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propriations, moved it as an amendment to an appropriation bill, and the Democrats raised the point of order against that motion. The bill was then brought into the House by Mr. Cannon under circumstances where it could only be considered by suspension of the rules, and that required a two-thirds vote of the House or 168 votes; while there were but 155 Republican members present and voting. The motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill received 219 votes, with only 33 against it. There were 64 Democrats who voted with the Republicans and aided in passing the bill to appropriate $20,000,000 to pay Spain and give the approval of Congress to the treaty by which the Philippines became territory of the United States.
Here is the list of Democrats voting for this appropriation: Allen, Bailey, Banklead, Bell, Berry, Brantley, Baker, Maryland; Barlow, Bodine, Brenner, Ohio; Brucker, Burke, Catchings, Clardy, Cochrane, New York; Cowherd, Cummings, Davey, De Vries, Dinsmore, Dockery, Driggs, Eliott, Fitzgerald, Fleming, Fox, Greene, Populist; Henry, Mississippi; Henry, Texas; Kleberg, Lanham, Latimer, Lentz, Lewis, Georgia; Livingston, Lloyd, McClellan, McLain, Maddox, Maguire, Meekison, Meyer, Louisiana; Miers, Indiana; Moon, Newlands, Ogden, Pierce, Tennessee; Rhea, Richardson, Ridgley, Robinson, Indiana; Settle, Sims, Slayden, Smith, Kentucky; Spight, Stallings, Stark, Stokes, Strode, Populist; Sulzer, Underwood, Vincent, Williams, Mississippi. (See Congressional Record, Fifty-fifth Congress, vol. 32, part 2, p. 2119.)
Mr. Wheeler of Kentucky, warned his own party that they were assuming part of the responsibility for the policy of the Government in the Philippines by their votes, and said "I can not refrain from expressing a superlative contempt for a man who believes a thing to be wrong, but for the sake of form will give his adherence to it.” But a majority of the Democrats in the House ignored his warning and voted to suspend the rules and pass the bill.
The insurgents under the leadership of Aguinaldo attacked the American troops about Manila on February 4, 1899, two days before the ratification of the treaty of peace. Senor Buencamino, who was then Aguinaldo's private secretary, testified before the Insular Committee of the House in May, 1902, that Aguinaldo began his preparations for the attack on the Americans in November, 1898, when he learned that the islands were to be ceded to this Government. Admiral Dewey said in his testimony before the Philippines committee of the Senate that Aguinaldo began his treachery when he was denied permission to loot Manila.
When the civilian members of the Philippine Commission arrived in Manila the insurrection had begun.' In their report to
the President they said: "Deplorable as war is the one in which we are now engaged was unavoidable by us. We were attacked by a bold, adventurous, and enthusiastic army. No alternative was left us but ignominious retreat. It is not to be conceived of that any American would have sanctioned the surrender of Manila to the insurgents. Our obligations to other nations and to the friendly Filipinos and to ourselves and our flag demanded that force should be met by force. Whatever the future of the Philippines may be, there is no course open to us now except the prosecution of the war until the insurgents are reduced to submission. The commission is of the opinion that there has been no time since the destruction of the Spanish squadron by Admiral Dewey when it was possible to withdraw our forces from the islands either with honor to ourselves or with safety to the inhabitants."
That was the view of the President and Congress. The legislative department of the Government sustained the Executive in measures to subdue the insurrection in the Philippines as it would in any other territory belonging to the United States.
President Schurman, Colonel Denby, and Professor Worcester, the civilian members of the Philippine Commission, arrived in Manila March 4, 1899. The insurrection had begun February 4, and was in progress. Aguinaldo had given secret orders for a massacre of the Americans in Manila February 15. Notwithstanding this condition, the Commission issued a proclamation to the people of the Philippine Islands, assuring them of the good will and fraternal feeling which was entertaineď for them by the President, and the aim and the objects of the American Government. Their attention was invited to certain regulative principles by which the United States would be guided in its relations with them. The following were suggested as of cardinal importance:
PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT OFFERED FILIPINOS.
1. The supremacy of the United States must and will be enforced throughout every part of the archipelago, and those who resist it can accomplish no end other than their own ruin.
2. The most ample liberty of self-government will be granted to the Philippine people which is reconcilable with the maintenance of a wise, just, stable, effective, and economical administration of public affairs, and compatible with the sovereign and international rights and obligations of the United States.
3. The civil rights of the Philippine people will be guaranteed and protected to the fullest extent; religious freedom assured, and all persons shall have an equal standing before the law.
4. Honor, justice, and friendship forbid the use of the Philippine people or islands as an object or means of exploitation. The purpose of the American Government is the welfare and advancement of the Philippine people.
5. There shall be guaranteed to the Philippine people an honest and effective civil service, in which, to the fullest extent practicable, natives shall be employed.
6. The collection and application of taxes and revenues will be put upon a sound, honest, and economical basis. Public funds raised justly and collected honestly, will be applied only in defraying the regular and proper expenses incurred by and for the establishment and maintenance of the Philippine government, and for such general improvements as public interests may demand. Local funds, collected for local purposes shall not be diverted to other ends. With such a prudent and honest fiscal administration, it is believed that the needs of the government will in a short time become compatible with a considerable reduction in taxation.
