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guide; and, through Mr. Springer's influence, he was made a member of that important committee despite his lack of legislative experience and of a wide and profound study of economics. Mr. Springer considered his commendation justified when his protégé delivered his great speech on free wool, March 12. 1892 (Vol. 2, p. 77).

Mr. Bryan's speeches, whatever they may have lacked, gained praise even from his opponents in the house, though the opponents naturally ascribed their interest to his unusual rhetorical and oratorical gifts. He excelled also in prompt and apt repartee.

In 1892, when he ran for a second term, Omaha had been taken out of his district; and from this and other causes, though he conducted his campaign with considerable vigor, he came near defeat-his plurality being reduced from 6,700 to 140. During this term he developed a more ardent and extreme advocacy of free-silver coinage, and an antago nism to the Cleveland administration. He gave constant aid to Richard P. Bland's efforts in behalf of silver-making on August 16, 1893, what he regards as his best speech, one of three hours' length, against repeal of the silver-purchase law. It excited enthusiastic applause. Other speeches by him were on the income tax, anti-option bill, elec tion of senators by the people, the Carlisle cur

rency bill, the Rothschild-Morgan contract for a loan, the railway pooling bill, etc.

The 53d congress closed with signs of a turn in the tide which had lifted the democrats into power-signs portentous with indications of the open or the hidden growth of populist theories. The po litical skies were uncertain. Mr. Bryan refused a renomination, and set his aim instead for the United States senatorship. On September 1, 1894, he became editor of the Omaha World-Herald, an organ of free silver agitation; but, finding the position unsatisfactory, he did not long retain it. Against the dominant republicanism of the state he now sought to combine the democrats and the populists in one allied opposition. He procured the adoption of a free-silver platform in the democratic state convention at Omaha in September, 1894, at which convention also Mr. Bryan was recognized as the leader of the Nebraska democracy, and the populist candidate for governor, Silas Holcomb, and other populists on the state ticket, were indorsed as



the democratic candidates. This action caused a split in the party-the sound-money democrats "bolting," quitting the convention, and forming a new party organization, which has ever since been maintained. Mr. Bryan's efforts were given to forming in various legislative districts a fusion between democrats and populists; but the republicans proved able to resist the new free-silver alliance, and the legislature elected John M. Thurston, United States senator. Mr. Bryan has since been in private life, but has been much sought after in the West and the Southwest as a speaker, addressing great assemblies on his favorite topics.

In person Mr. Bryan is large and commanding in presence, his voice resonant and pleasing, his face expressive, his gesture graceful. He uses a good diction, avoids rant, and carries an air of sincerity and of thoughtfulness which impresses even those of his hearers who may think the cause for which he is arguing strange and fanatical. His manners are genial and agreeable. His character is unblemished.

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan are members of the Presbyterian Church. They have three children-the oldest eleven years of age. Mrs. Bryan is a favorite in Lincoln. About ten years ago she studied law; and was admitted to the bar. She has never sought to practice, but it is said that her husband declares her help of great value to him in his profession. Arthur Sewall: Biographical Sketch.-Arthur Sewall, ship-builder and shipowner, democratic candidate of 1896 for the vice-presidency, was born in Bath, Me., November 25, 1835. He is the son of William D. Sewall, who in 1823 began in Bath the business of shipbuilding. The family has been noted in New England for several generations. Of this family was Judge Samuel Sewall, conspicuousin the early annals of Boston. Through a large part of this century the firm at Bath have been the chief constructors of the "merchant marine" in this country.

Arthur Sewall, after an education in the public schools, took his place as an apprentice in his father's shipyard, and, having gained a thorough practical acquaintance with maritime architecture, entered into partnership at the age of nineteen with his brother Edward, under the firm name E. & A. Sewall, shipbuilders and commission agents. Their enterprise in developing the business established by their father, had rapid success in the building of vessels which they employed in general freighting. At the dissolution of the firm, owing to the death of the senior partner by a casualty in New York city, at the end of twenty-five years, they had launched forty-six vessels. The business was continued by Arthur Sewall, with his son William D. Sewall and his nephew Samuel S. Sewall in partnership as Arthur Sewall & Company. The firm became widely known for excellence of construction as well as for size of its vessels. For several years work was largely suspended here as at other American shipyards; but ten or twelve years ago, Arthur Sewall, then almost alone to develop courage in the face of disaster, resumed building with great energy; and at Bath were launched in quick succession into the Kennebec river four of the largest wooden vessels ever built in the United States, the Rappahannock, Shenandoah, Susquehanna, and Roanoke-averaging 3,000 tons each, and with capacity for cargo of half as much more. The Rappahannock was burned by spontaneous combustion of her cargo, in the South Pacific ocean. The other three of these giant "four-masters" rank among the most magnificent ships of the world, and one of them may often be seen in New York harbor. The Roanoke, built in 1892, is the largest, 3,400 tons. The Sewalls are now classed as the largest managers, and among the greatest owners, of sailing tonnage in this country; for, besides their

fleet of square-rigged ships sailing all seas, they are builders and managers of a great fleet of three-masted and four-masted schooners for the Atlantic coast-trade in coal, lumber, and ice.

