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proceedings of military courts-which reform had been adopted in most of the states of the empire and was now being called for by Prussia-had been submitted to the emperor by General Bronsart von Schellendorf, minister of war. The emperor rejected it, acting, it is said, under the advice or instigation of General von Hahnke, head of the "Military Cabinet," an irresponsible body supposed to be subordinate to the war ministry, but unknown to the constitution and the laws, and yet exercising control over everything relating to the nomination, promotion, and discipline of the troops. General



von Schellendorf resigned, refusing longer to submit to what was practically a usurpation of the military administrative rights belonging to the constitutional cabinet. Chancellor von Hohenlohe, too, retired to his estates, and rumors of his intended resignation were thick. The vacant post of war minister was filled by the appointment of General von Gossler, of whom little was known except that he had defended the army bill of 1892 (Vol. 2, p. 368). There was wide and intense excitement. The press,

even the conservative papers, excepting the semiofficial organs, joined in the chorus of popular dissent aroused by the emperor's action. It looked as if an open conflict between the crown and the Reichstag would be precipitated.


However, after about a week's waiting, the emperor bowed to the sway of public opinion; and all immediate danger was over. A note in the official paper announced that his majesty was desirous of submitting a project of reform in the code of military procedure to the federal council in the fall, on the line of reforms outlined by the chancellor in the Reichstag in May.

In a word, the crisis was based on a direct issue between the emperor and the constitution. Power to govern the army otherwise than through constitutional channels, would be practically absolute power. To have insisted on its exercise, would have been to provoke an open quarrel with the popular house, and none can tell what else.

Civil Code Completed. It is now announced that the task begun right after the close of the Franco-German

war, of codifying the laws of the twenty-six once independent states which now form the German empire, is completed. No less than three systems of law were in vogue in different parts. The old Roman law, imported into Germany before the reformation, prevailed over the largest part of the country. The inhabitants of the Rhineland, numbering seven or eight millions, lived under the French code, adopted by Napoleon in 1804. Over Prussia and the Prussian provinces the old common law, adopted in 1794, held sway. Besides these three systems, more than twenty provincial codes, all conflicting and warring with one another, existed in the country. Since 1871 three

commissions of German jurists have worked, one after the other, upon the task of bringing all these different codes into one harmonious whole. The completion of their task marks a new era in German jurisprudence. A correspondent says of the new code just adopted:

"The general tendency of the new code is to lay stress upon the duties and responsibilities of property to the community. This is hailed as a triumph of the German idea over the Roman, which treated the rights of property as absolute and inalienable. It finds expression in numerous provisions limiting the arbitrary powers of landlord over tenant, etc. The principal innovation is in making civil marriage compulsory. Curiously enough, the clerical party did not fight this*, for the reason that experience has shown that, as the custom of civil marriages has grown in Germany, the fashion of hav ing also a religious ceremony has similarly increased. Divorce, on the other hand, which formerly was as easy in Prussia and some of the other German states as it is in Dakota, becomes a most difficult matter under the new code. This will not go into effect, however, until January 1, 1900."

The Imperial Census.-Later returns of the recent census (p. 431) have been received.

The figures show a total population in the empire of 51,770,284. The increase in population, though not nearly so great as in England, is considered satisfactory in view of the heavy emigration of recent years. The average yearly rate of increase since the Napoleonic wars has been more than .9 per cent, while at the present time it is about 1.07 per cent. The yearly increase in England is about 1.35 per cent, in Austria .76 per cent, in Hungary 1.09 per cent, in France .007 per cent, and in Italy .7 per cent. The rate in Russia is not exactly known, but it is probably less than in Germany.

Even more interesting is the analysis of the population according to occupations. In 1882 agriculturists were most numerous, and workers in mines, metallurgy, manufacturing, and building, next the figures were respectively 18,840,818 and 16,058,080. Now the order is reversed, there being only 18,501,307 agriculturists (an actual de

*NOTE. The clericals at first fought vigorously against the new marriage law; but finally withdrew their opposition to what was seen to be inevitable. Vol. 6.-44.

crease in thirteen years of nearly 340,000) to 20,253,241 miners, metal-workers, etc. (an increase in thirteen years of nearly 4,250,000). Nothing could more strikingly set forth the agrarian depression that has prevailed in Germany, and the enormous industrial and commercial expansion, which is now giving Great Britain itself no little uneasiness. The number engaged in commerce and trade has risen from 4,531,080 in 1882 to 5,066,845 in 1895, a great increase, significant to the same effect. The number in domestic and other service has fallen from 938,294 to 886,807; that in learned professions and state service has risen from 2,222,982 to 2,835,222; and that in no stated calling, from 2,246,222 to 3,326,862.


The Census.-Corrected returns of the census of the republic taken in March, show a total population of 38,228,969, an increase of 133,919 in five years. This increase is largely confined to the cities, and is balanced by a decrease in the rural communities. The rate of increase during the past five years has been, in round numbers, 26,500 per year; or, in other words, there has been one birth to 1,500 inhabitants.

