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GROWTH OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY-A STRIKING

EXAMPLE OF PROTECTION. The growth of textile manufactures in the United States supplies a striking example of the value of protection to labor especially, and to the producer and consumer generally. The accompanying table shows the number of establishments, number of employees, wages paid, material used, value of product and capital employed in the great textile industries-wool, cotton, silk, and dyeing and finishing industries in the United States, as shown by each Census report from 1850 to 1900, and a statement of the imports of wool, cotton, and silk manufactures at decennial periods from 1868 down to date. The combined statement of the four great industries, wool, cotton, silk, and dyeing and finishing industry, shows an increase in the number of employees from 1850 to 1860, the low-tariff period, of only 47,000 persons employed, while the next decade, under protection, shows an increase of 80,000 persons, the next decade an additional increase of 110,000, the decade ending with 1890 an increase of 127,000, and for the decade ending in 1900 an increase of 171,000. Capital employed in the low tariff decade, 18501860, only increased from $112,000,000 to $150,000,000, while the next decade showed an increase from $150,000,000 to $297,000,000; the decade 1870-1880 from $297,000,000 to $412,000,000; the decade 18801890 from $412,000,000 to $740,000,000, and the last decade from $740,000,000 to $1,066,032,937. Wages paid are not shown by the 1850 Census, but those of 1860, at the end of the low-tariff period, amounted to $40,000,000; by 1870 they had more than doubled, being $86,000,000; by 1880 they were $105,000,000; in 1890, $175,000,000, and in 1901, $219,229,265. The value of the product of these four great industries was in 1850 but $128,000,000, and during that decade only increased $86,000,000, while the average decennial increase under protection from 1860 to 1890 was over $250,000,000, making the total value of the product of these four industries in 1890, $722,000,000, and in 1900, $966,924,835. Meantime prices of the manufactured products have very greatly decreased, so that the figures of value quoted represent a much larger decennial increase in quantity of articles produced than the mere statement of values would indi'cate.

The importations of raw silk are an accurate measure of the prosperity of the silk manufacturing industry, since all of the material of this character comes from abroad, and the following statement of the importations of raw silk from 1892, the last year of President Harrison's administration, to date, indicates the effect of the recent low-tariff period upon this industry.

Imports of raw silk into the United States.

1892 1893

1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900 (May and June, estimated).

$25,059,325. 29,836,986 16,234,182 22,626,056 26,763,428 18,918,283 32,110,066 32,479,627 45,000,000

The textile industries of the United States at decennial periods, 1850 to 1900, showing relative growth under free trade and protection.

(Compiled from Census Reports.]

No. 1
Year.

estab

lishments

Capital.

No. of
em-
ploy-
ees.

Wages.

Cost of Value or materials. product.

Wool manu-
facture (a)... 1850

1860
1870
1880
1890

1900
Cotton manu-
facture........ 1850

1860
1870
1880
1890

1900
Silk manufac-
ture...

1850
1860
1870
1880
1890

1900
Dyeing and
finishing
textiles

1850
1860
1870
1880

1890
Combined tex-
tiles.

1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900

1,760 $32,586,305 47,763

$29,246,696 $49,636,881 1,673 42,849,932 59,522 $13,361,602 46,649,365 80,784,606 3,456 132,382,319 119,859 40,357 235 134,154,615 217,668,826 2,689 159,091,869 161,657 47,389,087 164,371,551 267,252,913 2,489 296,494,481 | 219,132 76,660,742 203,095,572 837,768,524 2,636 | 415,075,713 264,021 92,499,262 250,805,214 427,905,020 1,094 74,500,931 92.286

34,835,056 61,869,184 1,091 98,585,269 122,028 23,940,108 57,285,534 115,681,774

956 140,706,291 135,369 89,044,132 111,736,936 177,489,789 756 208,280,346 174,659 42,040,510 102,206,347 162,090,110

