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Page 180. Matt. xv. 22. A woman of Canaan. Mark vii. 26. A Sy
rophænician. The Canaanites and Phænicians, according to Bochart, were the same; though the seven nations in Judea, before the conquest of Joshua, were descended from Canaan, yet the Canaanites were frequently enumerated as one of these nations. Deut. vii. 1. Joshua ix. 1. By which is meant, Canaan with his first born, Sidon, Genes. X. 15. occupied the tract about Sidon and Tyre.-Lightfoot. Phænicia being comprehended in Syria, accounts for the distinction
Syro-Phænician.- Pliny. 181. Matt. xv. 26. Cast it to dogs. This most contemptuous
language the Jews generally applied to the Gentiles. Our Saviour, in verse 24, applies the term lost sheep to the Jewish nation, and adopts their expression in his address to the woman, most probably as a trial for her faith, as the verses
following seem to indicate. 183. Matt. xv. 30. Maimed. The creation of a new limb is an astonishing evidence of the miraculous power of our Saviour,
Newcome. That this is the proper application, may be proved from Mark ix. 43. and latt. xviii. 8. Where the word halt, in that passage and maimed in this, are expressed by the same
Greek word (xuxx05.) 185. Matt. xv. 39. Magdala.
Magdala. A place on the Eastern side of the lake, from which it is probable Mary was called Magdalene, that is, of Magdala.-- Newcome. Matt. xv. 39. Mark viii. 10. Cellarius and Lightfoot think that Dalmanutha and Magdala were neighbouring towns, and from the latitude of the two passages, no incon
sistency can be attached to the two Evangelists. 190. Matt. xvi. 18. The gates of hell shall not prevail against it. More properly the gates of Hades. “ The gates of Hades"
“ is not used to express the power of heresy or schism, sin or satan, but the state of death; the place or receptacle of the dead, into which souls departed enter, or the entrance into that state. Hence death is, in the language of the ancients, the entrance or gate into Hades. The words are a promise that the Christian church shall endure for ever, through every affliction and persecution (Acts v. 39.) or that even death shall not prevail against the members of the church of Christ, but that they shall enjoy here in prospect, and hereafter in its
certain accomplishment, a happy resurrection.-Grotius. 191. Matt. xvi. 21. Elders, among the Hebrews, were magistrates,
heads, or rulers of the people. Vid. Exod. iii. 16. Ezra x. 7, 8. Deut. xxvii. 1. Numb. xi. 16, &c. Some think it probable, that in causes ecclesiastical the court was made up
of the high priest, and of the chief priests, or heads of the four and twenty courses, only; and that, of matters purely tem
poral, the supreme magistrate, with the princes, elders, and scribes (who were the doctors of the law) either by himself, or his deputy, took cognizance. Ezra x. xiv. And that where any one was accused of crimes relating to religion and state, both the judges, in each of these faculties, sat to hear the cause. So at the trial of our blessed Lord, Joseph, of Arimathea, a rich man, and a counsellor (probably one of the seventy elders) was one of them who sat as judges, but did
not join in the sentence of condemnation. Luke xxiii. 51. 191. Matt. xvi. 21, &c. &c. To reconcile the apparent inconsist
encies between the three Evangelists, in the latter part of this, and parallel verses, little more is necessary than to refer to the note on Matt. xii. 40, p. 110, and to introduce some few additional remarks. Having shewn in it that the Jews calculated any part of the day for, or as the whole day of twenty-four hours, it remains to shew that the third day, and after three days, in some instances, imply the same duration of time. In the Old Testament, we find in Deut. xiv. 28, “after three years," yet, in xxvi. 12, the third year is the year of tithing. Thus i Sam. xx. 12. compared with verse 19; and in 2 Chron. x. 5. “ Come again unto me after three days,” yet, in verse 12, they came again on the third day. Ésther orders the Jews : “Fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days ; night or day. I also, and my maidens, will fast likewise, and so will I go in unto the king." Chap. iv. 16. and in Chap. v. 1. we are expressly told that on the third day she went in unto the king. From the New Testament it may be sufficient to adduce the following quotation, Matt. xxvii. 63, 64. “Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, after three days I will rise again, command therefore that the
Sepulchre be made sure until the third day, &c.—Whitby, &c. 192. Matt. xvi. 23. Get thee behind me, Satan: This is express
ed in the brevity of a Hebrew phrase ; the word, Satan im
ports, an adversary. See 2 Sam. xix. 22. 194. Matt. xvii. 1, &c. &c. Matthew and Mark begin the sec
tion in reference to time, after six days, and Luke says, in about eight days. It is easily accounted for: Matthew and Mark allow six intire days between Peter's reproof and the transfiguration, whilst Luke in his account comprehends them both, and includes the portions of the two days
as whole days. 197. Matt. xvii. 10. Elias must first come? This persuasion of
the Jews was grounded upon Malachi iv. 5. 203. Matt. xvii. 24. Tribute money. Every Jew, above twenty
years of age, annually paid half a shekel (equal to about one shilling and three pence English) to the service of the tema ple. Exod. xxx. 13, 14. Nehem. X. 32.
