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tion of the manufacturing clause, and with safeguards in the interest of foreign authors and publishers (Vol. 5, p. 920). Against this, France protests, on the ground that, by depriving the foreign author of all freedom to dispose of his work in such form and at such time as he may choose, the bill is a violation of the Berne convention. Should Canada adopt the compromise, the result will be-if French influence can effect it-that the Dominion will be read out of the Berne convention, and deprived of copyright privileges in every country of the union.
Canada, of course, takes a different view of the matter. Her right to legislate on this subject has been recognized by the home government, and she considers herself equally entitled with the United States to make simultaneous publication of a foreign work an indispensable condition of copyright, and thus protect her publishing interests against competition from without.
Just what the outcome will be, remains to be seen. The situation is a difficult one. On the one hand, an abandonment of the "manufacturing clause" would injure Canadian printers and publishers. On the other hand, a withdrawal of Canada (voluntarily or otherwise) from the Berne convention would not only deprive the Dominion of her present privileges in the countries of the copyright union, but would probably result in repudiation by the United States of the agreement of 1891 with Great Britain, which was reached only after many years of effort.
Ontario. The Legislature.-The second session of the eighth legislature of Ontario was opened by Lieutenant-Governor Kirkpatrick, February 11. The speech from the throne contained an indication of the deep loyalty of the people of Ontario to the British crown; and early in the session, on motion of the premier, seconded by the leader of the opposition, the house unanimously adopted a loyal address to the queen.
The address affirmed the unalterable love and devotion of the people of Ontario; and declared that, in the event of any troubles affecting the interests of the empire, no sacrifice that circumstances might demand would be considered too great for the people of that province, should they be called upon to repel an invasion and defend the integrity of the British empire.
A similar demonstration of Canadian loyalty had occurred in the Dominion house of commons February 5, when, on motion of Mr. McNeil (conservative), the following resolution was unanimously passed amid cheers:
"That in view of the threatening aspect of foreign affairs, this
house desires to assure Her Majesty's government and the people of the United Kingdom of its unalterable loyalty and devotion to the British throne and the constitution; and that, should the occasion unhappily arise, in no other part of the empire than the Dominion would more substantial sacrifices attest the determination of Her Majesty's subjects to maintain unimpaired the integrity and honor of Her Majesty's empire; and this house reiterates the oft-expressed desire of the people of Canada to maintain the most friendly relations with their kinsmen of the United States."
The budget presented by Mr. Harcourt showed the total revenue of the province during the year to be $3,585,300.10; expenditures $3,758,595.44; deficit $173,295.34. The receipts included an item of $171,520 from the sale of annuities.
The Patrons of Industry.-The Grand Association of the Patrons of Industry held its annual session in Toronto, beginning February 25.
The resolution introduced by Mr. Haycock, for opening the membership to all classes and professions and abolishing secret signs, passwords, and pledges-of which notice was given last December (Vol. 5, p. 919)-was defeated by a large majority.
A recommendation that legislation be asked for, instituting a uniform rate of taxation on property, and abolishing all exemptions, was adopted. It was decided to memorialize the Dominion government to secure the abolition of the present deposit required by all candidates for the Dominion house.
The following resolution was adopted: "That the grand association recommend the grand board to take such steps as will lead to the opening of the patron political nominating convention to representation from village and town municipalities, when the patrons in those ridings wish to give such representation, and to provide a plan whereby a fair proportion of representation may be preserved."
An exciting debate occurred over a proposal to immediately add prohibition to the party platform for Ontario, as had already been done by the patrons of Manitoba and Prince Edward Island and the provincial association of Quebec. Several amendments were proposed; and, after a lengthy debate, it was decided, by a majority of one vote, to defer action until the question had been submitted to the local associations, the plank to be added if ninety per cent of them voted in its favor. The executive were empowered to use their discretion in selecting the time for its submission, it being known that the grand officers were opposed to this being done before the approaching general elections.
C. O. Mallory was elected grand president, and T. O. Currie grand vice-president for the ensuing year.
The British Empire League.-At the annual meeting of the Imperial Federation League in Ottawa, Ont., March 4, the name of the league was changed, on motion of Sir Charles Tupper, Bart., to the British Empire League, the ground of the change being the great, if not insuperable, practical difficulties in the way of an imperial
parliamentary federation. The constitution of the league is as follows:
1. The association to be called the British Empire League.
2. It shall be the primary object of the league to secure the permanent unity of the empire.
3. The following to be among the other principal objects of the league:
(a) To promote trade between the United Kingdom, the colonies, and India, and to advocate the holding periodical meetings of representatives from all parts of the empire for the discussion of matters of general commercial interest and the consideration of the best means of expanding the national trade.
