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subject to revision. The document is too long and elaborate for even an outline here, but its most characteristic features are indicated.

Chapter 1 deals with the boundaries of the new city and its grand divisions, called boroughs; also with the relations to it of the present municipalities. The present cities, wards, towns, and villages, are not to be abrogated further than as provided in this charter; and their ordinances, etc., continue in force till duly changed. The city is divided into nine boroughs:

1. BOWLING GREEN-all of the present New York south of the centre of 23rd street;

2. MANHATTAN -all north of the borough of Bowling Green to the centre of 59th street:

3. YORKVILLE-all north of the borough of Manhattan to the centre of 110th street;

4. HARLEM-all north of the borough of Yorkville to Spuyton Duyvil creek and Harlem river; also Randall's and Hart's islands;

5. THE BRONX-all territory of the new city north or east of the borough of Harlem, between the Hudson river and the East river or Long Island sound; also the islands (other than Randall's and Hart's) belonging to the present city;

6. BROOKLYN-all of the present city of Brooklyn, comprised in the following wards-1st to 12th, 20th to 23d, 29th to 31st;

7. WILLIAMSBURG-all of the present city of Brooklyn comprised in the following wards-13th to 19th, 24th to 28th, and 32d:

8. QUEENS-all territory of the new city in the present Queens county; 9. RICHMOND all the present Richmond county.

Chapter 2 deals with the legislative arrangements. All legislative power pertaining to the general interests of the city at large is vested in a council and a board of aldermen, together styled the municipal assembly. Each of the bodies appoints its own times of meeting.

The council has nineteen members, one of whom is its president: the president is elected by the voters of the whole city at the same time and for the same term (two years) as the mayor; and his functions are those of the present president of the board of aldermen. The other members of the council are chosen for a two-years' term from the first Monday in February, by the several borough boards (see Chapter 3)-each of the nine boroughs being entitled to two councilmen thus chosen by its board. The council appoints its clerk who is also the city clerk, having charge of all records and documents of every kind belonging to the city, except those specially assigned to the several departments, except also that the clerk of the borough board of Brooklyn has charge of those belonging to the present city of Brooklynsubject, however, to the control of the municipal assembly.

The board of aldermen consists of one member elected for a two years' term beginning on the first Monday in February, from each state assembly district within the territory of the city. All heads of administrative departments have seats with the aldermen and right of discussion, but are not members, and have no vote. The board of aldermen chooses one of its members as its president.

The municipal assembly holds one session annually. No member of the assembly is eligible or can be appointed to any office under the city, or made an employé of the city.

All legislative acts or ordinances require the vote of a majority of all members elected to each board severally (council and aldermen): some classes of acts involving expenditure, debt, lease, or assessment, require a three-fourths or a four-fifths majority. No act takes effect unless approved and signed by the mayor, except that an act takes effect if after ten days he has failed to return it; except also that an act returned with the mayor's veto may, after ten days and within fif

teen, be reconsidered and again passed and take effect if affirmed by a two-thirds or (as in special cases above noted) a five-sixths vote of all members elected to both boards.

Chapter 3 provides that each borough shall have its borough board, intrusted with legislative powers as regards various classes of local interests specified in this charter. Each borough board has five members elected by the voters in each borough respectively from its own residents, to serve two years, and without salary: it may elect its own chairman, and may appoint a clerk at an annual salary not exceeding $2,000. Its ordinances and resolutions are subject to approval or disapproval of the mayor of the city, and his veto is final. Every borough board holds stated weekly meetings at its boroughhall or building to be provided by the municipal assembly, at which hall also are stationed deputies of the various administrative departments of the city, for local convenience.

ers.

Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the executive and administrative powThe mayor-elected for a two years' term beginning January 1 at noon-is the chief executive and magistrate of the city, responsible for its administration, and with power to appoint and remove at will the heads of all the administrative departments except the controller or head of the department of finance, also all appointive public officials of the city (not judicial). He appoints and removes at pleasure two commissioners of accounts, who, at an annual salary of $5,000 (with such assistants as may be assigned to aid them), examine and report to him every three months the receipts and disbursements in the controller's office, with a detailed and classified statement of the financial condition of the city: they make also such special financial examinations of any office as the mayor may require: they have full power to compel attendance of witnesses and to administer oaths. The mayor also appoints all non-elective commissioners and inspectors, and grants or withdraws various classes of licenses. He appoints such clerks and subordinates as he may require in his official duties, and renders to the municipal assembly every three months a detailed account of all expenses and receipts of his office, noting the amount of all salaries (the same not to exceed $20,000 in any one year) and the class of duties performed therefor. The mayor is subject to removal from office by the governor of the state after due inquiry, which is provided for.

The administrative departments in the city are the following: The heads (usually called commissioners) of all these departments except that of finance, are appointed and removable by the mayor; and all have a term of two years from February 1, except that the Board of Taxes and Assessments have a term of six years, and the controller and chamberlain four years-the controller's term beginning January 1.

DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, whose head is called the Controller of the City of New York, elected at a general election, for a four years' term beginning January 1, and who is removable by the governor of the state after due inquiry, which is provided for.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, whose head is called the City Chamberlain, appointed by the mayor, for four years.

DEPARTMENT OF AUDIT whose head is called the Auditor.

DEPARTMENT OF LAW, whose head is called the Counsel to the Corporation. DEPARTMENT OF POLICE (Board of Police), whose head is called the Police Commissioner.

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS.

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC CHARITIES.

DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS,

FIRE DEPARTMENT.

HEALTH DEPARTMENT.

DEPARTMENT OF PARKS.

