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peal for contributions. The Irish in America as a body have now nothing but enmity for dynamiters. At the end of the quarter, the French government had not yet acceded to the British request for Tynan's extradition.

Amnesty Riot.-The old antagonism in Ireland between Roman Catholics and Protestants, heightened by the political differences on the question of home rule, displayed itself in Belfast on September 17. An immense nationalist procession, making a demonstration in favor of granting amnesty to all Irish political prisoners, came into collision with a jeering mob which also threw a few stones. A fierce fight resulted, which was ended by the police charging with batons. The magistrates, fearing a recurrence of the fight toward evening, ordered troops in. readiness. Several mobs which gathered to attack the returning procession, were balked by the police turning its march into a different route.




Victoria's Long Reign. On September 23 the queen's reign became the long- FORMERLY COMMANDER OF THE BRITISH FORCES est in British history -59 years, 3 months, 3 days, from its beginning on June 20, 1837, when her age was eighteen years. The next longest was that of her grandfather George III. She has seen her empire enlarge till now (including the British Isles with 40,000,000 people) it comprises in various parts of the world 10,000,000 square miles, and 360,000,000 people, one-fourth of the human race. Her wide sovereignty, though in one view nominal, is in the truest view real and strong because establishing itself in those moral forces which profoundly confirm dominion and ultimately command events. This queen has had such steadfastness of principle and such

wise discernment of her times, that the reign stands as preeminent in purity and prosperity as in length. By the queen's request the official celebration was deferred till in 1897 the reign shall have completed its sixtieth year.

Miscellaneous.-Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Maude of Wales, youngest daughter of the Prince of Wales, was married on July 22, by the archbishop of Canterbury, in the royal chapel in Buckingham palace, to Prince Charles of Denmark, son of the crown prince and grandson of King Christian IX. of Denmark.

The Right Honorable Sir Edmund John Monson, British ambassador to Austria, was appointed in August to succeed Lord Dufferin as ambassador to France. Sir Edmund, born in 1834, and graduated at Oxford, has had an experience of forty years in diplomatic and consular service. At one time he was in Washington as secretary to Lord Lyons. Sir Horace Rumbold, British minister to Holland, is to succeed Sir Edmund Monson at Vienna.

On August 15 Lord Salisbury was installed at Dover, as warden of the Cinque Ports. The office is a “dignified sinecure."

Field-Marshal Lord Wolseley, commander-in-chief of the British forces seems to hold the queen's East Indian soldiers in low esteem. To the Indian military commission he said: "I should not like to fight the army of France or Germany or any other army with Indian troops.' This remark has caused indignant protest from many military officials who attribute it to unworthy motives, while others class it among remarks that fill a place which there was no necessity for filling.

The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston, Mass., the oldest military organization on the American continent (organized 1637, and patterned after the London company of similar name), sailed from Boston on June 29, and landed at Liverpool on July 7. Some of the members were accompanied by their wives and daughters. The company were guests by invitation of the Honorable Artillery Company of London; and the visit was one of the most remarkable as well as gratifying events of recent years. In some respects it is without a parallel. The Boston company has had in its historic ranks governors, senators, judges, generals-the best blood of the state. From the first moment of their landing, they were received with a welcome and a hospitality overwhelming in warmth and profuseness. From the populace in the streets to the royal family, all England seemed bent on showing them

friendliness and honor. Fifty thousand people (eight thousand troops) were waiting to greet them at Liverpool, and their passage through London was with continuous and enthusiastic cheering. At banquets given to them. (and one by them to their hosts) the Prince of Wales and others of the royal family were present with a most distinguished company; and at the military review at Aldershot-a special honor to them-the highest officers of the British army received them. The queen entertained them at Windsor; the Prince of Wales, at Marlborough House. Their march through London streets (by special permission) with weapons unsheathed, drums beating, colors flying, was the first instance in history of foreign soldiery marching full-armed on English soil. The visit has international importance as at once indicating and strengthening the bond of kinship and friendship between the two great English-speaking nations.


International Socialist Congress.-The fourth Congress of International Socialist Workers and Trade Unions was in session in London, Eng., July 27-August 1. The previous meeting-places were at Paris in 1889, Brussels in 1891 (Vol. 1, p. 371), and Zurich in 1893 (Vol. 3, p. 582). The Paris congress of 1889 marked a revival of the international labor gatherings which had not been held since the fall of the Commune. It decreed the periodicity of congresses and the holding of a labor day in Europe on every first of May. The assemblies of Brussels and Zurich prepared the program of international socialism; and, through the creation of a general labor bureau in every country, they furnished to the syndicates and groups an effective organism for correspondence and mutual relations. So much of the time of the London congress of 1896 was wasted in stormy dissensions, that the practical utility of such polyglot gatherings is in some quarters seriously questioned.

