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brought to issue.-Determined that the supply of the defi-

ciency refts with the houses of parliament.—Mr. Pitt pro-

pofes that the chancellor shall be empowered to put the seal

to a commiffion for opening parliament.-After a violent de-

bate, carried.-Frederick duke of York opposes adminiftra-

tion-Mr. Cornwal dying, Mr. Grenville is chofen

Speaker.-Mr. Pitt's plan of regency—is fubmitted to the

prince of Wales. His highness expresses his disapprobation

and reafons, but deems it incumbent on him to accept the

office.-Second examination of the physicians.-Hopes of his

majefty's speedy recovery.-Mr. Pitt's plan of regency laid

before parliament.-Principle; that the power delegated

fhould anfwer without exceeding the purposes of the truft-

Details and restrictions-Scheme reprobated by oppofition.-

Arguments for and against.-Princes of the blood all vote

on the fide of oppofition.-Warm praise and severe cenfure of,

by the respective parties throughout the nation.-Impartial

eftimate of its merits.-Irish parliament addresses the prince

to affume the regency of Ireland.-Favourable turn of his

majefty's diftemper.-Convalescence.-Complete recovery.———

Univerfal joy throughout the nation.-His majesty goes to

St. Paul's to return thanks.-Feftive rejoicings.-Renewed

application for the repeal of the test and corporation acts.—

Chief fects and most eminent men of the diffenters.-Pro-

pofed relief from the penal laws against non-conformists—

oppofed by the bishops.-Refused.-Slave trade.-Mr,

Wilberforce's motion for the abolition.-Arguments for, on

the grounds of religion and humanity.-Confideration post-

poned to the next feffion.—Mr. Grenville appointed fecretary

of ftate,—Mr. Addington Speaker of the house of commons,

Financial fcheme.-A loan required (according to the mini-

fter) from a temporary caufe.-Mr. Sheridan difputes his

calculations.-Bill for subjecting tobacco to an excife. Po-

pular clamour against this bill.-Paffed into a law.-Pro-

graffive profperity of India ftated by Mr. Dundas.-Slow

progrefs of Mr. Haftings's trial.-Motions refpecting it in

the commons.-Seffion rifes.
Page 392

Continental affairs.-The year 1789 eventful to the civilized

world.—Change in the relative policy of France and Auftria.

-Profound policy of Kaunitz in the treaty of Auftria with

France.-Imperial confederacy-produces the defenfive alli-

ance of Britain, Holland, and Pruffia.—State of the bellige-

rent powers.- Character of the fultan.-His death.-Suc-

ceeded by Selim.-Change of counfels, and effects on military

operations.-Succeffes of the Ruffians and Auftrians.-They

refpectively capture Bender and Belgrade.-Ottoman em-

pire in danger.-Sweden.-Distresses of Gustavus.—Eƒ-

forts of his genius and courage for extrication.—Miners of

Dalecarlia.-The Danes invade Sweden.-British policy

induces the Danes to retreat.-Guftavus fuppreffes mutiny

and faction.-He confirms his popularity.-He directs his

whole energies against Ruffia.-Military and naval cam-

paign between Sweden and Ruffia.-Commotions in the

Netherlands.-State and conftitution of these provinces.-

Jofeph's violent defire of change under the name of reform.

-Innovations in the ecclefiaftical eftablishment.-Suppref-

fion of religious orders,—and confifcation of their property.

-Suppreffion of ancient, venerated, and beneficial customs.

Change of judicial forms and proceedings.—Arbitrary Syf-

tem introduced.-Subverfion of the established legislature.-

Progress of defpotifm trampling liberty and franchifes.--

Jofeph confiders his Flemish subjects merely as fources of

revenue.-Remonftrances of the Netherlanders.--Meeting

of the States.-Deputies are fent to Vienna.-Jofeph pre-

tends to grant their requests.—Sends general Dalton to the

Netherlands. Defpotic conduct of that officer.-Effects of

his tyranny.-Farther cruelty and robbery by Jofeph.-

The Flemings refolve on forcible refiftance.—Declaration of

rights. The patriots defeat the Auftrian troops.-They form

themselves into a federal republic.
Page 358

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General election.Meeting of parliament—and commencement of Mr. Pitt's adminiftration.The King's fpeech.State of the empire when Mr. Pitt's miniftry commenced.Objects which he proposes to pursue.-First efforts directed to finance.-Bill for the prevention of fmuggling.—Commutation act.-Arguments against and for it.-Regulation on duties for British Spirits.-Preliminary motions for the relief of the Eaft India company.-Bill for the regulation of India.-Arguments against it.-Arguments for it.-Comparison of the two bills as refulting from the characters of their authors.-Debate on the Westminster election.-Mr. Dùndas propofes the restoration of the forfeited eftates.-A law passed for that purpose.-Labours of Mr. Pitt in inveftigating the public accounts.-Supplies-Loan and taxes.Seffion closes.



1784. General

Y diffolving the parliament, his majesty virtually CHA P. afked the question, Did your late reprefentatives speak your sense, or not? If they did, you will re-elect them; if not, you will chufe others. election. Thus interrogated, the greater part of the people answered, No; and a very confiderable majority of members friendly to Mr. Pitt was returned. As far as popular opinion can be a test of either VOL. IV.








CHAP. merit or demerit, it was decidedly favourable to the minifter, and inimical to his opponents. The general conduct of Mr. Fox often has been erroneously estimated by those who confidered defects, without comprehending the excellencies of his plans, acts, and character; but never was he less popular than after his India bill and conteft with the fovereign. Still, however, he retained great favour in fome parts of the kingdom, efpecially in Westminster, and his election was the most noted of any that occurred for the new parContest for liament. The candidates were, lord Hood, who fter, and in- had fo eminently distinguished himself with Rodney, fluence of a Mr. Fox, and fir Cecil Wray; of whom the two laft were the late members. Wray had been originally chofen through the intereft of Mr. Fox, but now abandoned that gentleman and joined lord Hood. For feveral days, Mr. Fox was fuperior to either of his competitors; but his majority afterwards rapidly decreased, and he became inferior to fir Cecil Wray, who was far furpaffed by the naval candidate. On the 11th day of the poll he was three bundred and eighteen behind Wray; but an interference now took place that changed the face of affairs. A lady of very high rank, still more eminent for beauty than for condition, one of our lovely countrywomen, who demonftrate that, in celebrating a Venus or a Helen, poets do not exceed nature and experience, warmly interefted herself in the election of Mr. Fox, with a fuccefs far beyond the hopes of the favoured candidate. Animated by personal friendship, and inspired with an ardent zeal for what she conceived


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