905 354,020,843 221,585 69,489,272 154,912,979 267,981,724 1,051 467 240,157 302,861 86,689,752 176,551,527 | 389,198,619 67 678,300 1,743

1.093,860 1,809,746 139 2,926,980 5,435 1,050,224 3,901,777 6,607,771

86 6,231,130 6,649 1.942,286 7,817,559 12,210,662 382 19,125,300 31,337 9,146,705 22,467,701 41,038,045 472 51,007,537 50,913 19,680,318 51,004,425 87 298,454 483 81,082,201 65,416 20,982,194 62,406,665 107,256,258

104 4.418,350 5,105

11,540,347 15,454,430 124 5,718,671 7,097 2,001,528 5,005.435 11,716,463 292 18,474,503 13,066 5,221,538 699,539,992 113,017,537 191 26,223,981 16,698 6,474,364 13,664.295 32,297,420

248 38,450,800 20,267 9,717,011 12,885,220 28,900,560 3,025 112,513,947 | 146,897

76,715,959 128,769,971 8,02 150,080,852 194,082 40,353,462 | 112,842,111 214,740,614 4,700 297,694,243 274,943 86.565,191 353,249,102 520,386,764 4,018 412,721,496 384,251 | 105,050,656 302,709,894 552,674,488 4,114 789,973,661 511,897 175,497,343 421,398,196 721,949,262 4,609 1,066,032.937 682,978 | 219,229,265 539,919,428 966,924,835

a Includes hosiery and knit goods. b In the Census of 1870 value of fabric was included; in all subsequent Cen. suses only the value added to fabrics by dyeing and finishing is given.

WOOL PRODUCTION, IMPORTATION, CONSUMPTION,

PRICES, ETC., IN THE UNITED STATES UNDER FREE

TRADE AND PROTECTION. The table which follows presents the record of wool production, importation, and consumption, the importation of woolen manufactures in each year from 1875 to 1901, and the effect of free trade in wool upon the farmer and those engaged in manufacturing. The figures of importation are for fiscal years ending June 30, and therefore the Wilson low tariff, which became a law August 28, 1894, does not apply to the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, except as to its effect in causing importers of wool and woolen goods to hold back their importations in order to bring them in under the new act, which promised free wool and a low tariff on woolen manufactures.

Under that act, which became operative in the second month of the fiscal year 1895, importations of foreign wool were greater than in any preceding year, and those of 1896 exceeded those of 1895, while those of the fiscal year 1897, all of which elapsed before the enactment of the Dingley law, July 24, 1897, were 350,852,026 pounds, or twice as much as in any year prior to the enactment of the Wilson law and three times as much as the average for the decade preceding that act. Prior to the enactment of the Wilson law the percentage of foreign wool used in the woolen manufactures of the United States ranged from 40 to more than 57 per cent, according to the figures of the Statistical Abstract, but since the enactment of the Dingley law has steadily fallen and was in 1899 only 19 per cent. of the consumption,

The value of foreign wool imported, which in the fiscal year 1897, the last year under the free-trade Wilson law, was $53,243,191, was in the fiscal year 1899, under the protective Dingley law, but $8,322,345, while the importation of woolen goods, which in 1896 under the Wilson act was $53,493,400, was in 1899 $13,832,621. This enormous importation of foreign wool and woolens so affected prices of wool that Ohio fine washed clothing wool, which had ranged for years at from 31 to 41 cents per pound, dropped in 1895 and 1896 to 18 cents per pound, but has since the enactment of the Dingley law again risen to 31 cents per pound. The effect upon farmers of the reduction in price of wool cannot be statistically stated so far as relates to the actual amount of money received for the wool grown, though it is probable that the sum received by them for their wool during the existence of the Wilson law was much less than one-half that of former years, as the production shows a marked decrease, and the price per pound, as already indicated, showed a fall of nearly one-half.