DEPARTMENT OF TAXES AND ASSESSMENTS, whose head is called the Board

of Taxes and Assessments-which board consists of a president (so designated when appointed) and two commissioners; all appointed by the mayor, for six years.

DEPARTMENT OF Docks, whose head is called the Board of Docks-which board consists of three persons.

DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING.

Chapter 6 covers, at great extent, the department of finance, and is announced by the compilers as largely a codification of the substance and administrative methods of the financial scheme in the present charter of the city. Under six titles it deals with the controller, bonds and obligations, the chamberlain, sinking fund, appropriations, and the board of estimate and apportionment and levying taxes.

For local convenience of citizens of the present city of Brooklyn (in paying taxes, etc.), it places in the borough hall of Brooklyn a deputy tax collector, auditor, and treasurer, to serve the two boroughs of Brooklyn and Williamsburg. Somewhat similar assignments are made for the boroughs of Queens and Richmond.

The great distinctive feature of the scheme is a radically new plan for dealing with the city debt-without precedent except possibly in parts of the scheme of British consols. The plan provides for eventual funding of the city debt in interminable bonds, i.e., bonds for whose payment, except for paying interest, no definite period is fixed. Its object is to relieve the city from its present annual necessity of raising for the sinking fund $5,000,000 to $8,000,000. The amendment to the state constitution which now makes it impossible for any city to create a debt beyond ten per cent of the assessed valuation of its real estate, removes the reason for compelling a city to pay off any part of its debt within fixed periods of time. Inasmuch as a debt is now paid in order that a new debt may be made, it would be more convenient for the city to raise yearly by taxation only such portion of its debt as may accord with its existing financial conditions and demands. Before the constitutional amendment, arbitrary sinking funds were indispensable as preparation by annual instalments to meet bonds falling due at a given date; but with the limit of debt never to be exceeded now fixed at ten per cent of the real estate assessment, the arbitrary demand on the tax-payers may well give place to a demand whose reasons appear in the existing conditions.

PERSONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS.

Personal Notes.-About the middle of August President Cleveland accepted the resignation of Hon. Hoke Smith of Georgia, secretary of the interior, to take effect September 1. The resignation was presumably due to variance between the secretary and the president and other members of the administration, in regard to indorse

ment of the action of the Chicago convention. Mr. Smith supported Messrs. Bryan and Sewall, though his precise sentiment on the money question was somewhat doubtful. On September 3, ex-Governor David R. Francis of Missouri took the oath of office in succession to Mr. Smith.

FRANCIS, DAVID ROWLAND, secretary of the interior, was born in Richmond, Ky., Oct. 1, 1850; and is of Scotch, Irish, and Welsh

extraction. He is the

youngest member of the present cabinet. Supplementing his commonschool education in Kentucky, he was graduated at the head of his class, from Washington University, St. Louis Mo., in 1870, with the degree of B. A. After three years' apprentice-ship in commercial life, he organized the D. R. Francis & Brother Commission Company, which is still one of the leading firms operating at the Merchants' Exchange. In 1883 he was elected vice-president of the exchange, and the following year was chosen president. He has been a life-long democrat, and in 1884 was a delegate to the convention that nominated Mr. Cleveland for president. The following year he was elected mayor of St. Louis by 1,400 m ajority, overcoming a former republican majority of 14,000. Long needed municipal reforms flourished under his administration. He set his face against the many rings which before his time had well-nigh ruined St. Louis. Among other matters which may be cited was his bringing to a successful termination the long litigation between St. Louis and the Missouri Pacific railway. One of the main points at issue was a claim the city held against the railroad for a very large amount of money, and, the courts having finally declared in favor of the mayor, $950,000 was paid to St. Louis, and so the debt of the city was sensibly reduced.

Photo by Strauss, St. Louis.
HON. D. R. FRANCIS OF MISSOURI,

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.

[graphic]

In 1888 he was elected governor of Missouri by a large majority, being the youngest incumbent of the office in the state's history. His administration won universal commendation. Prior to the Chicago convention of this year he was prominent in the ranks of the soundmoney men, and took a leading part in the effort to beat back the rising tide of silver agitation. In 1876, Mr. Francis was wedded to

Miss Jennie Perry of St. Louis, daughter of John D. Perry, president of the Laclede national bank. Six boys were born of the union.

A biographical sketch of ex-Secretary Smith was published in CURRENT HISTORY at the time of his appointment in 1893 (Vol. 3, p. 63).

About August 1 MacGrane Coxe of New York was appointed United States minister to Guatemala and Honduras, in the room of P. M. B. Young, deceased.

COXE, MACGRANE, was born in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., about thirty-eight years ago. Was graduated at Yale in 1879, and has since practiced law in New York. Soon after going thither he was made assistant United States district attorney, and held that office until 1888. From 1890 to 1894, he was senior member of the law firm of Coxe & Anderson His home is at Southfield Orange co.

On August 3 Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., of New York city, was married to Miss Grace Wilson, youngest daughter of Mr. Richard T. Wilson. None of the bridegroom's. relatives attended the ceremony, which took place at the home of the bride's parents.

Another wedding

[graphic]

HON HOKE SMITH OF GEORGIA. EX SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.

which attracted much attention in society, was that of Mr. Henry Payne Whitney, eldest son of Hon. William C. Whitney of New York, ex-secretary of the navy, to Miss Gertrude Vanderbilt, eldest daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt, on August 25, at "The Breakers," the summer residence of the bride's parents, Newport, R. I.

Still another society incident of wide notice was the marriage, on September 29, of Hon. William C. Whitney of New York, to Mrs. Edith M. Randolph, widow of a captain of the 15th Hussars (Queen's Own) regiment of England.

The August Heat Wave.-For about nine days,

Vol. 6.-42

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