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observed in these shops by official investigators have been revolting beyond description. Long ago efforts have been made to regulate these so-called “sweatshops,” and 12 States have enacted laws looking to this end. Of these 12 States 10 are Republican and 2 are Democratic. Nothing more need be said on this point.

Truck System.—The only important labor legislation in which the proportion of Democratic States approaches that of the Republican is in the prohibition of the truck system. This legislation prohibits employers from paying their employees in scrip or orders on their company stores, and which are not redeemable in cash. At present 21 States have such laws in force, of which 13 are Republican and 8 are Democratic, or 48 per cent of all the Republican and 44 per cent of all the Democratic States.

Convict-Made Goods.-The competition of convict-made goods with the products of honest labor is another subject upon which the working people have long sought to secure protective legislation. In 14 States the sale of convict-made goods is regulated by law. Of these 11 are Republican and 3 are Democratic.

This is conclusive evidence that it is not the Democratic party which is the “workingman's friend.” Acts speak louder than words. i

LABOR LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Who Enacted Them?—The great revolution, by which labor was exalted and the country freed from the curse of slavery, was accomplished by the Republican party against the fiercest opposition possible by the combined forces of the Democrats and their allies.

The Cooley Trade Prohibited.—This law was passed February 19, 1862; amended February 9, 1869; and further amended March 3, 1875. President Grant, in his message of December 7, 1874, laid before Congress a recommendation for the enforcement of the law. The legislation on these several acts was accomplished by the Republicans in 1862, in the Thirty-seventh Congress, and in 1869, in the Fortieth Congress.

Peonage Abolished.—This act was passed in the Thirty-ninth Congress, when both Houses were Republican by a large majority, March 2, 1867. -

Inspection of Steam Vessels.-Passed during the Fortieth Congress, when the Republicans were in power in both Houses.

Protection of Seamen.—Passed during the Forty-second Congress, when both Houses were under control of the Republicans. It was amended during the Forty-third Congress, when the Republicans were in control of both Houses.

Involuntary Servitude of Foreigners Abrogated.-Passed during the Forty-third Congress, when both Houses were under the control of the Republicans. Alien Contract Labor.—Contract-labor law passed the House March 9, 1886. All the votes against the bill were Democratic. Incorporation of National Trades Unions.—Passed the Senate June 9, 1886, without division. Passed the House June 11, 1886, without division, Payment of Per Diem Employees for Holidays.-Passed without division in the Forty-ninth Congress, second session. Labor of United States Convicts—Contract System Prohibited.— Bassed the House March 9, 1886. Passed the Senate February 28, 1887. All the votes against the bill were Democratic. Boards of Arbitration.—Passed the House on April 3, 1886, with thirty votes against the bill, all being Democratic. Hours of Labor, Letter-Carriers.-Law limiting letter-carriers to eight hours a day passed in the Senate without division. Department of Labor.—Passed the House April 19, 1888. Passed the Senate May 23, 1888. All votes cast against the bill were Democratic. Alien Contract Labor.—Passed the House during the Fifty-first Congress without division August 30, 1890. Passed the Senate with verbal amendments September 27, 1890.

LABOR CONDITIONS UNDER REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC AIDMINISTRATIONS,

The only way in which a fair idea may be obtained of the actual eonditions of labor at any time is by careful, impartial investigation. This fact was recognized when the United States Government and the governments of most of the different States of the Union and of the countries of Europe established bureaus of labor statistics. Hefore such bureaus were established it was practically impossible to secure information regarding labor conditions that was not open to criticism on account of the partisanship or personal bias of the persons presenting the same. Now, however, careful scientific investigations have replaced the unreliable and superficial work of irresponsible investigators.

During recent years a number of State labor bureaus, particularly those in States having considerable manufacturing interests, have published from year to year information showing, among other things, the number of persons employed in leading industries, the total and average wages paid employees, the number of days establishments were in operation during the year, the value of products,