Under this tremendous shrinkage in value of the wool product,

the farmers in many cases disposed of their sheep, the exportation of sheep and mutton showing a large increase during the Democratic period, while the number of sheep on farms, as shown by the reports of the Department of Agriculture, fell from 47,273,553 to 36,818,643 and their value fell from $125,909,264 to $65,167,735, a loss of $60,000,000 in value of sheep alone, to say nothing of the much greater loss in value of wool.

Year ending June

Wool production, imports, consumption, and manufacture in the United
States; (ilso price of wool and value of sheep on farms, 1875 to 1901.
[From the Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1899.]
Value of imports

Sheep on farms of wool and manu

in the United factures Of,

States. I
Produc-

Imports.
tion.

ManuWool, factures

Number. Value. of wool.

Per cent. of con-
sumption, for-
eign.

Price of fine
washed clothing,
Ohio fleece, per
pound.

raw.

16.3

Pounds. Pounds. 1875. 181,000,000 54,901,760 22.1 $11,071,259 $44,609,704 1876. 192,000,000 44,642,836 18.3 8,147,617 | 38,209,800 1877. 200,000,000 42,171,192

7,156,944 25,701,922 1878. 208,250,000 48,449,079 - 16.9 8,463,015 25,230,154 1879. 211,000,000 39,005,155 14.2 5,034,545 24,355,821 1880.232,500,000 128,131,747 34.9 23,727,650 33,911,093 1881. 240,000,000 55,964,236 17.3

9,703,968 31,156,426 1882. 272,000,000 67,861,744 190 11,096,050 37,361,520 1883. 290,000,000 70,575,478 18.7 | 10.949,331 44,274,952 1884. 300,000,000 78,350,651 20.6

12,384,709 41,151,583 1885. 308,000,000 70,596,170 18.0

8,879,928 35,776,559 1886. 302,000,000 129,084,958 28.9 16,746,081 41,421,319 1887 285,000,000 | 114,038,030 27.4 16,424,479 44,902,718 1888.269,000,000 118,558,753 28.9 15,887,217 47,719,893 1889. 265,000,000 126,487,729 31.8 17,974,515 52,564,942 1890. 276,000,000 | 105,431,285 27.0 15,264,083 56,582,482 1891. 285,000,000 129,303,648 30.8 18,231,372 41,060,080 1892. 294,000,000 148,670,652 33.1 19,688,108 35,565,879 1893. 303,153,000 172,433,838 35.7 21,064,180 38,048,515 18948 298,957,384 55,152,585

6,107,438 19,439,372 18952 309,748,000 206,033,906 40.0 25,556,481 ! 38,539,890 18962) 272474,708 830,911,473-45.9 32,451,242 53,494,400 1897,8 259,169,251 850,852,026 57.8 53,243,191 -49,162,992 1898. 266,720,684 | 182,795,202 82.8 16,783,692 14,828,771 1809. 272,191,830 76,786,209 19.2 8,322,845 | 18,882,621 1900. 288,886,621 | 155,928,455 34.4 20,260,086 16,164,446 1801 802,502,328 108,588,506 24.9 12,520,881 14,585,806

Cents.

48 33,783,600 $94,320,652 45 35,985,300 93,666,318 48 35,804,200 80.892,683 85 85,740,500 80,603,062 41 88,123,800 79,023,984 46 40,765,900 90,230,587 43 43,569,899 104,070,759 42 45,016,224 | 106,595,954 89 49,237,291 | 124,366,335 85 50,626,626 119,902,706 83 50,360,243 107,960,650 85 48,322,331 92,443,867 82 44,759,314 89,872,839 81 44,544,755 89,279,926 83 42,599,079

90,640,369 33 44,386,072 100,659,761 81 43,421,136 108,397,447 29 44,988,365 | 116,121,290 23 47,273,559 125,909,264 19 45,048,017

89,186,110 18 42,294,064

66,685,767 18 38,298,789

65,167,735 36,818,645

67,020,042 2874 87,656,960 92,721,188 81 89,114,458 107,607,580

41,883,065 102,665,013

* Except in number and value of sheep on farms and prices of wool.
On October 1 of each year.
On January 1 of year named.

