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The illustrations, as well as the text of the present edition, have been carefully revised. The plates have been remodeled under my constant supervision, and new ones have been added, which have turned out so successfully that the atlas is now of decided value in scientific work. The number of pathologic specimens was also increased. The text, in view of the purpose for which it is intended, did not seem to call for many alterations; some passages have, however, been expanded, and the whole has been subjected to a general revision.

My thanks are due to the editor for his liberality in giving me all the assistance to make the volume as perfect as possible.

Since the publication of the first edition, translations into English, French, Russian, and Italian have appeared, and have received very favorable notices.


Ospicio de las Mercedes.

I. MORPHOLOGY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. PLATE 1, Brain in situ, seen from above after removal of the calvarium. 2. Right hemisphere after removal of the meninges. 3. Outer surface of right hemisphere. 4. Mesial surface of left hemisphere. 5. Base of the brain. 6. Horizontal section of the hemispheres immediately above the corpus cal

losum. 7. Schema of the ventricular system. 8. Horizontal section through the brain after the third ventricle has been

exposed. 9. Horizontal section through the basal ganglia. 10. Brain-stem and rhomboid fossa seen from above. 11. Four coronal sections through the brain of a dog. 12. Coronal section through the brain-stem of man. 13. Coronal sections through the brain-stem. Parallel transverse sections

through the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. 14. Sections of the spinal cord in situ.



15. Embryonal area.
16. Development of the brain.
17. Arrangement of the neurons.
18. Glia cells and ganglion cells.
19. The cerebral cortex.
20. A cerebral and a cerebellar con volution,
21. Cerebral convolutions.
22. Motor and sensory nuclei of cranial nerves.
23, Lateral view of medulla oblongata.
24. Nuclei of the motor peripheral neurons.
25. Fig. 1.-Transverse section through white substance of spinal corid.

Fig. 2. -Section through a spinal ganglion.

Fig. 3.-Cross-section of a peripheral nerve. 26. Figs. 1, 2.-Diagrammatic representation of the position of the cervical

and lumbar enlargements, Fig. 3.—The central canal and adjoining structures.



Fig. 2.

27. Distribution of the cranial and spinal nerves. 28. Fig. 1.--Frontal section through genu of corpus callosum anil anterior

segment of frontal lobe. Fig. 2.- Frontal section through head of caudate nucleus. 29. Fig. 1.-Frontal section through middle of septum lucidum.

Fig. 2.--Section through anterior commissure. 30. Fig. 1.-Frontal section behind anterior commissure.

-Section through knee of inner capsule. 31. Fig. 1.-Section through middle of third ventricle.

Fig. 2.-Section through central convolutions. 32. Fig. 1.--Section through pulvinar thalami.

Fig. 2.-Section through parietal lobe. 33. Fig. 1.-Section through occipital lobe.

Fig. 2.-Sagittal section through brain-stem.

Fig. 3.-Sagittal section through brain-stein and corpus callosum. 34. Fig. 1.- Horizontal section immediately above the corpus callosum.

Fig. 2.--Horizontal section through the center of the corpus callosum.

Fig. 3.- Horizontal section immediately below figure 2. 35. Fig. 1.- Horizontal section through middle of optic thalamus.

Figs. 2, 3.-Sections through base of optic thalamus. 36. Horizontal sections through subthalamic region and corpora quadrigemina. 37. Fig. 1.- Vertical section through anterior corpora quadrigemina and

pulvinar. Fig. 2.-- Section between anterior and posterior corpora quaulrigemina. 38. Fig. 1.-Section through posterior corpora quadrigemina.

Fig. 2.-Section through midille of pons. 39. Fig. 1.-Section through posterior extremity of prons.

Fig. 2.-Section through nuclei of auditory nerve. 40. Fig. 1.-Section through right optio tbalainus at level of mildle cominis

Fig. 2.-Section through anterior corpora quadrigemina on left side. 41. Fig. 1.-Section through teginentuin behind posterior corpora quad

rigemina. Fig. 2.--Section through nuclei of trigeminus. 42. Fig. 1.--Section through right tegmental region at level of nucleus of

facial nerve. Fig. 2.--Section through ventral nucleus of aulitory nerve on left side. 43. Fig. 1.-Section through cerebellum and mertullit oblongata. Fig. 2.--Section through medulla oblongatil at level of glossopharyngeo

vagus nucleus. 44. Fig. 1.- Section through merlulla at level of nuclei of tenth anil twelfth



Fig. 2.-Section through calamus scriptorius in medulla. 45. Fig. 1. -Section through nuclei in posterior columns.

Fig. 2.-Section through melulla below the olives. 46. Fig. 1.-Section immediately above decussation of pyramiils.

Fig. 2.---Section through decussation of pyramids. 47. Fig. 1.-Section through spinal cord immediately below decussation of

pyramids. Fig. 2.-Section through spinal cord at level of fourth cervical nerve, 48. Fig. 1.--Section throngh cervical enlargement at level of seventh cervical


Fig. 2.


Figs. 2, 3.-Sections through thoracic portion of spinal cord. 49. Fig. 1.-Section through thoracic portion of spinal corii.

Section through upper portion of lumbar cord. Fig. 3.-Section through lower portion of lumbar cord. 50. Fig. 1.-Section through middle sacral portion of cord.

Fig. 2.- Section through cauda equina anid conus medullaris.
Fig. 3.—Section through posterior root and spinal ganglion from lumbar

portion of cord
51. Fig. 1.-Transverse section through sciatic nerve at its point of exit.

Fig. 2.- Longitudinal section of a nerve bundle from sciatic nerve.
Fig. 3.- Transverse section of a nerve bundle from sciatic nerve.

Fig. 4.- Transverse section of a normal optic nerve and sheath. 52. The gray matter of the spinal cord. 53. Process of medullation in the fetal brain. 54. Schema of the most important nerve tracts froin a clinical point of view. 55. Figs. 1, 2.--- Formation of tegmentum and crusta from tracts of cerebral

hemispheres. Fig. 3.--Schema of optic nerve and oculomotor tract with their connec

tions. 56. Fig. 1.--General view of the projection paths.

Fig. 2.--Schema of position of sensory nerve tracts. 57. Schema showing course of fibers in spinal cord.



58. Fig. 1.-Section through cerebral cortex and meninges in epidemic cere

brospinal meningitis. Fig. 2.--Cerebral cortex in tubercular meningitis. 59. Fig. 1.-Aneurysm immediately above corpora quadrigemina.

Fig. 2.-Caries of a vertebra.

Fig. 3.--Tumor on inner surface of dura. 60. Fig. 1.-Brain abscess.

Fig. 2.- Tubercle in the pons. 61. Fig. 1.-Chronic hydrocephalus.

Fig. 2. -Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis. 62. Fig. 1.-Subcortical cerebral focus after hemorrhage. Secondary degener

Fig. 2.-Embolic softening. Secondary degeneration.
63. A to F.- Products of degeneration of nerve-cells and tibers.

Fig. 1.-Specimen of acute myelitis.
Fig. 2.-Specimen of acute neuritis.
Fig. 3.- Specimen of chronic sclerosis.

Fig. 4.-Specimen of chronic inyelitis.
64. Diseases of the muscle-fibers.
65. Fig. 1.- Porencephalus, left hemisphere.

Fig. 2.-Hemorrhagic focus in crus cerebri. 66. Fig. 1.-Section through anterior corpora quadrigemina. Fig. 2.--Section through inedulla oblongata in a subject of hereditary

tuberculosis. Fig. 3.-Chronio progressive ophthalmoplegia. 67. 68.

Secondary degenerations of the crusta.

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