These figures are a source of great disappointment to French statesmen, as they indicate that the population of the country is about stationary, which condition of things generally precedes a decrease in population, and has at the present time no parallel elsewhere in the civilized world. Both Germany and England have recently shown a marked advance notwithstanding the large amount of emigration, which, as a factor in French life, is practically nothing.

The secret of the trouble is probably to be found in the abnormally low French birthrate, which is now only about twenty-two in 1,000 annually, whereas at the beginning of the present century it was thirty-two. It is certainly not found in any extraordinary emigration, for, although the policy of colonial expansion is daily becoming more acceptable, the French colonies are still, as they have always been, inherently weak, having in no case a strong French element. In this respect the contrast between France and her rivals adds emphasis to the old phrase: France has colonies but no colonists; Germany has colonists but no colonies; England alone has colonies and colonists.

The entire population of Paris is 2,511,955, as compared with about 2,425,000 five years ago. The entire central portion of the capital, say thirty-one quarters out of eighty-nearly half of the most populous quarters-is visibly becoming depopulated to the profit of the districts in the suburbs.

The evil of the situation has already given rise to practical attempts in the way of remedy. A "Society for the Increase of the French Population" has been started, with Dr. Bertillon at its head. It aims to put a premium upon the raising of legitimate children by lightening the burdens of taxation in the case of fathers of large families and by taxing childless parents. It also aims to decrease the mortality rate among infants by checking baby-farming with its attendant evils, by preventing the far too common crimes against in

fant life, and by extending protection over the children of the republic during their most helpless time.

Miscellaneous.- On July 14, while President Faure was driving from the Elysée to witness a review in the Bois de Boulogne in connection with the national fête, a man in the crowd, who gave his name as François, fired a revolver at him. The weapon was loaded only with blank cartridges, and the act is deemed merely that of a harmless and irresponsible lunatic. François was at once taken into custody by the police, and was only with some difficulty saved from lynching at the hands of the crowd. He is a street surveyor who had been employed by the municipal council of Paris, but had been discharged owing to his publication of revolutionary verses.

The first international congress of publishers met in Paris June 16-19. About 200 persons, representing the chief publishing houses in Europe, were present.

Regarding the deposit of two copies of each work in the national collection, required in order to copyright in most countries, it was resolved that this deposit should be made by the publisher, or, failing him, by the author, and not by the printer as is now customary. Another important question concerned the publication of extracts from a book. The reproduction of a literary work by means of public lectures was also considered. It was held that, in principle, every reproduction ought to depend on the authorization of the owner of the copyright. Still, from an international point of view, brief extracts in books for school use might be reciprocally permitted, as well as passages quoted for criticism, or in literary theses. The reproduction of any book by means of public lectures without the consent of its owner was condemned. The congress also passed resolutions urging adhesions to the convention of Berne, and demanding that in catalogues there should be added to the description of formats now in use a statement of the dimensions of each book in centimetres.

On July 15, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans, son of the late Comte de Paris, who died in September, 1894 (Vol. 4, pp. 662, 726), and head of the Orléans branch of the old royal house of Bourbon, was formally betrothed to the Archduchess Marie Dorothé Amélie, daughter of the Archduke Joseph of Austria, whose wife is Princess Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

The historic Chateau of Malmaison, associated with many memories of the great Napoleon and Josephine, has been sold to one M. Osiris, who announces that it is his ultimate intention to present the house and park to the nation.

On the afternoon of September 10 a severe hurricane, accompanied with a torrent of rain, visited a portion of the city of Paris. It lasted only a brief while, but did

much damage. The roofs of several public buildings were wholly or partly torn off, vehicles were overturned, shop fronts shattered, a number of persons knocked down and injured, and seven lives lost. The roofs of the Palais de Justice, the Opéra Comique, the Tribunal of Commerce, and the Prefecture of Police, were partly destroyed. The track of the storm extended from the Place St. Sul


pice to the Boulevard de la Villette, a distance of nearly two miles.



Cabinet Reconstruction.-In the early part of July, General Ricotti, minister of war, resigned his office owing to a decision of the cabinet council to postpone discussion of the military bills until the fall. The result was a reconstruction of the ministry, which is now constituted as follows:

President of the Council and Minister of the Interior-Marquis di Rudini. Minister of Foreign Affairs-Marquis Visconti Venosta.

Minister of Marine


Admiral Brin.

Minister of War-General Luigi Pelloux.
Minister of Justice-Signor Costa.

Minister of Finance-Signor Branca.

Minister of the Treasury-Signor Luigi Luzzatti.

Minister of Public Works-Signor Giulio Prinetti.

Minister of Public Instruction-Signor Gianturco.

Minister of Agriculture-Count Guicciardini.

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs-Signor Emilia Sineo.

Minister without portfolio-Count Codrionchi (commissioner in Sicily.

The Crown Prince's Betrothal.-It was officially announced about the middle of August that the Prince of Naples had been betrothed to Princess Hélène, third

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