Democratic and low-tariff years, NOTE.-The importations of wool and woolen goods in the fiscal year 1894 were held back to obtain the reduction in duties by the Wilson sot, then peuding, and which went into effect August 28, 1894.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. Merchandise imported into, exported from, and retained for consumption in the

United States, 1868 to 1901.

[From the Statistical Abstract.] Imports.

Exports of domestic Retained for consumption,' merchandise.

per capita.

Raw wool con

sumed.

Year.

1871 1872 1873. 1874. 1875 1876.

1877. 1878.

1879. 1880. 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885* 1886* 1887* 1888* 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892. 18937. 18947.. 18957. 18967. 18977. 1898. 1899 1900 1901

$12.65
13.80
15.91
13.26
11.97
10.29
9.49
9.21
8.99
12.51
12.68
13.64
13.05
12.16
10.32
10.89
11.65
11.88
12.10
12.35
13.36
12.44
12.64

9.32
10.48
10.66
10.84
7.89
9.02
10.88
10.58

$5.12 5.23 4.44 3.75 3.51 3.22 2.77 2.67 2.73 3.64 3.78 4.12 3.92 3.47 3.17 3.30 3.65 3.60 3.60 3.62 3.39 2.66 2.97 1.90 2.14 2.20 2.37

$10.83

10.55 12.12 13.81 11.36 11.64 12.72 14.30 14.29 16.43 17.23 13.97 14.98 13.20 12.94 11.60 11.98 11.40 11.92 13.50 13.63 15.58 12.4% 12.73 11.37 12.11 12.17 12.27 18.84 17.96 18.81

P. cent. P. cent.

70.74
74.13
76.10
79.37
76.95 16.57
71.67 17.08
72.63 21.61
77.07 17.79
78.12 16.72
83.25 12.48
82.63 12.92
75.31 18.38
77.00 16.69
73.98 18.81
72.96 20.25
78.82 20.50
74.40 19.45
73.28 19.05
72.87 18.99
74.51 17.87
73.69 19.37
78.69 15.61
74.05 19.02
72.88 21.14
69.73 23.14
66.08 26.48
66.28 26.87
70.57 24.02
65.20 28.13
60.98 81.65
64.62

28.22

Lbs.
14.10
11.10
15.19
13.60
11.90
14.77
14.03
13.71
15.90
18.94
19.64
16.15
20.80
16.30
15.16
19.59
16.84
19.59
17.22
18.50
22.02
24.03
17.07
15.91
28.48
18.40
18.46
25.26
27.14
22.57
22.17

Bush.

4.69 4.79 4.81 4.46 5.38 4.89 5.01 5.72

5.58 1

5.35 6.09 4.98 6.64 5.64 6.77 4.57 5.17 5.62 5.34 6.09 4.58 5.91 4.85 3.41 4.54 4.78 9.88 4.21 5.95 4.74 3.95

Lbs.

5.73 6.75 5.67 4.81 5.28 5.21 5.16 5.28 5.03 6.11 5.66 6.36 6.62 6.85 6.69 7.39 6.68 6.31 6.83 6.03 6.43 6.72 7.05 *5.08 6.52 6.88 8.26 5.34

P. cent.

29.4 45.3 83.2 17.5 22.1 18.3 16.3 16.9 14.2 34.9 17.3 19 18.7 20.6 18.0 28.9 27.4 28.9 31.8 27.0 80.8 83.1 35.7 14.3 40.0 .45.9 57.8

8.9 32.8 34.4 24.9

2.66 3.01 8.06

5.72 5.18

* Democratic President, but Republican control of one branch of Congress. | Democratic President and low tariff.

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