Page 207. Mark ix. 49. Every sacrifice shall be salted. In allusion
to Levit. ii. 13. 208. Mark. ix. 50. Have salt in yourselves. Salt, from its pe
culiar usefulness among the Jews, who inhabited a hot climate, in preserving food from hasty corruption, was an emblem of virtue and knowledge, by which the mind is purified. See Coloss. iv 6.-Newcome.
Matt. xviii. 10. Their angels do always behold the face of my father. By those who saw the king's face are denoted, in the Jewish idiom, the most eminent and distinguished personages of a court ; as if he had said, Treat not the meanest christians with neglect or disdain; for I assure you the most
exalted angels are their guardians and ministers -Harwood. 211. Luke x. 4 Salute no man by the way.
The mission on which the disciples of Christ were sent was so important, that they were required to use the greatest dispatch, and to avoid those things which might retard them, especially if they were merely of a ceremonious nature. Had they been allowed, in the present instance, to give and receive the common salutations, their progress might have been considerably impeded. The following short extract from Neibuhr's Travels gives some satisfaction on this point. “ The Arabs of Yemen, especially the Highlanders, often stop strangers to ask, Whence they came :
And whither they are going ? These questions are suggested by mere curiosity." This representation of the matter certainly clears from the appearance of incivility a precept, by which Christ designed only to teach his servants a suitable deportment.-—Burder.
The instructions of Elisha to Gehazi, when on the mission to the Shunammite, are of similar import.
“ Gird up thy loins, take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer
him not again :" 2 Kings iv. 29. 213. John vii. 2. The Jews feast of Tabernacles. The feast of
Tabernacles was instituted in memory of the Jewish nation having dwelt in tents in the wilderness; and the Jews all dwelt in tents or booths at the celebration of it. See Lev. xxiii 39, 42, 43. Nehem. viii. 14, 17. It was especially
observed with uncommon and profuse rejoicing 215. John vii. 27. But when Christ cometh, no man knoweth
whence he is. See Hebrews, Chap. vii, 1-3. . 216." John vii. 37. In the last day, that great day of the feast.
The last day grew into such high esteem with the nation, because on the seven preceding days they held that sacrifices were offered, not so much for themselves as for the whole world. They offered in the course of them seventy bullocks for the seventy nations of the world ; but the eighth was wholly on their own behalf. It was a separate solemnity for
Israel alone. They had their solemn offering of water ; the reason of which is this: At the passover the Jews offered an omer to obtain from God his blessing upon the harvest : at Pentecost, their first fruits, to request his blessing on the fruits of the trees ; and at the feast of tabernacles they offered water to God, partly referring to the water from the rock in the wilderness (1 Corinth. x. 4.) but chiefly to solicit the blessing of rain on the approaching seed-time. These waters they drew out of Siloah, and brought them into the temple with the sound of the trumpet and with great rejoicing. Christ, alluding to their customs, proclaims, “If any man thirst, let him come unto me. He takes, as is very usual with him, the present occasion of the water brought from Siloah, to summon them to himself as the true fountain. John iv. 14.--Lightfoot and Hammond.