7. A pure, speedy, and effective administration of justice will be established, whereby the evils of delay, corruption, and exploitation will be effectually eradicated.
8. The construction of roads, railroads, and other means of communication and transportation, as well as other public works of manifest advantage to the Philippine people, will be promoted.
9. Domestic and foreign trade and commerce, agriculture and other industrial pursuits, and the general development of the country in the interest of its inhabitants will be constant objects of solicitude and fostering care.
10. Effective provision will be made for the establishment of elementary schools in which the children of the people shall be educated. Appropriate facilities will also be provided for higher education.
11. Reforms in all departments of the government, in all branches of the public service, and in all corporations closely touching the common life of the people must be undertaken without delay and effected, conformably to right and justice, in a way that will satisfy the wellfounded demands and the highest sentiments and aspirations of the Philippine people.
AFTER THREE YEARS' WAR. This proclamation issued to the people of the Philippine Islands on March 4, 1899, is an important historical incident now, because after three years war to completely put down the insurrection it is fulfilled by the legislation of Congress for the islands and the administration of the Taft Commission. President McKinley said, in his message of 1899: “But before their (the Commissioners) arrival at Manila, the sinister ambition of a few leaders of the Filipinos had created a situation full of embarrassment for us,
and most grievous in its consequences to themselves.” That is so true to-day that none of the leaders who aided Aguinaldo in his insurrection are longer honored by their people.
It required the work of a large army for nearly three years to suppress the insurrection, but it was done with firmness, that civil government could be established to give protection to the Philippine people under the sovereignty and by the authority of the United States.
The story of that war is not necessary to this discussion except where it has been perverted for political purposes by those in this country who have made war on the United States Army. The insurrection in the Philippines did not change in the slightest degree the policy of the United States. It delayed for three years the consummation of the purpose to establish civil government in the archipelago on the principle of individual rights and individual liberty, with as great measure of self government as the people were capable of administering.
This was stated in the proclamation issued by the first Philippine Commissioners, and was explained in detail to the representatives of Aguinaldo, who, on April 4, 1899, asked for a suspension of hostilities, that the insurgent leaders might have time to consider the proclamation. Colonel Arguelles, one of Aguinaldo's officers, was allowed to proceed to Manila by General Otis that he might meet the Commission. His request for a suspension of hostilities could not be granted, because that was a military proposition.' But various plans of government were suggested, though he was told that the sovereignty of the United States could not be discussed. That had been settled by the treaty of Paris. President McKinley, in his reply to the Commission, authorized President Schurman “to propose that under military power of the President, pending action of Congress, government of the Philippine Islands shall consist of a governor-general appointed by the President; cabinet appointed by the governor-general, a general advisory council elected by the people; the qualifications of electors to be carefully considered and determined, and the governor-general to have absolute veto. Judiciary strong and independent; principal judges appointed by the President. The cabinet and judges to be chosen from natives or Americans, or both, having regard to fitness. The President earnestly desires the cessation of bloodshed, and that the people of the Philippine Islands at an early date shall have the largest measure of self-government consistent with peace and good order."
That was proposed in a message sent by Secretary Hay to the Philippine Commission May 5, 1899.
It was submitted to the emissaries of Aguinaldo. Colonel Ar
guelles was not allowed to return because he favored the American policy. The new emissaries of Aguinaldo promised to consider the proposition, but the leaders of the insurrection had only sought for time to prepare for further resistance. They did not accept the offer of President McKinley. They had plotted a general massacre in Manila February 15, and they were still plotting.
The war had to be prosecuted until the insurrection was put down and order restored. But as the provinces were freed from hostilities they were placed under such civil government as was possible under the military power of the President.
The Taft Commission was sent to the Philippines, arriving in Manila June 3, 1900, and began to organize civil government in the municipalities and provinces that were freed from insurgents. Aguinaldo was captured by General Funston March 16, 1901; the collapse of the insurrection came in May, and Judge Taft, president of the Philippine Commission, was inaugurated civil governor of the islands July 4, 1901. The Philippine civil government bill was signed by the President July 1, 1902, and on July 4 the whole of the Christian Filipino provinces in the Philippines came under civil authority, the military authority becoming subordinate thereto on that date.
Schools in the Philippines.---The American school followed the American army in the Philippines, and even before the provinces were pacified the American soldiers gathered the children into schools and began teaching them. A year ago one of the army transports carried more than 700 American school teachers to Manila, and in January, when Governor Taft appeared before the Philippines Committee of the Senate he said there were at that time 835 American teachers in the islands and that 300 others were on their way. These American teachers are scattered throughout the islands in 445 towns, and 200 of these towns are without milltary garrison. Not only did the Philippines Commission make provision for a system of public schools throughout the Filipino provinces, but it also provided for a trade school in Manila, a normal school for the training of native teachers, a school of agriculture, a nautical school, a school of telegraphy, and in addition to these, provision made to send Filipino pupils to this country to be taught the ways of American civilization.
After Aguinaldo was captured and taken to Manila, he issued the following address to the Filipino people:
“I believe that I am not in error in presuming that the unhappy fate to which my adverse fortune has led me is not a surprise to those who have been familiar day by day with the progress of the