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to be a public benefit, this exalted woman under- CHAP. took a personal canvass in favour of the lofing candidate, and was not to be deterred by any inconveniencies of the purfuit, or by the ftrictures of the oppofite party upon active efforts which were fo efficacious towards the attainment of the object. Many voters indeed, though far from approving of Mr. Fox's political principles and conduct, could not withstand the fascinating eloquence of fo impreffive an advocate; they might have refifted the utmost efforts of the brilliant genius of an Erfkine or a Sheridan, but could not withstand the brilliant eyes of the duchefs: these two great masters of the pathetic might have in vain attempted to canvass for their brother orator; perfuafion fat on the lips and dimpled in the fmiles of the beautiful Devonshire, pleading for her brother whig. Perfons too callous to yield to the application of beauty, were not without other avenues to their hearts, to which the fair friend of Mr. Fox did not fail to apply with effect. The candidate himself, extremely well-qualified for co-operating with the efforts of his friends, was better known to the lower and more numerous claffes of Westminster electors, than any other eminent perfon exifting. He was naturally open, frank, unaffuming, and popular in his manners, politically attended all the public meetings, and affociated under the appearance of moft intimate familiarity with tavernkeepers, mechanics, and tradefmen, and was, by a great number belonging to thefe claffes, regarded with the warmest affection. He was, befides, connected with many of the principal inhabitants,

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CHAP. whofe perfonal exertions and influence were ftrenuoufly employed in his favour. After a contest of forty days, Mr. Fox was two hundred and thirtyfive fuperior; but a fcrutiny being demanded by fir Cecil Wray, and granted by the high bailiff, a return was not made. The orator, however, having been chofen by Scottish boroughs, had a voice in parliament *.

Meeting of parliament, and commencement of Mr. Pitt's

The 16th of May was the day fixed for the meeting of the new parliament, in which Mr. Pitt, not twenty-five years of age, may be properly faid to efficient ad- have commenced the chief executorial direction of

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British affairs. The probable conduct of a man in an office depends upon his talents, difpofitions,

The writer was one day present at this celebrated election, and being recently come to London, was forcibly ftruck with the free and eafy terms in which fome of the lower adherents of Mr. Fox, especially a party of butchers, accosted a personage of his tranfcendent fuperiority. It was not with the veneration due to fo extraordinary talents from any rank, that those perfons of the very humblest addreffed Charles James Fox: it was in the endearing terms of fond comrades, on a footing of perfect equality: "Charles, my sweet boy; God bless your black face! do not “be afraid, my lad, we are your friends !" The writer recollects, the fame day, to have heard a very open avowal of corruption. Being in a bookseller's fhop in Covent Garden, a woman, who it feems was a neighbour, coming in, was afked by the mafter of the house, If her husband had polled? No, the answered; we are told, votes will bear a higher price next week! The circumftances of this election, in a city wherein votes are fo general, and of another in the fame place four years after, are by no means favourable to the doctrine of certain political reformifts, that universal suffrage would promote refpectability and independence of elec

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and habits, combined with the ftate of affairs re- CHA P. lative to his employment, and his own clear and full comprehenfion of its nature, objects, means, and duties. If a minifter takes an exact and complete furvey of the actual condition of a nation, and rifes to general views of the chief constituents of national profperity, bestowing application and perfeverance either in the removal of evil or promotion of good, he muft produce much greater benefit to the state, than he who regards and purfues only a part.

The chief constituents of national profperity are, first, the means of fubfiftence, through agriculture, mines, fisheries, manufactures, and commerce: fecondly, defence in military and naval ftrength, for fecuring those advantages; comprehending alfo, connections with foreign countries, when conducive either to benefit or fecurity: thirdly, the prefervation and improvement of that phyfical and moral character, which is best fitted for retaining and promoting the advantages; this head requires the encouragement of useful and liberal arts, and in every civilized and enlightened country the promotion of science and literature: fourthly, the gratification of prevalent habits of comfort and enjoyments, as far as depends upon government, unless restriction be neceffary for the public good, and the liberty of the fubject, without which, to. generous and independent fpirits, no other bleffing of life can afford perfect enjoyment: fifthly, fubfidiary to the reft, is provifion for the continuance of thefe, as far as human forefight can ex-. B 3 tend.

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CHAP. tend *. A statesman of confummate wisdom may bestow a greater or lefs proportion of attention on one or another of these constituents, according to circumftances; but such a minister will have them all in his view. The peculiar fituation of Britain, exhausted by the enormous expences of her late ruinous war, and loaded with an immense public debt, rendered the promotion of trade and improvement of finance the most immediately urgent objects of legislative and minifterial confideration. Besides, at this time, the study of political œconomy occupied the greater number of scholars, moral and political philofophers, and almost every able and informed fenator and ftatefman. Such disquisitions, originating in French ingenuity, had been corrected, enlarged, and digested into a grand fyftem, by British experience, knowledge, and deduction. Adam Smith was the framer of commercial science and the confequent inculcations; and his estimable work, indeed, was become the text book of political economists in the closet, the cabinet, and fenate. A very eminent writer often gives a tone and fashion to the subjects which he treats, that procures them an attention, perhaps greater than may be juftified by their comparative value among the various pursuits of life

This analyfis the reader will perceive to be abridged from Gillies's Frederic, which appears to the author to exhibit a much jufter and more comprehenfive estimate of national advantage, than those, either of writers or counfellors, who should confider mere opulence, either private or public, or the aggregate of both, as the tests of national profperity.

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and constituents of happiness. Dwelling on the CHAP. nature and causes of the wealth of nations, both theorists and politicians, by too exclufive attention to that one subject, have frequently been led into an imagination that the fupreme constituent of national good was opulence; an idea totally inconfiftent with a knowledge of human powers and enjoyments, the experience of happiness, and the history of nations*. This very high estimation of wealth, as the fupreme excellence of a country, co-operated with the mercantile character, fo prevalent in Britain, and many in the various departments of active (especially trading) life confidered com, merce and finance as the principal objects of executorial conduct. Mr. Pitt, though too enlarged in his views to admit that opinion in the common extent, yet regarding trade, and especially revenue, as most immediately urgent in forming his plans for the first feffion of the new parliament, directed his mind chiefly to commerce and finance, and these constitute the principal fubjects of his majesty's introductory speech to parliament.

The new parliament being met, Mr. Cornwall was The king's fpeech, chofen speaker, and on the 19th, his majesty opened the feffion by a speech from the throne; he declared the high fatisfaction with which he met his parlia

Compare, for inftance, the Greeks and Perfians, the Romans and Carthaginians, the Europeans and Hindoos. The heroes fent by poverty from the north, to the daftardly and enervated defenders of the riches of the fouth. These, in the monuments of Gillies, of Ferguffon, and Gibbon, fhew how falfely a political reafoner would conclude, who fhould meafure national glory and happiness by national receipts,

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