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brought to issue. Determined that the supply of the defi-

ciency refts with the houses of parliament.Mr. Pitt pro-

poses that the chancellor shall be empowered to put the seal

to a commision for opening parliament.-After a violent de-

bate, carried. Frederick duke of York opposes adminiftra-

tion.--Mr. Cornwal dying, Mr. Grenville is chofen

speaker.--Mr. Pitt's plan of regency--is fubmitted to the

prince of Wales.~His highness expresses his disapprobation

and reasons, but deems it incumbent on him to accept the

office.--Second examination of the physicians.--Hopes of his

majesty's speedy recovery.---Mr. Pitt's plan of regency laid

before parliament.--Principle; that the power delegated

fhould answer without exceeding the purposes of the trust.-

Details and restrictions.--Scheme reprobated by opposition.-

Arguments for and against.-Princes of the blood all vote

on the side of oppofition.Warm praise and severe cenfure of,

by the respective parties throughout the nation. Impartial

estimate of its merits.— Irisho parliament addresses the prince

to assume the regency of Ireland.-Favourable turn of his

majesty's distemper.-Convalescence.-Complete recovery.--

Universal joy throughout the nation.--His majesty goes to

St. Paul's to return thanks.-Festive rejoicings.-Renewed

application for the repeal of the test and corporation acts.

Chief sects and most eminent men of the disenters.-


posed relief from the penal laws against non-conformity

opposed by the bishops.-Refused.Slave trade.--Mr,

Wilberforce's motion for the abolition.-- Arguments for, on

the grounds of religion and humanity.-Confderation pofta

poned to the next feffion. Mr. Grenville appointed fecretary

of state,—Mr. Addington speaker of the house of commons,

Financial scheme. A loan required (according to the mini-

fter) from a temporary caufe.-Mr. Sheridan disputes his

calculations. Bill for subječting tobacco to an excise.Po-

pular clamour against this bill.- Passed into a law.-


grafive prosperity of India stated by Mr. Dundas.- Slow

progress of Mr. Hastings's trial.-Motions respecting it in

the commons.--Sesion rifes.

Page 302

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Continental affairs.--The year 1789 eventful to the civilized

world.-Change in the relative policy of France and Austria.

- Profound policy of Kaunitz in the treaty of Austria with

France.--Imperial confederacy-produces the defenhve alli-

ance of Britain, Holland, and Prufa.State of the bellige-

rent powers.-- Character of the sultan.--His death.- Suc-

ceeded by Selim.-Change of counsels, and effects on military

operations.--Successes of the Rufrans and Austrians.They

respectively capture Bender and Belgrade.Ottoman em,

pire in danger.-Sweden.-Distresses of Gustavus.Ef-

forts of his genius and courage for extrication.-Miners of

Dalecarlia. The Danes invade Sweden.-British policy

induces the Danes to retreat.-Gustavus suppresses mutiny

and faction.-He confirms his popularity. He directs his

whole energies against Rufia.- Military and naval cam-

paign between Sweden and Ruffa.Commotions in the

Netherlands.--State and constitution of these provinces.-

Joseph's violent defire of change under the name of reform.

-Innovations in the ecclefiaftical establisbment.--Suppref-

fion of religious orders, and confiscation of their property.

-Suppreffion of ancient, venerated, and beneficial customs,

Change of judicial forms and proceedings.-Arbitrary /yf-

tem introduced.-Subverson of the established legislature.-

Progress of despotism trampling liberty and franchises.-

Joseph confiders his Flemish subjects merely as sources of

revenue.-Remonftronces of the Netherlanders.--Meeting

of the States.--Deputies are sent to Vienna.- Joseph pre-

tends to grant their requests.-Sends general Dalton to the

Netherlands. Despotic conduct of that officer. Effeets of

his tyranny.--Farther cruelty and robbery by Joseph.-

The Flemings resolve on forcible resistance.Declaration of

rights. The patriots defeat the Austrian troops.They form

themselves into a federal republic.

Page 358

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General election. Meeting of parliament and commence

ment of Mr. Pitt's administration. The King's speech.State of the empire when Mr. Pitt's ministry commenced. Objects which he proposes to pursue.--First efforts directed to finance.Bill for the prevention of smuggling.--Commutation act. -- Arguments against and for it.-Regulation on duties for British spirits.--Preliminary motions for the relief of the East India company.--Bill for the regulation of India.--Arguments against it.--Arguments for it.-Comparison of the two bills as resulting from the characters of their authors.--Debate on the Westminster ele&tion.-Mr. Dündas proposes the restoration of the forfeited estates.-A law passed for that purpose. Labours of Mr. Pitt in investigating the public accounts.-- Supplies.Loan and taxes. Selon closes. Y dissolving the parliament, his majesty virtually CHA P. asked the question


late representatives speak your sense, or not? If they did, you General will re-elect them ; if not, you will chuse others. election Thus interrogated, the greater part of the people answered, No; and a very considerable majority of members friendly to Mr. Pitt was returned. As far as popular opinion can be a test of either VOL. IV.






beautiful lady.

CHAP. merit or demerit, it was decidedly favourable to

the minister, and inimical to his opponents. The 1784.

general conduct of Mr. Fox often has been erroneously estimated by those who considered defects, without comprehending the excellencies of his plans, acts, and character ; but never was he less popular than after his India bill and contest with the sovereign. Still, however, he retained great favour in some parts of the kingdom, especially in Westminster, and his election was the

most noted of any that occurred for the new parContest for liament. The candidates were, lord Hood, who ter, and in had so eminently distinguished himself with Rodney, fluence of a Mr. Fox, and fir Cecil Wray; of whom the two

last were the late members. Wray had been originally chosen through the interest of Mr. Fox, but now abandoned that gentleman and joined lord Hood. For several days, Mr. Fox was supetior to either of his competitors; but his majority afterwards rapidly decreased, and he became inferior to fir Cecil Wray, who was far surpassed by the naval candidate:

On the 11th day of the poll he was three hundred and eighteen behind Wray ; but an interference now took place that changed the face of affairs. A lady of very high rank, still more eminent for. beauty than for condition, one of our lovely countrywomen, who demonstrate that, in celebrating a Venus or a Helen, poets do not exceed nature and experience, warmly interelted herself in the election of Mr. Fox, with a fuccess far beyond the hopes of the favoured candidate. Animated by personal friendship, and in{pired with an ardent zeal for what she conceived

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