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Blacksmiths received $2.45 per day in New York and $1.6214 in London; $2.80 in Chicago and $1.48 in Glasgow, and $2.2644 in St. Louis and $1.46 in Manchester.

Blacksmiths' helpers received $1.65 per day in St. Louis and $0.9344 in Manchester, and $1.6912 in Chicago and $0.8514 in Glasgow.

Cabinetmakers received $2.50 per day in New York and $1.6812 per day in London; $2.53 per day in St. Louis and $1.3714 in Manchester.

Carpenters received $3.4934 per day in New York and $1.6834 in London; $2.80 in St. Louis and $1.5014 in Manchester, and $2.54 in Chicago and $1.5514 in Glasgow.

Iron molders received $2.7334 per day in Chicago and $1.621/4 in London; $2.30 in St. Louis and $1.5814 in Manchester.

Machinists received $2.55 per day in New York and $1.5414 in London; $2.521/2 in St. Louis and $1.46 in Manchester.

Pattern makers received $2.781/2 per day in St. Louis and $1.5844 in Manchester.

In England, as in the United States, there was a steady increase in wages, owing to the organization of labor, the better education of the working people, and the improved opportunities for highclass work. While in Great Britain there were no serious wars or other influences to give a set-back to the steady upward course of wages during the period from 1870 to 1896 covered by the investigation, the United States have had two occasions upon which there were such interruptions. The first was from 1873 to 1876, the period of reaction from the abnormal conditions caused by the civil war, and from 1893 to 1896, the period of Cleveland "tariff reform.” Notwithstanding these interruptions the net increase in wages from 1870 to 1896 was relatively greater in the United States than in Great Britain.

We now,

almost for the first time in our history, know no North, no South, no East, no West, but are all for a common country. President McKinley at Yankton, S. Dak., October 14, 1899.

We have been moving in untried paths, but our steps have been guided by honor and duty; there will be no turning aside, no wavering, no retreat.-President McKinley to notification committee, July 12, 1900.

Duty determines destiny. Destiny which results from duty performed may bring anxiety and perils, but never failure and dishonor. Pursuing duty may not always lead by smooth paths. Another course may look easier and more attractive, but pursuing duty for duty's sake is always sure and safe and honorable.--President McKinley at Chicago, October 19, 1898.

Average wage rates in American and English cities from 1870 to 1896. [From Bulletin No. 18 of the United States Department of Labor.]

BLACKSMITHS.

[blocks in formation]

1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896

$2.39
2.69
2.74%
2.6114
2.64
2.6674
2.641
2.747/
2.951
2.633
2.631
2.642
2.59
2.6344
2.631
2.631
2.631
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.63
2.6372
2.643
2.621
2.6272

$1.0972 1.091 1.091 1.131 1.173 1.173 1.173 1.131 1.091 1.091 1.213 1.173 1.212

2.67 2.621 2.821

(a)
$1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.46
1.5444
1.5412
1.541
1.541
1.541
1.5412
1.541
1.5412
1.5412
1.541
1.5412
1.54%
1.541
1.5412
1.6212
1.621
1.621
1.621

2.8374

1.213

2.92/2,

2.8014
2.88
2.90%
2.91
2.8734
2.841

2.6272
2.75
3.20
3.1772
2.80
2.8272
2.521

1.5412

1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.2934 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.46

2.861,

1.213) 1.213 1.173 1.173 1.213 1.253 1.253 1293 1.333 1.41 1.36 1.44 1.48

2.9212

2.9212

2.92%

2.83 2.84 2.92% 2.731 2.80 2.8074

2.50 2.45

2.6272
2.2612

1.6224
1.624

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[blocks in formation]

1870. 1871 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876.. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881 1882. 1883, 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893 1894 189). 1896.

