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and include such American specialties as hair-clipping machines, dental supplies, typewriters, electric motors, etc.

“The people of Europe, it may be assumed, therefore, are not less but more favorably inclined to goods of American origin, and the falling off in our exports, so far as they are concerned, is to be attributed to temporary causes, such as business depression, reducing their purchasing power, with the natural result of falling prices, or to discrimination against our products. The reduction is also found to be due in part to the elimination of the Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico from the Treasury tables of exports to foreign countries and to trade conditions in the United States, such as those affecting the exports of copper, which have checked the out flow of manufactured goods.

Conditions in Undeveloped Markets.---"The relation of the economic forces of the United States to those of Europe may be taken as the surest index to the probable future of our trade with the rest of the world, for it must be evident that if we can continne to compete with European industries in their home markets we shall have but little to fear from their rivalry in the neutral or undeveloped markets, where we would meet them on an equal footing. Even in Canada, notwithstanding a preferential tariff of 33 1-3 per cent in favor of British imports, we continue, says Consul-General Bittinger, of Montreal, to enjoy ‘more of Canadian customs than the rest of the world put together, and many classes of goods which some years ago were bought in Great Britain are now more cheaply and more conveniently purchased in the United States. Last year our sales to Canada amounted to more than $110,000,000, while those of Great Britain were only about $43,000,000. In Mexico, ConsulGeneral Barlow reports, the purchases from the United States show a large increase-over $4,000,000, or 11.8 per cent.-while those from every other country exporting largely to Mexico, except Germany, show a heavy decrease. The German gain was only about $411,000, or 5.8 per cent. In the reports from Central America and South America there are gratifying indications of substantial growth inthe sales of our goods, and we are steadily widening the variety of our exports to Africa, Asia, Australia-in other words, to every parts of the world.”

Our flag is there-rightfully there; as rightfully there as the flag that floats above me is here; and it is there, not as the flag of tyranny or as the symbol of slavery, but it is there for what it is here and for what it is everywhere-justice and liberty and right and civilization.-President McKinley at Warren, O., Oct. 18, 1899.

COMMERCE OF THE WORLD IN 1901

The following table shows the imports and exports of all countries for which statistics have been received by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce:

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Free trade is the voice of interest and selfishness in principle; protection is the voice of intelligent labor and development.Hon. Wm. McKinley in House of Representatives, April 6, 1882.

You may try the system of protection by any test you will, I care not what it is, and it meets every emergency, it answers every demand. More than that, it has not been against the Government, either in peace or in war.—Major McKinley at Niles, Ohio, August 22, 1891.

Free trade results in giving our money, our manufactures, and our markets to other nations; protection keeps money, markets, and manufactures at home.-Major McKinley at Beatrice, Nebr., August 2, 1892.

Protection has vindicated itself. It can not be helped by eulogy or hurt by defamation; it has worked its own demonstration and presents in the sight of the whole world its matchless trophies.Major McKinley at Beatrice, Nebr., August 2, 1892.

Stand up for America, and America will stand up for you.Major McKinley to Republican Press Association of West Virginia, September 1, 1896.

DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING-RESULTS OF PRO

TECTION AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS REPORTS. The development of the manufacturing industry in this country has been almost entirely within the period of Republican administration and a protective tariff. This is shown by the Census figures for 1900. In 1860, when the Republican party first elected a President, there were 140,433 manufacturing plants of all kinds, including the blacksmith shops at the crossroads, the village carpenter shop, and other like establishments. The total capital then invested in manufacturing was $1,009,855,715, the total number of wage-earners 1,311,246, the total wages $378,878,906, and the total value of the product $1,885,861,676.

In 1900 there were 512,726 manufacturing plants with a total capital of $9,874,664,087, the total number of wage earners 5,321,087, the total wages paid $2,330,273,021, and the value of the products $13,040,013,638. The increase in capital invested in manufacturing since the beginning of Republican administration and the protective tariff has been tenfold, of wage-earner nearly fivefold, of wages paid sevenfold, and of the value of the products about sevenfold, while the increase in population in the same time has more than doubled.

This development of the manufacturing industry has been continuous. In capital invested it was from $1,009,855,715 in 1860 to $2,118,208,769 in 1870; $2,790,272,608 in 1880; $6,525,156,486 in 1890, and $9,874,664,087 in 1900. In wage earners the increase was from 1,311,246 in 1860 to 2,053,996 in 1870; 2,732,595 in 1880; 4,251,613 in 1890, and 5,321,087 in 1900. In wages paid the increase was from $378,876,906 in 1860 to $775,584,343 in 1870; to $947,953,795 in 1880; to $1,891,228,321 in 1890, and to $2,330,273,021 in 1900.

In the value of the manufactured products the increases were from $1,885,861,676 in 1860 to $4,232,325,442 in 1870; to $5,369,579,191 in 1880; to $9,372,437,288 in 1890, and to $13,040,013,638 in 1900.

It will be seen from these figures that the growth of manufacturing in this country has been steady and continuous under the policy of protection, and that the percentage of increase in wages paid has been greater than the percentage of increase in wage earners to show that there has been a gradual increase in the earning power of the employees. The increase in wages has been in the same ratio as the value of the output notwithstanding the great development in labor saving machinery.

The following table shows the number of establishments in the selected industries in 1900, the capital invested, the salaried officials, the wage earners, the cost of materials used and the value of the products:

TABLE 5.-TOTALS FOR SELECTED INDUSTRIES: 1900.

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$6,516,255,385

966,924,835
427,905,020
120,038,792
118,705,710
95,482,566
48,192,351
27,811,187
6,730,974
6,461,691
3,591,940

889,809
339,198,619
332,804,455

6,394,164

Aggre.ate for selected industries
Textiles....

