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ness to the prisoner and the noncombatant. With admirable good temper, sympathy, and loyalty to American ideals its commanding generals have joined with the civilian agents of the Government in healing the wounds of war and assuring to the people of the Philippines the blessings of peace and prosperity. Individual liberty, protection of personal rights, civil order, public instruction, and religious freedom have followed its footsteps. It has added honor to the flag, which it defended, and has justified increased confidence in the future of the American people, whose soldiers do not shrink from labor or death, yet love liberty and peace.
The President feels that he expresses the sentiments of all the loyal people of the United States in doing honor to the whole Army which has joined in the performance and shares in the credit of these honorable services.
This general order will be read aloud at parade in every military post on the 4th day of July, 1902, or on the first day after it shall have been received.
Secretary of War. By command of Lieutenant-General Miles:
H. C. CORBIN, Adjutant-General, Major-General, U. 8. A.
Pacification Complete.-Acting Governor Wright sent the following cablegram from Manila to Secretary Root, July 3, 1902:
“Provincial government was inaugurated in Laguna on July 1, thus completing the establishment of civil government over all the civilized people of the archipelago. Acceptance of American authority and general pacification complete. I beg to offer congratulations to you and through you to the President on the success of the wise and humane policy inaugurated by President McKinley and continued by President Roosevelt.
Governor Taft's estimate of the work accomplished in the Philippines by Secretary Root is set forth in the following personal telegram from the former, who was in Rome: “SECRETARY OF WAR, Washington:
“Referring to telegram from your office of 2d instant, congratulate you on accomplishment of most important step in your great work of constructing satisfactory civil government in the Philippine Islands. None but those acting under you can fully know the debt the country owes to you for the courage and original constructive genius involved in drafting instructions of April, 1900, and forming
civil government without,a precedent under President's undefined authority as military commander-in-chief, almost within the sphere of war, It should furnish convincing proof to Filipinos of benefit of general peace under American sovereignty."
We are in the Philippines. Our flag is there; our boys in blue are there. They are not there for conquest; they are not there for dominion. They are there because in the providence of God, who moves mysteriously, that great archipelago has been placed in the hands of the American people.-President McKinley, at Youngstown, Ohio, October 18, 1899.
All hostilities will cease in the Philippines when those who commenced them stop; and they will not cease until our flag, representing liberty, humanity, and civilization, shall float triumphantly in every island of the archipelago under the acknowledged sovereignty of the United States.-President McKinley, at Racine, Wis., October 17, 1899.
We will not take down that flag, representing liberty to the people, representing civilization to those islands; we will not withdraw it, because the territory over which it floats is ours by every tenet of international law and by the sacred sanction of a treaty made in accordance with the Constitution of the United States.-President McKinley, at Waterloo, Iowa, October 16, 1899.
This subject of expansion is not a new one. It was the gospel of the early statesmen and patriots of this country. It found substantial realization in the magnificent achievement of that illustrious statesman, Thomas Jefferson. It was the dream of Marcy. In 1853 he sought to acquire the Hawaiian Islands. It was the dream of Seward; it was the dream of Douglas.-President McKinley, at Madison, Wis., October 16, 1899.
In the Philippines we have brought peace, and we are at this moment giving them such freedom and self-government as they could never under any conceivable conditions have obtained had we turned them loose to sink into a welter of blood and confusion, or to become the prey of some strong tyranny without or within. The bare recital of the facts is sufficient to show that we did our duty; and what prouder title to honor can a nation have than to have done its duty? We have done our duty to ourselves, and we have done the higher duty of promoting the civilization of mankind.-Theodore Roosevelt, in speech at Minneapolis, September 2, 1901.
CONDITIONS OF PEACE.
GOVERNOR TAFT AND CIVIL GOVERNORS OF PROVINCES
TESTIFY TO A GENERAL CONDITION OF PEACE IN
THE ARCHIPELAGO. Governor Taft, the other members of the Philippines Commission, and the civil governors in the Christianized Filipino provinces, have testified to the conditions of peace in the Philippines. President Roosevelt has accepted this testimony as warranting him in proclaiming the supremacy of the civil authority and the subordination of the military authority in the archipelago. He has also proclaimed a general amnesty which includes Aguinaldo and all other leaders of the insurrection, against whom there are not specific charges of willful crime outside the category of political offenses in time of war. The Democrats in Congress have sought to create the impression that the insurrection is not ended, and they have by their speeches done what they could to encourage a continuation of the resistance against the authority of this Government. The President has, however, acted on the evidence presented by those who are in position to know the conditions in the Philippines, and also in accord with the policy of the Republican party, declared in the beginning by President McKinley that the Filipinos should have the largest measure of self-government consistent with peace and good order.