About 800 delegates were in attendance from all parts of Europe, the United States, Australia, and the Argentine Republic. Among the American delegates were Lucien Sanial of New York, of the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance; and Mathew Maguire of New Jersey, vicepresidential candidate of the socialist-labor party.

The regular congress was preceded on July 26 (Sunday) by a "peace demonstration" in Hyde Park, which was cut short by a rain storm after a resolution had been unanimously carried, asserting that

the one common enemy of the workers of different nationalities, who have no quarrel among themselves, is the capitalist and landlord class -which class must be abolished before anything can be done for peace.

The first three days' proceedings were merely a disorderly wrangle over the question of admitting professed anarchists as delegates, though they came duly accredited as representatives of trades unions. The English and German delegates, except those from the British independent labor party, were opposed to allowing anarchists to take part in the discussions or votes; and the first day's meeting was adjourned in disorder. Next day the resolutions of the Zurich congress, excluding anarchists, were upheld. The third day the question was again opened, the anarchists being in attendance though nominally excluded, and voting as trades unionists. This session also broke up in disorder owing to an expression of sentiment from the French socialists and the American delegates, in favor of a separation of socialists from anarchists. On the fourth day the anarchists withdrew.

Resolutions were adopted congratulating the working classes in Russia upon their having awakened to the importance of the movement for the betterment of the condition of the working people throughout the world, and sent delegates to the congress, and wishing them success in their struggle against political tyranny. A declaration for universal suffrage and for one adult vote was supplemented by one to the effect that the representatives thus chosen must be independent of existing political parties. A resolution was adopted in favor of free education from kindergarten to university, and further declaring that children should not be exempt from attendance at school until they reached the age of sixteen years. James Keir Hardie argued that whatever expense the maintenance of scholars and their university education would be, it would be followed by compensation in the diminution in the number of criminals. The congress adopted, after a little discussion, the report of the committee on organization favoring the establishment of a permanent international committee and international bureau of information. A series of resolutions declaring in favor of the abolition of standing armies and for the establishment of a tribunal of arbitration, together with abolition of the capitalist class, against secret treaties, in favor of the socialization of industry, and in favor of amnesty to political prisoners, was carried. The agrarian question was discussed, but practically left open, since the congress could discover no solution for it suitable to all countries. In spite, however, of this difficulty, it affirmed the principle that the only solution of the land question was in socialism, that land every where was to be nationalized and cultivated by society for the common interest. It was also decided to exclude anarchists from the ne congress, which will meet in Germany in 1899 if political conditions admit; otherwise, in Paris, France, in 1900.

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In a word, the congress virtually reaffirmed the resolutions adopted by previous congresses. It confirmed the opposition to anarchism. And, from a political point of view in both Europe and America, it confronted all the old parties with the possible prospect of a new and independent organization of labor.

British Trades Union Congress.-The twentyninth annual Trades-Union Congress of Great Britain met

in Edinburgh, Scotland, September 7-12. There were 342 delegates present, representing 171 societies and about 1,000,000 workmen.

A discussion of the question whether it would be wise for the Trades-Union congress in future to identify itself with such a gathering as the recent international socialist congress in London (see above), led to the adoption of a resolution that all future international congresses should be constituted by "representatives from bona fide labor organizations," and that delegation should be determined on the lines of the British Trades Union Congress.

Many other resolutions were agreed to, among them resolutions of the following nature: In favor of payment of members of parliament and of returning officers' expenses; commending trade unionism and co-operation to workers; affirming that it was essential to the maintenance of British industries to nationalize land, mines, minerals, royalty rents, and railways, and to municipalize all water, artificial light, and tramway undertakings, as well as all docks, wharves, and warehouses; calling for the insertion of a clause in all government contracts, providing that all paper and other goods supplied (if obtainable in the United Kingdom) should be of British or Irish production, and demanding that all paper of foreign manufacture offered for sale in Great Britain should bear a water mark designating its identity; condemning the custom prevailing in government dockyards of putting laborers on the work of skilled mechanics in the construction of government ships; and demanding the abolition of child labor under the age of fifteen, and of all night labor under the age of eighteen.


The Cabinet Crisis.-Germany has recently passed through a crisis involving grave constitutional issues, and threatening a struggle between crown and people of a nature not wholly dissimilar to that in Britain in the time of Charles I. From a constitutional and historical point of view, the present German emperor's conception of the prerogatives attaching to his person would make him rightfully belong to a period contemporaneous with that of the Tudors or early Stuarts in England. However, since the establishment of the empire and the appearance of the Bundesrath and Reichstag, there have been really important limitations upon the prerogatives of the reigning sovereigns, though the final, full recognition of the constitutional principle is hindered by the hereditary conservatism of William II., the political conditions which necessitate the maintenance of a large standing army, and the general prevalence among the people of habits of military submissiveness..

The recent crisis came about in this way:

A plan of reform in the code of military procedure for the trial of military offenses, particularly in the way of making public the

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