(b) To consider how far it may be possible to modify any laws or treaties which impede freedom of action in the making of reciprocal trade arrangements between the United Kingdom and the colonies, or between two or more British colonies or possessions.
Miscellaneous.The efforts of the Hon. Dr. Montague, minister of agriculture, made during his visit to England in part for the benefit of his health, to induce the British government to modify
its restrictions upon the entry into Great Britain of Canadian live cattle, were unavailing.
It is claimed that fully three-fourths of the members. of the Manitoba legislature elected January 15 are pledged to prohibition.
An important item in the Dominion expenditures this year will be the $370,000 added to the estimates for the rearmament, reorganization, and more effective drill of the militia.
On March 18 the Rt. Rev. Charles Hamilton, bishop of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Niagara, was elected bishop of the new diocese of Ottawa, created out of the
counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Carleton, Russell, Prescott, Stormont, Dundas, and Glengarry, and part of the district of Nipissing.
The winter carnival held at Quebec during the week beginning January 27, drew over 30,000 visitors to that city.
The celebrated case of the Hyams brothers who had been charged with the murder of W. C. Wells, and who, after failure of conviction, were held on several minor charges, including conspiracy to murder Mrs. Harry Hyams to obtain her life insurance (Vol. 5, p. 399), was finally disposed of on February 2. The accused were released on bail, and immediately took their departure across the United States border.
On February 18 Mr. J. A. Strathy of Barrie, Ont., late manager of the Bank of Toronto, was fatally shot in his own house by Michael J. Brennan, who accused Mr. Strathy of being the cause of his financial troubles. Brennan has since been convicted of murder and sentenced to be hanged.
On March 9 a farmer named Lapointe, living near Brockville, Ont., deliberately, and without provocation, shot several people in the streets of that town. One man
was killed instantly; Chief of Police Rose was very dangerously wounded; and as many as eight others were injured more or less severely. Lapointe was finally captured after being shot down by a bystander. He is supposed to be
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Hayti. The elections passed off quietly in the latter part of January. President Hyppolite had guarded against a possible outbreak, and government candidates were returned in all places except Aux Cayes, a hotbed of the opposition.
The sudden death of President Hyppolite on March 24 further complicated the already uncertain political outlook in the island. The executive power, pending the election of a new president, was assumed by Señor Couchil, secretary of state. However, none of the rumored candidates now in exile-Generals Manigat, Légitime, and othersmade any attempt at a coup; and on April 1 it was announced that the national assembly had quietly elected General T. Simon-Sam, minister of war under Hyppolite, a brotherin-law of the late Séide Télémaque, a former chief and friend of the deceased president. His election indicates
no immediate change in the internal or external policy of the country.
Riot at St. Kitts.-On February 17 a strike for higher wages among the plantation laborers, boatmen, and porters, on the British island of St. Kitts, culminated in a serious riot, during which stores were looted, buildings set on fire, and plantation managers and overseers beaten and in some cases killed. Marines were landed from the warship Cordelia, and succeeded in restoring partial order, but only after several of the rioters were killed, many injured, and the ringleaders arrested. For some time thereafter, the island was kept under martial law.
The population of St. Kitts-English, Portuguese, and negroesis about 30,876, the Portuguese being in general the merchants, money lenders, and the most prosperous class.
A serious revolt broke out in Nicaragua in the latter part of February, against the government of President Zelaya. The political conditions in the republic, owing to the traditional rivalries of the cities of Leon and Granada (Vol. 3, p. 330), are at all times such as to facilitate revolutionary upheavals. It is difficult to learn definitely the causes of the present trouble, owing to the rigorous press censorship exercised by the government; and what may be said now may be qualified by future revelations. However, the immediate cause of the revolt seems to have been President Zelaya's abandonment of the liberal party, through whose support he was raised to the presidency on the overthrow of General Zavala in 1893 (Vol. 3, p. 561). The liberal party is said to be in the ascendancy in all of the five republics of Central America.
Toward the end of February, Zelaya dissolved congress, which was strongly liberal, proclaimed himself dictator, and rallied to his support the conservatives. Most of the
members of the cabinet withdrew from the capital, and, organizing a provisional government at Leon, demanded that Zelaya should resign and leave the country, turning over the executive to General Francisco Baca, ex-minister of the interior.
During March hard fighting occurred. The rebel forces. attacked Nagarote on the first day of the month, but after an eight hours' battle were driven off. They, however, obtained the ascendancy in Corinto, seizing the custom house