$3.16% 3.463 3.511 3.38 8.05 2.981 2.751 2.681 2.763 8.143 3.122 8.50 3.8974 4.00 4.00 3.84

2.59 2.9534 8.00 8.50 4.00 4.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 8.60 * 4.00 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40 4.40

$1.53 1.53 1.51 1.5934 1.593 1.5932 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.5932 1.593) 1.5932 1.5932 1.593 1.6012 1.601 1.6012 1.601

2.66 2.82% 2.9534 3.50 3.50 3.50 8.50 8.50 3.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

$1.6534 1.653 1.653 1.563 1.5632 1.6532 1.84 1.84 1.6532 1.653 1.563 1.563 1.563 1.563 1.563 1.562. 1.5632 1.56 1.563 1.563 1.562 1.653 1.6534 1.653 1.743 1.743 1.84

4.033

$1.13% 1.131 1.211 1.211 1.38 1.381 1.551 1.552 1.55 1.21 1.2117 1.214 1.211 1.381 1.381 1.211 1.211 1.211 1.293 1.381 1.4634 1.551 1.551 1.551 1.5512 1.551 1.552

4.031 4.031

1.5932

4.0232

4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

1.6832

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[blocks in formation]

$2.872 3.15

[blocks in formation]

8.09

3.1934 3.16% 2.994

2.2712 1.943

3.042

1.96%

1.5932 1.5931

1.593 1.59 1.593 1.593 1.592 1.593

1870.. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875 1876 1877 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885. 1886. 1887 1888. 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893. 1894 1895 1896.

3.101 8.30 3.371 3.40% 3.43 8.483 8.481 3.49 3.4834 3.49% 3.491 3.491 3.491

$2.8812 3.161 3.203 3.104 3.14/2 3.11 3.1074 3.291 2.7644 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.80 3.18 3 20 3.20 3.20 2.80 2.80

1.91 2.1094 2.11 2.2374 2.20 2.3774 2.31 2.323 2.3934 2.3534 2.4194 2.48 2.4714 2.32 2.2934 2.581 2.5917 2.96 2.9434 2.6994

[blocks in formation]

1.59:32 1.593 1.5931

3.4874

1.593 1.593 1.593 1.593 1.5934 1.56 1.602 1.601 1.601 1.601

3.49 3.4934

3.4934

3.493 3.493

3.4934

2.54

1.6834

1.5013

1.5544

2

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1870. 1871. 1872 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885 1886. 1887 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896.

$2.53 2.7634

2.80 2.722 2.59

72 2.58 2.80 2.84 2.85 2.97 2.98 2.95 2.74 2.7434 3.0272 3.03 3.0274 3.02 3.021 3.033 3.051 3.083 3.093 3.103 3.091

4 3.071 3.14

2.92 2.92 2.9224 2.9234 2.89

$1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.5494 1.541 1.5412 1541 1.547

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

$1.2134

1.213 1.333 1.3332 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.49 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42

$1.11% 1.213 1.2132 1.213 1.211 1.213 1.213 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.813 1.313 1.3132 1.813 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.31% 1.313 1.313 1.58 1.58 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38

[graphic]

2.8834

2.88

2.88 2.88%4 2.88 2.88 2.87 2.891 2.9032 2.91

1.54%

[ocr errors]

15474
2.3272

IRON MOULDERS.
Great Britain.

Great Britain
Chi St.
Year.

Man

Chi St.

Year.
cago. Louis.
Lon-

Man-
Louis.
cago.

Lon-
ches-
don.

don.

chester.

ter. 1870. $2.524 $2.4714 $1.46 $1.46 1884.. $2.60 $2.50 $1.5494 $1.5114 1871.

3.07
2.71
1.46 1.46 1885.

2.65
2.40

1.5414 1872. 04 2.75 1.46 1.46 1886. 2.61% 2.40

1.5414 1873.

2.99
2.44 1.46
1.5474 1887. 2.624

2.35 1.5412

1.541 1874.

2.4634
1.46 1.54141888. 2.66

2.35 1.5414

1.541 1875. 2.623

1.54
1.5414 | 1889. 2.66 2.35

1.5412 1876. 2.35 1890. 2.7474 2.40

1.541 1877.

2.4512
74

1891.

2.82
2.50

1.541 1878. 2.48 272 1.46 1892. 2.8374

2.50 1.541 1879. 2.4672 2.50 1.46 1893. 2.8712 2.40 1.5412

1.5412 1880.

2.551
2.40

1.46
1894.
2.631 2.60

1.541 1881.

2.35
1.46 1895.

2.691
2.50 1.541

1.541 1882 2.40 1.5412 1.5474 | 1896.. 2.733 2.30

1.621

74 1.5812 1883.

2.50

1.5414

2.8132

2.44%

1.5412

2.371

1.5412

1.5414

1.5414

1.5414

1.541 1.541 1.541 1.5412 1.5412 1.541

1.541 1.5411

2.7213 2.7112

2.6712

1.5414

[blocks in formation]
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