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war. The lessons thus taught, the full meaning of which has but recently come to my knowledge, suggest to me with irresistible force that the complete termination of hostilities and a lasting peace are not only desirable but absolutely essential to the welfare of the Philippines.
"The Filipinos have never been dismayed by their weakness, nor hàve they faltered in following the path pointed out by their fortitudé and courage. The time has come, however, in which they find their advance along this path impeded by an irresistible forcea force which, while it restrains them, yet enlightens the mind and opens another course by presenting to them the cause of peace. This cause has been joyfully embraced by a majority of our fellowcountrymen who are already united around the glorious and sovereign banner of the United States. In this banner they repose their trust, in the belief that under its protection our people will attain all the promised liberties which they are even now beginning to enjoy.
“The country has declared unmistakably in favor of peace; so be it. Enough of blood; enough of tears and desolation. This wish can not be ignored by the men still in arins if they are animatea by no other desire than to serve this noble people which has thus clearly marifested its will.
"So also do I respect this will, now that it is known to me, and after mature deliberation resolutely proclaim to the world that I can not refuse to heed, the voice of a people longing for peace, nor the lamentations of thousands of families yearning to see their dear ones in the enjoyment of the liberty promised by the generosity of the great American nation.
"By acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the entire archipelago, as I now do, without any reservation whatsoever, I believe that I am serving thee, my beloved country. May happiness be thine!
“EMILIO AGUINALDO." MANILA, April 19, 1901.
CONGRESS PROVIDES FOR A CIVIL GOVERNMENT WITH
A LEGISLATURE. President Roosevelt recommended and the Republicans in Congress began the last session with the purpose of providing civil government for the Philippines. Two bills were prepared for legislation regarding the Philippines. One was the Philippines tariff bill to provide revenue for the islands, and the other was to provide a civil government to take over the control which had for three
years been under military authority. Notwithstanding the fact that both bills were for the benefit of the Filipinos and to subordinate military authority and provide for civil government, the Democrats opposed both and delayed their passage for many weeks while they assailed the Army in their speeches. They did not discuss these legislative measures. They abused the American soldiers who were fighting the battles of their country..
The Democrats delayed these measures, but could not prevent the Republicans from adopting them.
The Philippines civil government act passed by the Fifty-seventh ('ongress and signed by the President July 1, 1902, in its first sections gives the approval of Congress to the action of President McKinley in creating the existing Philippines government, and authorizing it to exercise the powers set forth in his instructions to the Philippines Commission, dated April 7, 1900. The act also ratifies the President's order of July 12, 1898, whereby a tariff was collected at the ports of the Philippines. The act makes provision for the creation of a legislature to consist of two houses--the Philippines Commission and the Philippines Assembly--the latter body to be a popular assembly of delegates chosen at a general election by the people of the Philippine Islands; and for the transfer to that legislature all legislative power heretofore conferred on the Commission. This legislature is to be provided for two years after a census is taken, provided the condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority of the United States shall have continued in the territory of the islands not inhabited by the Moros and other non-Christian tribes.
The following bill of rights is contained in the act:
Bill of Rights.-SECTION 4. That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein who were Spanish subjects on the 11th day of April, 1899, and then resided in said islands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris, December 10, 1898.
SECTION 5. That no law shall be enacted in said islands which shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or deny to any person therein the equal protection of the laws.
That in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf.
That no person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law; and no person for the same offense shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.
That all persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties except for capital offenses.
That no law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be enacted.
That no person shall be imprisoned for debt.
That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion, insurrection, or invasion the public safety may require it, in either of which events the same may be suspended by the President, or by the governor, with the approval of the Philippine Commission, wherever during such period the necessity for such suspension shall exist.
That no ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
That no law granting a title of nobility shall be enacted, and no person holding any office of profit or trust in said islands, shall, without the consent of the Congress of the United States, accept any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, queen, prince, or foreign state.
That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
That the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated.
That neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in said islands.
That no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances.
That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed.
That no money shall be paid out of the treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation by law.
