillment. How much less would plastics and computer technologies permeate our society today if the scientific knowledge had been under scientific management instead of applications oriented management?

I could develop this theme further but I hope I have been clear about my basic thought. I do believe there is need for a central cognizance across the many scientific activities of the Federal Government, not to direct them, but to be a central communication "switchboard”. Such a central communicating responsibility would acquaint each of the separate activities with the potentially applicable work of others and also be responsible for perceiving the possible applications of new scientific developments that might not be perceived by the individual laboratory. But a central information switchboard is far from the same as centralizing responsibilities for Federal Science. Sincerely yours,

Roy L. Ass.

BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES,

Murray Hill, N.J., July 23, 1969. Hon. EMILIO Q. DADDARIO, Chairman, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, House of

Representatives, Rayburn Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MIM: I had planned to come to Washington on the 29th but find that I cannot be there. I've talked to Dick Carpenter, hoping that my absence would not upset plans. I gather that Sam Lenher and Harris will cover things very welland I'm not at all sure that I would add very much.

Having read the Committee print “Centralization of Federal Science Activities” I have just a few observations and suggestions. The proposed organization (p. 57) I believe has considerable merit. At the outset, at least, the new agency should be oriented towards research and higher education rather than towards applied science and technology. Hence, I would delete the “National Institute of Applied Science". A decision to include it at a later time could be made after the new agency had become viable. Perhaps the new agency could do both. I would prefer to wait and see. (These comments answer questions D-3 and D-7 of p. 108.)

While the organizational questions being debated are important and the proposed plan a very reasonable one it seems to me that the basic issue before the Congress is adequate support for science and education to produce people and ideas to keep the country healthy. I would hope that the NSF and related budget matters could be corrected before we tinker too much with form.

I don't believe there is any special relevance between my Bell Laboratories experience and the organizational matters under discussion. The few points I might make are covered in my testimony before your Committee of December 11, 1963.

Finally, the leading article in NATURE, Vol. 222, June 21, 1969, p. 1107 entitled “Should There Be One Man in Charge?' you will find interesting. With best regards, Sincerely,

JIM.

SHOULD THERE BE ONE MAN IN CHARGE ?

Congressman Emilio Daddario's sub-committee on Science, Research and Development seems determined to breathe life into the old controversy about the virtues and defects of a single central management for federal science, possibly even a science ministry. This is almost explicitly what he says in the introduction to a report which officials of the Library of Congress have prepared under the title Centralisation of Federal Science Activities. For one thing,

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