When Governor Taft appeared before the Insular Committee of the House of Representatives, February 21, 1902, he said there were thirty-one provinces pacified and civilly organized, and but two of the Christian Filipino provinces where the insurrection still continued. These were the provinces of Tayabas and Batangas. Since that date these two provinces have been pacified and 'organized with civil governments. Governor Taft's testimony on this point is important.
Governor Taft's Testimony.-"The insurrection continues in Batangas, in Laguna, and in Tayabas; in Tayabas and Laguna because they are neighbors of Batangas. * In Samar the insurrection continues.
"These are the four provinces in which there are insurrectos. There are no other insurrectos anywhere else in the archipelago, unless twenty-five or thirty rifles under the command of a man named Rufino, in Misamis, the province which we organized in northern Mindanao, can be considered an insurrecto. In my judg
ment he is nothing but a ladrone. There are, I suppose, some few insurrectos in Mindoro, though they seem to have been so thoroughly scattered, after their chief was captured, that nothing is heard from them, they have disappeared into the marshy miasmatic places of Mindoro, and not appearing, the presumption is that they are dead, because that is such an unhealthy climate.
"In northern Luzon, for instance, in the province of Rizal and in the province of Bataan, the province of Pampanga, a part of the province of Zambales, and the province of Pangasinan and Benguet and La Union, there is a completely pacified condition, and it is safe for the county officers, Americans, engaged in collecting taxes, to go from one town to another without any escort.
“The same thing is true of Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte and Abra and Cayagan, and probably in Isabela, except on this side (indicating), where there are soine Igorrote robbers.
“The same thing is true of Albay and of Sorsogon. In Ambos Camarines there must be some ladronism in this neighborhood, though the governor reports that things are clearing up and that the conditions are very favorable.
"In Masbate there is complete peace, in Romblon there is complete peace, and as to the island of Panay, General Hughes, who is here, and who left the islands only two weeks after I did, reports that he would not hesitate to take a horse and drive all over Panay without an escort and without arms. He says the same thing of Cebu, and I have reports from the governor of Cebu, handed me this morning, which say that there is complete peace there.
“In Negros, which, singularly enough, has never had any insurrection in it, because the Filipino leaders adopted a form of government under General Otis and excluded insurrection, there is probably more trouble than in any other island. That grows out of the fact that there is this spine-this mountain spine-which runs down between here (indicating) and is covered with an impassable forest, and is the home of what is called the Babylanes or mountaineers, under a man who sometimes appears as a religious leader and then as the head of a robber trust, almost, for there are as many as 1,500 or 2,000 men ready to come at his bidding at anytime, and go down to reap the harvest from the rich sugar haciendas that lie on the west side of Negros, and hemp and rice plantations on the east side in oriental Negros.
"In Bohol, as I said, there has not as yet been a restoration of civil government.”
The following reports from the civil governors of the provinces bear out Governor Taft's testimony. The majority of these provincial governors are native Filipinos,
Ilocos, NORTE, December 17, 1901. The law is complied with in a peaceful manner. Violations of law so far occurred through deceit and impositions on part of people of other provinces.
PROVINCE OF RIZAL, PASIG, RIZAL,
December 18, 1901. In almost all the towns the justice courts are already in operation. The court of first instance has been established since July 11, 1901. Peace in Rizal is complete. All inhabitants are in favor of the civil government and devoted to American sovereignty. Highwaymen, who formerly operated in various places in Morong, have been driven out. The census is almost completed, and, from present information, the number of persons estimated at 140,000. Municipal autonomy is executed with sufficient force.
Means to establish the land tax progressing satisfactorily, and it is not likely that it will offer any particular difficulty in the completion. Provincial accounts, which showed in the months of July and August the province was in debt, have shown a balance of $3,833.77 gold on December 1, 1901, after payment to the municipalities the portion due to them. Suffrage, according to municipal code, has been exercised satisfactorily.
General state of the roads demand much expense for repairs, but the peace and disposition of the province give promise of progressive prosperity.
PROVINCE OF PAMPANGA, BACOLOR, P. I.,
December 17, 1901. At the present time this province is in the most peaceful condition. Many of the natives are highly educated, and since the introduction of the public schools under the United States Government a great improvement is noticed among the lower classes.
The finances of the province, as shown by the report of the provincial treasurer, show a balance in hand of over $26,000 United States currency, with outstanding indebtedness of less than $3,000 United States currency.
Roads and bridges throughout the province are in fairly good condition, and work in same is being pushed as rapidly as possible.
A few remaining malefactors and bandits in this province are being constantly traced and captured by the insular police. I believe that this province is in better condition than ever before, and