John vii. 39. For the Holy Ghost was not yet given. The Spirit had ceased since the death of Zechariah and Malachi. It had faintly been manifested on the approach of the Mesa siah, as to Elizabeth and Zacharias ; (Luke i. 41, 67.) but the full effusion foretold by Isaiah, and Joel ii. 28, took not place till after the ascension of Christ, and was not yet come.
Grotius and Whitby. 217. John vii. 49. But this people who knoweth not the law are
cursed. The Jewish Rabbins, from a high opinion of their own sanctity, taught that none could partake of the resurrection, but themselves and their disciples. Others, they said,
, could only hope to obtain the favour of heaven by services rendered to them, or their disciples; as by giving their daughters to any of them with a large dower, or by traffic procuring for them riches sufficient to keep them free from the distraction of business ; so that they might have time to study the law in its full extent. Excepting by this attributed merit, they maintained that all the lower class of the people, who, from being engaged in menial occupations, could not have leisure to study or practise the law, must forfeit their right to future happiness, and be looked upon as accurs
ed.--Pococke. 219. John viii. 18. Bear witness of myself: by my life, doc
trines, miracles, prophecies, and assertions that I am the
Christ.-Newcome. 220. John viii. 36. If the Son therefore shall make you free. This
expression may perhaps have had some allusion to a custom in some of the cities of Greece, and elsewhere, whereby the. son and heir had a liberty to adopt brethren and give them
the privileges of the family.—Burder. 223. John viii. 59. Then took they up stones to cast at him. Lewis
in his Origines Hebræ says, there was a punishment among the Jews called the Rebels beating, which was inflicted by the
mob with their fists, or staves, or stones, without mercy, or sentence of the judges, and that it often proved fatal. Whoever transgressed against a prohibition of the wise men, or of the scribes, that had its foundation in the law, was delivered over to the people to be used in this manner, and was called a son of rebellion.
The frequent taking up of stones by the people to stone our Saviour, and the incursion upon him and upon Stephen for blasphemy, as they would have it, and upon Paul for de
filing the temple, as they supposed, were of this nature. 225. John ix. 22. If any man did confess he was Christ, he should
be put out of the Synagogue. There were three degrees of excommunication among the Jews, the first is what is called in the New Testament casting out of the Synagogue, and signifies a separation from all commerce or society, it was in force thirty days, but might be shortened by repentance. If the person persisted in his obstinacy after the thirty days were expired, they excommunicated him again, with the addition of a solemn curse. This is supposed by some to be the same with delivering him over to Satan. The offence was published in the synagogue, and at this time the candles were lighted, and when the proclamation was ended, they were put out, as a sign that the person excommunicated was deprived of the light of heaven; his goods were confiscated ; his male children were not admitted to circumcision ; and if he died without repentance, by the sentence of the Judge a stone was cast upon his coffin or bier, to shew that he deserved to be stoned. He was not mourned for with any solemn lamentation. The last degree of excommunication was anathematizing, which was inflicted when the offender had frequently refused to comply with the sentence of the court, and was attended with corporal punishment, and sometimes with ban
ishment or death.--Burder. 226. John ix. 32. Of one that was born blind. This was esteem
ed by the Jews a peculiar sign of the Messiah, that he should
eyes of the blind, i.e. of those born blind; and was
c Rabbins held that evil affections prevailed in a man before he was born, and also that he might be contaminated by the sins of his
parents. See John ix. 2, 3.-Willan. 227. John x. 3—-11. From the great attention paid to flocks by
the masters to whom they belonged, might originate the mode of stiling kings the shepherds of the people. In this character Christ is described by the prophets, and his application of it to himself shews that he was the person intended. The art of a shepherd in managing his sheep in the East was