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New Bishops Elected.-On October 7, at a meeting of the council of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Western New York, held in Trinity church, Buffalo, the Rt. Rev. W. D. Walker, D. D., bishop of North Dakota, was elected bishop of Western New York to succeed Bishop Arthur Cleveland Coxe, who died July 20 (p. 752). Bishop Walker was enthroned in St. Paul's church, Buffalo, December 23.
WALKER, RT. REV. WILLIAM DAVID, D. D., LL. D., was born in New York city June 29, 1839; was graduated at Columbia College in 1859; and in 1862 finished a three years' course at the General Theological Seminary. He was ordained in Calvary church, New York city, June 19, 1865. He obtained the degree of D. D. from Racine, Wis., in 1884, and from Oxford University, England, in 1894. In 1888 Griswold College (Davenport, Iowa) gave him his LL. D., which degree he also received from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1894. He is also a D. C. L. of the University of King's College, Windsor, N. S. He was consecrated bishop of North Dakota in Calvary church, the scene of his early years of faithful labor, on December 20, 1883.
For some years past, or since his Western bishop
ric, Bishop Walker has been one of the government's Indian commis sioners, and has done much to elevate the Indian and place him on a level with his white brother. As a result of his missionary work among them, many Indians have become Christians and are leading happy and peaceful lives on lands allotted to them by the government. He is the originator of the now famous "cathedral car," and first used his car in missionary labor during his work in the West.
On December 13 it was announced that the Pope had approved the appointment of Rev. Dr. James E. Quigley as bishop of the diocese of Buffalo, N. Y., in succession to Bishop Stephen Vincent Ryan, who died April 10 (p. 505).
QUIGLEY, RT. REV. JAMES E., D. D., was born in Oshawa, Ont., October 15, 1855, and was educated at St. Joseph's College, afterwards entering the Seminary of Our Lady of Angels at Suspension Bridge to
prepare for the priesthood. His abilities attracted the attention of Bishop Ryan, and in 1873 he was sent to the University of Innspruch, Austria. In 1875 he was transferred to the College of the Propaganda at Rome, and in 1879 was ordained. He returned to this country and was assigned to the charge of the church at Attica, N. Y. In 1883 he was transferred to the cathedral in Buffalo, soon becoming rector, a position which he held for twelve years. He had been nearly one year at St. Bridget's parish in Buffalo when he was chosen as successor to Bishop Ryan.
The United States Church Army.-The organization of this important body in connection with the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, of which a brief mention was made in the preceding quarter (p. 483), is well under way.
The history of the movement dates from March 12, 1896, when Bishop Potter of New York wrote to Dr. Greer, rector of St. Bartholomew's church in that city suggesting the formation of a committee to consider the subject, but is the result of several years' careful study of the work of similar organizations. a meeting of the Parochial Missions Society on Octo ber 19 it was unanimously resolved to undertake "the
cautious supervision" of RT. REV. WILLIAM DAVID WALKER, D.D., LL.D., the Church Army as a distinct department of the so
ciety's work for one year. The direction of the movement is in the hands of the Church Army Commission consisting of Rev. E. A. Bradley, D. D., rector of St. Agnes' church, and Rev. E. Walpole Warren, rector of St. James' church, New York, Rev. W. D. Bodine, D. D., of Philadelphia, and Rev. J. Newton Perkins of New York, secretary of the Church Building Commission. Next in authority comes the military director-general, Colonel H. H. Hadley of New York, of rescue mission fame. General Hadley has for his chief of staff Major Samuel F. Jones, the superintendent of St. Stephen's Rescue mission, of Boston. His aidede-camp is Major Sarah Wray, the song evangelist, who has for many years been associated with mission work. The chief adjutant is Major James K. Bakewell, superintendent of the Brotherhood Rescue Mission and commandant of the First regiment, U. S. C. A., Pittsburg, Penn. The musical director is Major Brown, a former light of the
comic opera stage. General Thomas L. James, former postmaster-general, is treasurer.
A training school for officers has been opened at the Lexington avenue headquarters in New York, and fourteen cadets are already in training. Each post of the new army will be attached to one of the churches, and the officer in command will be directly responsible to the rector, who, in turn, is responsible to the military director, who obeys the orders of the Church Army Commission. The posts are formed only at the special invitation of a church rector. It is in tended that the work shall be self-supporting; and ten per cent of the contributions are to be sent to headquarters, together with one-tenth of the weekly contributions from soldiers. A sufficient amount of money to insure the financial success of the work must be pledged before special officers from headquarters will be sent to start a post.