etc. Such statistics enable one to see from year to year the degree of prosperity or depression in industry, and their effects upon labor, etc. In the present statistical discussion of labor conditions nothing but official figures have been used, figures which may easily be compared for verification with the original Government reports. These figures show that during the administrations of Presidents McKittley and Roosevelt there were more persons employed in industrial establishments, more money was paid in wages to employees, the average yearly earnings of wage workers were higher, and establishments were in operation a greater number of days per year than at any time during Democratic rule. The statistics from which these conclusions are drawn are shown and discussed separately for each State for which comparative data could be obtained. - hi,Linois LABOR REPORTS. In the biennial reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Illinois the industrial conditions are shown for recent years in 627 identical establishments, representing 38 industries. No information for years later than 1899 has yet been published. Tables are shown comparing conditions in the years 1895, 1897, and 1899. From the table showing the average number of employees it is seen that these 627 establishments employed 22,466 persons in 1895; in 1897 the number had increased to 23,567, a gain of 1,101 employees or 4.90 per cent. In 1899, 29,166 persons were employed, a gain of 5,599 or 23.76 per cent over 1897, and a gain of 6,700 persons or 29.82 per cent over 1895. Or, presenting it in another way, for every 100 persons furnished employment by these establishments in 1895, 130 persons are now employed. The table presenting total wages shows $9,800,033 paid in wages by the 627 establishments in 1895. In 1897 this amount had increased $535,886 or 5.47 per cent. The year 1899 shows an increase of $3,540,340 or 34.25 per cent over 1897, and an increase over 1895 of $4,076,226 or 41.59 per cent. That is, for every $100 paid for labor in these establishments in 1897, the employees in 1899 received $141.59. In the 627 establishments the average yearly earnings in 1895 were $436.22, in 1897 $438.58, an increase of $2.36 or 0.54 per cent. In 1899 the earnings increased $37.19 or 8.48 per cent over 1897, and $39.55 or 9.07 per cent over 1895. The average number of days in operation in 1897 increased 2.76 days or 1.08 per cent over 1895. In 1899 they were in operation 2.70 days or 1.04 per cent more than in 1897, and 5.40 days or 2.13 per cent more than in 1895.

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These tables show that for every 100 persons employed in 1895 the same establishments in 1899 employed 150 persons. That for every $100 paid in wages in 1895, $141.59 were paid in 1899. That while in 1895 22,466 persons were furnished employment at an average yearly earning of $436.22 these same establishments in 1899 furnished employment to 29,166 persons at an average yearly earning of $475.79; that is, the employers paid an average of $39.55 more to all the employees who could be furnished work in 1895, and furthermore employed 6,700 more persons at $475.77 each. These tables also show that while in 1895 but 22,466 persons could be furnished work for 255.90 days, in 1899 29,166 persons were furnished employment for 261.36 days.

The tables follow:

Six hundred and twenty-seven identical establishments, representing 38 industries. (Compiled from the biennial reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Illinois.]

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The biennial reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Iowa present for recent years the average number of employees and total wages paid in a large number of establishments.

In 1896 1,752 establishments reported 49,273 employees and a total of $17,369,622 paid in wages. In 1897 reports were made but 1,311 establishments, but these establishments paid $287,102 more in wages than did the 1,752 in 1896. In 1900 reports were secured from but 1,285 establishments, but these paid $3,776,339 more in wages than' did the 1,752 establishments in 1896.

The average number of persons furnished employment in each establishment was 28.1 in 1896 and increased 8.8 persons or 31.32 per cent in 1897. In 1898 there was a decrease of 2.8 or 7.59 per cent when compared with 1897, but an increase of 6 or 21.35 per cent when compared with 1896. In 1899 there was an increase over 1898 of 3.9 or 11.44 per cent and an increase of 9.9 or 35.23 per cent over 1896. In 1900 an increase of 1.8 or 4.74 per cent over 1899 and an increase of 11.7 or 41.64 per cent over 1896.

Or, instead of each establishment furnishing employment to 28.1 persons, as in 1896, in 1900 each establishment furnished employment to 39.8 persons.

In these establishments the average yearly earnings were $352.52 in 1896. In 1897 they increased $12.63 or 3.58 per cent. In 1898 they decreased $11.11 or 3.04 per cent when compared with 1897, but increased $1.52 or 0.43 over 1896. In 1899 they increased $38.35 or 10.83 per cent over the previous year and $39.87 or 11.31 per cent over 1896. In 1900 they increased $20.81 or 5.30 per cent over 1899 and $60.68 or 17.21 per cent over 1896.

Summarizing these tables it is seen that on an average each establishment furnished employment to 11.7 or 41.64 per cent more persons in 1900 than in 1896, that the average yearly earning of each person furnished employment was $60.68, or 17.21 per cent greater than in 1896.

The tables follow:

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