That the rule of taxation in said islands shall be uniform.
That no private or local bill which may be enacted into law shall embrace more than one subject, and that subject shall be expressed in the title of the bill.
That no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.
That all money collected on any tax levied or assessed for a
special purpose shall be treated as a special fund in the treasury and paid out for such purpose only.
The Legislature. The provision for the legislature is practically the same as that for Porto Rico. The members of the assembly are to hold office for two years. The legislature is to hold annual sessions, which are to continue not more than ninety days. Provision is made for the election of two resident commissioners to the United States, who shall be entitled to official recognition as such by all departments, and to the privilege of the floor of each House of Congress. No person shall be eligible to such election who is not a bona fide resident of the islands.
The franchise provision of the law is similar to that provided for Porto Rico. The act authorizes the Philippine government to acquire the friars' lands by purchase or by the exercise of the right of eminent domain, and to issue and sell bonds and apply the money in payment for the property.
Provision is made whereby the public property of the United States in the islands is to be administered by the Philippine government. The government is also authorized to provide by general legislation for the granting to actual occupants and settlers of agricultural lands of the United States in the islands, but not to exceed 16 hectares (40 acres) to one person, nor more than 2,000 hectares to any corporation. This is in the nature of a homestead law, and such grant is to be conditioned upon actual and continued improvement and cultivation of the premises sold for not less than
A homestead is not to exceed 40 acres in extent, an area which, from the testimony before the committee, is the equivalent in average productiveness of 160 acres in the United States.
Provision is made for the lease of the timber lands, and for the cutting of the timber and forest products under laws and regulations now in force in the islands and those to be prescribed by the local government.
Complete provision is made for the exploration of mineral lands and for the location and patent of mining claims. The provisions relating to these subjects are strict and amply sufficient to prevent exploitation.
The Division of Insular Affairs of the War Department, organized by the Secretary of War, which has been of much service in matters pertaining to the insular possessions of the United States, is continued until otherwise provided by Congress, and is to be known as the Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department.
Philippines Tariff Law.–The Philippines tariff law enacted by the Fifty-seventh Congress was intended to restore the status which existed prior to the decision of the Supreme Court in the “Diamond
Rings" Case, declaring the Philippines domestic and not foreign territory. Before that decision the Government had been collecting duties on goods coming from the Philippines at the same rate as those provided in our tariff laws for like articles imported from foreign countries. A new tariff law became necessary because the Supreme Court decision not only prevented the collection of duties against products of the Philippines coming into this country but also made ineffective the tariff law adopted by the Philippines Commission for the Philippines. The law provides for the collection of 75 per cent of the Dingley rates on products of the Philippines, less the export duty levied in the Philippines on certain products-and that all such revenues collected in this country shall not be covered into the general fund of the Treasury, but paid into the treasury of the Philippine Islands to be used and expended for the benefit of those islands. The act makes the Philippine tariff a part of the Statutes of the United States. It also provides for the collection of tonnage taxes on vessels plying between the ports of the United States and the Philippines.
Our soldiers carrying our flag in Luzon will be supported by the people of the United States (continued applause), and hostilities will stop in that distant island of the sea when the men who assaulted our flag and our soldiers shall lay down their arms.President McKinley, at Cleveland, Ohio, October 18, 1899.
We will fulfill in the Philippines the obligations imposed by the triumphs of our Army and the treaty of peace by international law, by the nation's sense of honor, and more than all by the rights, interests, and conditions of the Philippine people themselves.-President McKinley to Notification Committee, July 12, 1900.
We have not had any water cures in the South on the negroes, but one Senator said the other day something about the sand cure. I say, from my knowledge of the situation, that when we get ready to put a negro's head in the sand we put his body there, too.--Senator B. F. Tillman, in the United States Senate, May 7, 1902.
The boys who carry our flag in that distant sea will be sustained by the American people. It is the flag of our faith and our purpose; it is the flag of our love. It represents the conscience of the country, and carries with it, wherever it goes, education, civilization, and liberty. And let those lower it who will!-President McKinley, at Evanston, Ill., October 17, 1899.