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by year, brought into cultivation, and attention, and then see how, in spite internal communications opened or of, or far rather concurrently with improved, we see no reason whatever that, the production of food also into believe that the export of grain to creased. We again quote from The England will diminish, or the price of Harmony of Interests.
How great that grain be enhanced.
Let our was the increase may be seen by tho readers bear in mind the wonderful following comparison of the returns development of the mining and manu- under the census of 1840, and the facturing resources of America, to Patent Office Estimates for 1847:which we have just directed their
Rye Buckwheat Indian Corn TOTALS 1840 84,823,000 4,161,000 123,071,000 18,645,000 7,291,000 377,531,000 615,522,000
1847 114,215,000 5,649,000 167,867,000 29,222,000 11,673,000 539,350,000 867,826,000 Increase 29,422,000 1,488,000 44,797,000 10,577,000 4,382,000 161,819,000 | 252,304,000
Showing an increase of not less than 40 November last, the prices of wheat, per cent in 7 years, during which the flour, and bread were all much population only advanced 23 per cent. higher in London than in Paris. In
How much of this surplus produce its City article of November 14th, may be expected to find its way into appeared the following comparison of the English market, we do not pretend the present prices of wheat, flour, accurately to foretell; but when we and bread, in London and Paris :find that, without the inducement of
“The highest price of wheat of the an unrestricted access to it, in 1846
first quality in Paris is 24 francs per America was able to raise her exports l! hectolitres, which is equal to 36s. 8d. of grain to thirteen millions of bushels, per quarter ; and the highest price of from six millions in 1845 ; and in white wheat of the first quality, in Lon1847, with only the preparation of a don, being 48s. per quarter, it follows year, to twenty-six millions, we think that wheat is 30% per cent dearer in Lord Fitzwilliam is quite justified in
London than in Paris. The highest taking it for granted that the price of quotation of flour of the first quality in
Paris is 29 francs 95 cents the 100 corn in England will not rise above its present ruinous average.
kilogrammes, which is equal to 29s. 11d.
per sack of 280 lb. English ; and the tempts, no doubt, will be made to highest quotation of flour in the London show that the emigration to California market being 40s. per sack, it fol-has deprived the Western States of lows that flour is about 334 per cent the labour that is required to raise dearer in London than in Paris. The these enormous crops. Our answer is, price of bread of the first quality in that 300,000 souls were added by Paris is 27 cents per kilogramme, which immigration to the population of the is equal to 45 per 4 lb. loaf English United States in 1849; and that our weight ; and the price of bread in Lonown emigration returns for 1850 show don, at the full-priced shops, being 64d. that the tide from England is flowing per 4 16., it follows that bread is 40. per
cent dearer in London than in Paris." in that direction with unabated force. So last year, when the great and We apprehend that a difference of unexpected import of French flour thirty or forty per cent is sufficient was adding to the depression, and to tempt the French corn-grower, or stimulating the complaints of the miller, into the higher-priced market English agriculturists, the Free Im- which lies so conveniently open to port authorities explained it away as him; and thus from the model rea forced unnatural importation which public of the Old, no less than from must speedily cease, as France was the model republic of the New World, an importing, and not an exporting, must the English farmer expect to country, and the price of corn there sce for the future those supplies of was naturally higher tlian in Eng- grain and flour pouring in, which shall land; and yet we learn from the prevent his produce procuring a resame organ of public opinion which munerating price. To complete the favoured us in the summer with this picture, it should not be forgotten satisfactory explanation of the French that both these exporting countries importations, that in the month of impose considerable duties on the
VOL. LXIX.-30. CCCCXXIII.
importation of grain and flour, and ciples. It cannot be expected that we thus afford us a perfect specimen of shall ever again possess a monopoly of that reciprocity which all Liberal the manufactures of the world. We governments and free nations were so must be contented with that share anxious to establish, according to our which our skill, and energy, and undesapient rulers, in 1846.