Wool manufactures..
Woolen goods.
Worsted goods....
Hosiery and knit goods.
Carpets and rugs, other than rag.
Fur hats.....
Shoddy...
Felt goods..
Wool hats

Wool, scouring
Cotton manufactures

Cotton goods...

Cotton, small wares.
Textiles-Continued

Silk and silk goods..
Dyeing and finishing textiles..
Cordage and twine..
Jute and jute goods..........

Linen goods.
Iron and steel..

Rolling m lls and steel works
Blast furnaces..
Tin and terne plate.

Forges and bloomeries.
Cheese, butter, and condensed milk.

Cheese, butter, and condensed milk, factory product..

Cheese and butter, urban dairy products.
Paper and wood pulp....
Petroleum, refining...
Carriages and wagons
Agricultural implements...
Clay products..

Brick and ti'e...

Pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay products.
Gas, illuminatlng and heating.

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$4,044,059,827

539,919,428
250,805,214
72,227,104
75,851,616
51,071,859
27,228,719
13,513,668
4,875,192
3,801,028
2,042,202

193,826
176,551,527
173,441,300

3,110,137
62,406,665
17,958,137
26,632,006
3,015,362

2,550,517
549,127,082
390,568,117
131,503,655
26,728,150

327,160
109,139,801
108,831,167

308.634
70,530,236
102,859,341
56,676,073
43,944,628
22,903,184
10,987,948
11,915,236
20,605,356

65,416
29,776
13,114

4,507

3,283
226,161
183,023
39,241
3,671

226
12,860
12,794

66
49,646
12,199
62,540
46,582
105,618
61,904
43,714
22,459

20,982,194
12,726,315
4,113,112
1,181,790

1,036,839
122,710,193
102,238,692
18,484,400
1,889,917

97,184
6,169,060
6,143,951

25,109
20,746,426

6,717,087
29,814,911
22,450,880
39,534,070
21,842,333
17,691,737
12,436,296

107,256,258
44,963,331
37,849,651
5,383,797

4,368,159
835,759,034
596,588,034
206,756,557
31,892,011

522,432
131,183,338
130,769,490

413,848
127,286,162
123,929,384
121,537,276
101,107,428
95,443,862
51,180,476
44,263,386
75,716,693

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Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding, iron and steel..

Ship and boat building, wooden.
Glass.
Coke.
Turpentine and rosin..
Oleomargarine
Salt..
Sugar and molasses, beet
Slaughtering..

Slaughtering and meat packing, wholesale..

Slaughtering, not including meat packing..
Lumber and timber products
Flouring and grist mill products..
Smelting and refining,

Lead, smelting and refining..
Copper, smelting and refining.

Zinc, smelting and refining.
Liquors

Liquors, malt.
Liquors, distilled.

Liquors, vinous.
Boots and shoes, factory product..
Printing and publishing, newspapers and periodicals.
Cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam

railroad companies...:
Leather, tanned, curried, and finished.
Chemical manufactures..

Chemicals.
Paints
Fertilizers.
Varnish..
Explosives
Dye stuffs and extracts.
Oil, essential..
Bone, ivory, and lamp black

1,116

44
1,072

355
241
1,503

24
159

30
921
573

348
33,035
25,258

117
39
47

31
2,850
1,524
967
359
1,600
15,305

$77,362,701
59,839,555
17,523,146
61,423,903
35,502,679
11,847,495
3,023,6 16
27,123,364
20,141,719
189,198,264
174,094,697

15,103,567
611,611,524
218,714,104
139,354,138
72,148,933
53,063,395

14,141,810
457,674,087
415,284,468
32,551,604

9,838,015
101,795,233
192,443,708

46,781
30,906
15,875
52,818
16,999
41,864
1,035
4,774
1,970
68,534
64,783

3,751
283,260
37,073
24,504

8,311
11,324

4,869
44,417
39,532
3,722

1,163
142,922
94,604

$24,839,163
16,231,311
8,607,852
26,529,748
7,085,736
8,593,483

534,544
1,911,140

1,092 207
33,457,013
31,079,715

2,377,298
104,640,591
17,703,418
15,973,626
5,088,684
8,529,021
2,355,921
28,005,484
25,826,211
1,733,218

446,055
59,175,883
50,333,051

$33,486,772
23,585,549

9,901,223
16,731,009
19,655,532

6 186,492
7,639,501
3,335,922
4,03,796
683,583,577
606,171,587

77,411,990
317,923,548
475,826,345
279,655,350
144,195,163
122,174,129
13,286,058
70,512,042
51,674,928
15,147,784

3,689,330
169,604,054

50,214,904
109,539,013
155,603,004
124,043,837

34,564,137
33,799,386
28,958,473
10,939,131
10,334,974
4,745,912

596,112
105,712

$74,578,158
50,367,739
24,210,419
56,589,712
35,585,445
20,334,888
12,499,812
7,966,897

7,323,857
786,603,670
699,247,78;

87,355,88
566,832,984
560,719,063
358,786,472
175,466,304
165,131,670

18,188,98
310,615,466
237,269,713
96,798,443

6,547,310
261,028,580
22,983,569
218,238,277
204,038,127
202,582,396
62,676,730
50,874,995
44,657,385
18,687,240
17,125,418
7,350,7-18

850,093
359,787

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1,296
1,306
1,740

459
419
422
181
97
77
70
15

119,580,273
173,977,421
238,529,641
89,091,430
42,501,782
60,685,753
17,550,892
19,465,846
7,839,034

612,657
782,247

173,652
52,109
46,765
19,054

8,151
11,581
1,546
4,501
1,648
199
85

96,062,329
22,591,091
21 799,251
9,401,467
8,929,787
4,185,289

995,803
2,388,756
787,942
69,100
46,107

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