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and include such American specialties as hair-clipping machines, dental supplies, typewriters, electric motors, etc.
“The people of Europe, it may be assumed, therefore, are not less but more favorably inclined to goods of American origin, and the falling off in our exports, so far as they are concerned, is to be attributed to temporary causes, such as business depression, reducing their purchasing power, with the natural result of falling prices, or to discrimination against our products. The reduction is also found to be due in part to the elimination of the Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico from the Treasury tables of exports to foreign countries and to trade conditions in the United States, such as those affecting the exports of copper, which have checked the out flow of manufactured goods.
Conditions in Undeveloped Markets.---"The relation of the economic forces of the United States to those of Europe may be taken as the surest index to the probable future of our trade with the rest of the world, for it must be evident that if we can continne to compete with European industries in their home markets we shall have but little to fear from their rivalry in the neutral or undeveloped markets, where we would meet them on an equal footing. Even in Canada, notwithstanding a preferential tariff of 33 1-3 per cent in favor of British imports, we continue, says Consul-General Bittinger, of Montreal, to enjoy ‘more of Canadian customs than the rest of the world put together, and many classes of goods which some years ago were bought in Great Britain are now more cheaply and more conveniently purchased in the United States. Last year our sales to Canada amounted to more than $110,000,000, while those of Great Britain were only about $43,000,000. In Mexico, ConsulGeneral Barlow reports, the purchases from the United States show a large increase-over $4,000,000, or 11.8 per cent.-while those from every other country exporting largely to Mexico, except Germany, show a heavy decrease. The German gain was only about $411,000, or 5.8 per cent. In the reports from Central America and South America there are gratifying indications of substantial growth inthe sales of our goods, and we are steadily widening the variety of our exports to Africa, Asia, Australia-in other words, to every parts of the world.”
Our flag is there-rightfully there; as rightfully there as the flag that floats above me is here; and it is there, not as the flag of tyranny or as the symbol of slavery, but it is there for what it is here and for what it is everywhere-justice and liberty and right and civilization.-President McKinley at Warren, O., Oct. 18, 1899.
COMMERCE OF THE WORLD IN 1901
The following table shows the imports and exports of all countries for which statistics have been received by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce:
Free trade is the voice of interest and selfishness in principle; protection is the voice of intelligent labor and development.Hon. Wm. McKinley in House of Representatives, April 6, 1882.
You may try the system of protection by any test you will, I care not what it is, and it meets every emergency, it answers every demand. More than that, it has not been against the Government, either in peace or in war.—Major McKinley at Niles, Ohio, August 22, 1891.
Free trade results in giving our money, our manufactures, and our markets to other nations; protection keeps money, markets, and manufactures at home.-Major McKinley at Beatrice, Nebr., August 2, 1892.
Protection has vindicated itself. It can not be helped by eulogy or hurt by defamation; it has worked its own demonstration and presents in the sight of the whole world its matchless trophies.Major McKinley at Beatrice, Nebr., August 2, 1892.
Stand up for America, and America will stand up for you.Major McKinley to Republican Press Association of West Virginia, September 1, 1896.
DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING-RESULTS OF PRO
TECTION AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS REPORTS. The development of the manufacturing industry in this country has been almost entirely within the period of Republican administration and a protective tariff. This is shown by the Census figures for 1900. In 1860, when the Republican party first elected a President, there were 140,433 manufacturing plants of all kinds, including the blacksmith shops at the crossroads, the village carpenter shop, and other like establishments. The total capital then invested in manufacturing was $1,009,855,715, the total number of wage-earners 1,311,246, the total wages $378,878,906, and the total value of the product $1,885,861,676.
In 1900 there were 512,726 manufacturing plants with a total capital of $9,874,664,087, the total number of wage earners 5,321,087, the total wages paid $2,330,273,021, and the value of the products $13,040,013,638. The increase in capital invested in manufacturing since the beginning of Republican administration and the protective tariff has been tenfold, of wage-earner nearly fivefold, of wages paid sevenfold, and of the value of the products about sevenfold, while the increase in population in the same time has more than doubled.
This development of the manufacturing industry has been continuous. In capital invested it was from $1,009,855,715 in 1860 to $2,118,208,769 in 1870; $2,790,272,608 in 1880; $6,525,156,486 in 1890, and $9,874,664,087 in 1900. In wage earners the increase was from 1,311,246 in 1860 to 2,053,996 in 1870; 2,732,595 in 1880; 4,251,613 in 1890, and 5,321,087 in 1900. In wages paid the increase was from $378,876,906 in 1860 to $775,584,343 in 1870; to $947,953,795 in 1880; to $1,891,228,321 in 1890, and to $2,330,273,021 in 1900.
In the value of the manufactured products the increases were from $1,885,861,676 in 1860 to $4,232,325,442 in 1870; to $5,369,579,191 in 1880; to $9,372,437,288 in 1890, and to $13,040,013,638 in 1900.
It will be seen from these figures that the growth of manufacturing in this country has been steady and continuous under the policy of protection, and that the percentage of increase in wages paid has been greater than the percentage of increase in wage earners to show that there has been a gradual increase in the earning power of the employees. The increase in wages has been in the same ratio as the value of the output notwithstanding the great development in labor saving machinery.
The following table shows the number of establishments in the selected industries in 1900, the capital invested, the salaried officials, the wage earners, the cost of materials used and the value of the products:
TABLE 5.-TOTALS FOR SELECTED INDUSTRIES: 1900.
Aggre.ate for selected industries
Cotton, small wares.
Silk and silk goods..
Rolling m lls and steel works
Forges and bloomeries.
Cheese, butter, and condensed milk, factory product..
Cheese and butter, urban dairy products.
Brick and ti'e...
Pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay products.
Shipbuilding, iron and steel..
Ship and boat building, wooden.
Slaughtering and meat packing, wholesale..
Slaughtering, not including meat packing..
Lead, smelting and refining..
Zinc, smelting and refining.