niable resources can command ; and We do not think that we need add if we wish still to retain possession any further argument to what has of the vast Colonial Empire which has been already said. Our antagonists, long been our pride and boast, we the Free-traders, have been allowed must foster, stimulate, and protect the -what they required and what was industry of the colonists as sedulously fair--time for the working of their and anxiously as our own. experiment. Ample time has been After all, we may possibly, at no granted, and we now see that it has very distant period of time, have failed in every particular. They reason to be thankful that the expesaid that it would induce reciprocity; riment has been made, notwithstandit has induced higher opposing tariffs. ing all the misery and loss which They said it would secure for Great have accompanied the trial. For, if Britain the manufacturing custom of anything could have broken down the world ; on the contrary, foreign the free independent spirit of Great manufactories are springing up with Britain, and rendered it callous and unexampled rapidity. They said it listless to external aggression or inwould increase the demand for iron; sult, no better method could be found it has prostrated it. They said it than the complete adoption of a syswould give full employment to all tem which must have made us perour labouring population ; it has dis- petually subservient to the wants of placed labour, and driven our work- other nations, doing their work to ing men by hundreds of thousands to order, and receiving wages in return. emigrate. They said it could not In order to emancipate ourselves attract such an importation of foreign from this state of threatened Helotism grain and provisions, as permanently --the state which the disciples of the to beat down prices in this country Manchester school regard as the most below the remunerating level ; it has enviable upon earth-we must atalready brought such an influx of tempt to re-establish perfect harmony these articles, that the grower of and mutual co-operation amongst grain is impoverished, and the breeder all the interests of Britain, to give of cattle ruined. They said it would productive labour its proper place be the commencement of a new era and pre-eminence, and, since we canof prosperity to Ireland ; it has laid not secure for convertive labour the it utterly desolate !
command of foreign markets, to take Are we, then, obstinately to perse- care that, in the home market, it is vere in a course of policy so evidently not exposed to any undue or unfair obnoxious, and detrimental ? Are we competition. We hold by this prostill to crush down labour for an end position, well understood and enerwhich is now proved to be impossible getically supported in America, that of attainment; and to tell the work- " when a nation makes a market at ing classes, that because our rulers home for nearly all its products, other have made a false step, they and nations have to come and seek what theirs must submit to descend into the they require, and pay the highest hideous gulf of pauperism? These are price; and that, when it does not questions for the nation to consider- make a market at home, markets questions of unparalleled magnitude, must be sought abroad, and then both for the present and the coming sales must be made at the lowest time. If we are not so to persevere prices.” If this be true, it will folin our folly, there is no alternative left low that the way to sell at the highest but to ild up our commercial system prices, and to buy at the lowest, is to anew upon wiser and sounder prin- buy and sell at home.
Printed by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh.
LATIMER AND RIDLEY,
AND 37 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON.
PRINTED BY WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS, EDINBURGH.
LATIMER AND RIDLEY
BURNED AT THE STAKE IN OXFORD, A.D. 1553. [The fires of Smithfield and the massacre of Bartholomew are truly events of little consequence in history, if they fail to convince us of the aggressive and unscrupulous policy of the Roman Catholic Church. The claim of the Pope, which never has undergone or can undergo any modification whatever, is nothing less than one of universal supremacy. That claim is asserted now as broadly and boldly as it was three hundred years ago; when, at the accession of Mary, Cardinal Pole was sent over as legate to England, for the reduction of that realm to the obedience of the See of Rome, and for the extirpation of heresy.
It matters not what may have been the private character of the Cardinal. He has been represented as a man of mild nature, humane disposition, and averse to the infamous cruelties which were then perpetrated, the odium of which has been commonly thrown upon Bishops Gardiner and Bonner. This much at least is plain, that, whatever may have been his opinion as to the methods which were employed for the suppression of Protestantism, he did not deem it expedient to exercise his great power in mitigating the fury or tempering the cruelty of the persecution. He was a passive witness of the enormities, and allowed the mandates of the Church to supersede the dictates of humanity and the merciful teaching of the Saviour.
The records of the reign of Mary ought, especially at the present time, to be studied by those who, in their zeal for toleration, forget that they have to contend with most bitter and uncompromising enemies. Not only the sufferings and fortitude of the martyrs, (among whom were numbered five bishops, and twenty-one clergymen of the Reformed faith of England,) but the charges on which they were condemned, and the noble testimony which they bore, will be found detailed in John Foxe's Acts and Monuments. Next to that of Archbishop Cranmer, the names of Latimer and Ridley can never be forgotten in this land, so long as the voice of Protestantism is heard against Papal superstition and supremacy. Political and ecclesiastical dominion are things inseparable from each other in the eye of Rome; and wherever she has succeeded in planting her foot, she has attempted to enforce spiritual submission, and to extinguish liberty of conscience, by the power of the secular arm. The following extract, from the work already referred to, narrates the close of the terrible tragedy which consigned two English prelates to the flames at Oxford :
“ Then they brought a faggot, kindled with fire, and laid the same down at Dr Ridley's feet. To whom master Latimer spake in this manner : ‘Be of good comfort, master Ridley, and play the man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.'
“ And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr Ridley saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful loud voice, ' In manus tuas, Domine, com
VOL. LXIX.-NO. CCCCXXIV.