It has been deemed remarkable that Mr. Sewall should continue building his great vessels long after steel had become the generally accepted material. Recently an extensive plant for steel ships was added to the Bath equipment; and two years ago the Dirigo, 2,856 tons, the first steel sailing ship built in America, and said to be the largest vessel

of its class in the world, was launched there (Vol. 4, p. 159). Mr. Sewall is also interested in the Bath Iron Works, which built the United States gunboats Castine and Machias, and the ram Katahdin. His business engagements are numerous: he has been for twenty years a director in the Maine Central railroad, and was its president from 1884 to 1893. He is president of the Portland, Mount Desert & Machias Steamboat Company, and of the Eastern railroad. He has been a director also of the following railroads -the Boston & Maine, the New York & New England, the Portland & Rochester, and the Mexican Central. He is president of the Bath national bank.


In politics the Sewall family have been democratic for generations. Mr. Sewall has never held nor sought public office, but hashad probably more influence in the councils of his party in Maine than any other man, though for many years that party has had little force in the state. Since 1888 he had been a member of the democratic national committee; but has recently been displaced by a gold-standard democrat because of the discredit which followed his utterances a year ago in favor of silver. His conversion to the free coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 seems to have been sudden. It is considered to have had influence in lessening the strength of the declaration for the gold standard in the last democratic state convention. The eldest of his two sons, Harold M. Sewall, thirty-six years of age, a lawyer, a graduate of Harvard, formerly vice-consul at Liverpool, Eng., and afterward appointed by President Cleveland consulgeneral at Apia, in Samoa, left the democratic party about two years ago, and became a republican-assigning as his reason his dissatisfaction with the "feeble and un-American" policy of President Cleveland's administration in Samoan affairs as concerned German interests


and claims. Previously he had been recalled from Samoa because his policy was deemed too aggressive.

Possible New Combinations.-The silver republicans who withdrew from the St. Louis convention, issued June 19



an "address to the American people," presenting arguments in favor of free coinage, and commending Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado as an eminently strong and fitting candidate for the presidency on that platform. This was followed, as already stated, by earnest efforts at Chicago, directed by Senator Dubois of Idaho, in which he was joined by Senator Mantle of Montana, to induce the democratic convention to cast aside partisan prejudice and nominate Mr. Teller as a compromise candidate upon whom they might expect the silver factions in all parties to unite. These efforts were, however, all in vain, as a glance at the results of

the balloting at Chicago will show-and this in spite of two official manifestoes from the populist leaders, strongly commending Mr. Teller's candidacy. One of these manifestoes was issued June 20, the day following the appearance of the address from the silver republican "bolters." The other was issued July 7, the opening day of the Chicago convention, and was addressed to the democracy. It was signed by H. E. Taubeneck of Illinois, chairman of the people's party national committee, and many other leading populists. It declared in part:

"There is a candidate upon whom the votes of all friends of free silver can be united, if all those who have the cause at heart will yield something of their extreme partisanship and place the cause first, and complete party success second.


"We feel confident that the people's party is willing to open the path to a union upon Henry M. Teller; and if this rational, patriotic opportunity for certain success be rejected by the democratic convention in the determination to seek complete partisan success, regardless of an open path to victory, then we call the true friends of the cause to witness that the responsibility rests upon those who reject this opportunity, and that it is a conclusive proof that we, who have championed this cause for years, who are united in its support, are its safe defenders and will carry it to success.


Whatever may be our individual wishes in the premises, we are forced to say, after an earnest endeavor to inform ourselves about the sentiment of the people's party of the country at large, that that party cannot be induced to indorse a candidate for president who has not severed his affiliations with the old political parties."

Notwithstanding this declaration, there were some of the democratic leaders who entertained the hope that the candidacy of Mr. Bryan would be indorsed by the people's party convention to meet in St. Louis, Mo., July 22.

There is some talk of a separate ticket being put into the field by the gold-standard democrats. Sentiment on the advisability of such a course is being canvassed at this writing. A committee of gold democrats was organized during the Chicago convention, with Senator Gray of Delaware as chairman, to test public sentiment in the various states. Reports were to be submitted by August 1. A considerable section of the democratic press, including the New York Sun, Times, and Post, Brooklyn Eagle, Boston Globe, Philadelphia Times and Record, Chicago Chronicle, Louisville Courier-Journal, and Buffalo Courier, refuse to indorse the candidate and platform of the Chicago convention.*

The Prohibition Convention.-The seventh national convention of the prohibition party, held in Pittsburg, Penn., May 27 and 28, surpassed all previous prohibition

NOTE. The above record of incidents in the political campaign is brought up to the close of the democratic national convention, July 11.

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