The plans will include the best features of the Salvation Army and of the Church Army of England. Uniformed corps of trained evangelists, under military discipline, will be stationed in different cities. These men will preach in the streets and will be aided by bands of music. The work ultimately will include the erection of laborer homes and lodging houses for men and rescue houses for fallen
A New "Creed."-A religious movement which has attracted general attention, is the organization of a Brotherhood of Christian Unity, whose object is to secure a general acceptance, "as a symbol of universal Christian fellowship for the promotion of 'peace on earth and good will among men,' of the following "creed," or rather substitute for the historic creeds, which has been formulated by the Rev. Dr. John Watson, familiarly known by his pen name "Ian MacLaren":
"I believe in the Fatherhood of God. I believe in the words of Jesus. I believe in the clean heart. I believe in the service of love. I believe in the unworldly life. I believe in the Beatitudes. I promise to trust God and follow Christ, to forgive my enemies, and to seek after the righteousness of God."
Miscellaneous.--The American Missionary Association celebrated in Boston, Mass., October 21 and 22, the semicentennial of its organization.
The fourteenth annual assemblage of the Baptist Autumnal Conference "for the discussion of current questions," was held in Nashville, Tenn., November 10-12.
The seventeenth Church Congress held eight sessions in Norfolk, Va., beginning November 17.
The third annual meeting of the American Congress of Liberal Religious Societies-an outgrowth of the famous World's Parliament of Religions during the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, Ill., in 1893-was held in Indianapolis, Ind., November 17-19. The attendance numbered thirty-two.
The aim of the congress, as stated by its president, Dr. H. W. Thomas of Chicago, is "to unite all religions in the recognition of 'a universal belief; but no attempt to formulate such a 'belief," has yet, so far as known, been made.
A change in name was decided upon, and henceforth the organization will be known as the "Liberal Congress of Religion." It was also voted that the stated purpose of the congress should be "the promotion of liberalism and catholicity in religion."
The Volunteers of America, organized in March, 1896, after the resignation of Ballington Booth as commander of the Salvation Army (pp. 89-97), reported at the end of the year that they had established posts in over 120 cities, had organized over 150 separate societies, and had raised nearly 450 commanding officers, attracting about 400,000 persons to their meetings monthly.
THE first annual convention of the American Anti-Saloon League was held in Washington, D. C., the second week in December.
The professed ultimate purpose of the league is the union of all the temperance forces of the country. Its plan, however, includes sanction and continuance of the so-called non-partisan method of fighting the saloon. It provides for the temperance forces helping a political party to power in one section of the country, which in another may be openly and aggressively in league with the liquor element. It stands for the individual rather than the collective political method for dealing with the evil, and thus, in practical working, involves a partisan division of the forces of temperance. It, therefore meets with severe criticism at the hands of the prohibition party, notwithstanding the fact that its members are pledged "to vote for no candidate, either in caucus or at the polls, who is not in favor of the overthrow of the liquor saloon." Says the New York Voice, the organ of the prohibitionists:
The prohibition party may or may not be permitted to be the slayer of the saloon; but when the saloon is killed it will be by the hand of some party which, having crystallized the anti-liquor sentiment of the country, becomes the positive power itself in government, instead of the shifting balance of power in the political parties of the country. In educating public sentiment up to the acceptance of that political plan essential under our system for securing the desired result, a variety of influences and agencies may be neces sary, of which the Anti-Saloon League may be one. Let it labor, and be known by its fruits."
The annual convention of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union was held in St. Louis, Mo., November 13-18. Miss Frances E. Willard presided.
The convention was a notably successful and enthusiastic one. Mrs. Catherine L. Stevenson, corresponding secretary, reported the organization of 1,175 new unions during the year. A specially noteworthy incident of the proceedings was the collection of over $1,000 for Armenian relief, and the unanimous indorsement of a telegraphic protest to President Cleveland strongly urging interference by the United States government in this matter.
IMPORTANT LEGAL DECISIONS.
Sheats Law Unconstitutional.-This notorious law enacted by the legislature of Florida, making it a punishable offense to allow white and colored children to be boarded or educated in the same school (Vol. 5, p. 735), has been declared unconstitutional.
The decision was rendered October 21 by the circuit court of Clay county, Fla. (Judge R. M. Cole, presiding). Seven teachers in the Orange Park Normal and Industrial School had been indicted by the grand jury of Clay county in April, 1896, for alleged violation of the law, and had been arrested and bound over in the sum of $250 each to appear for trial.
Counsel for the defense (Messrs. Bisbee and Rinehart of Jacksonville) objected to the statute as vague in its terms and contradictory in its provisions; as unconstitutional in that the body of the statute contained what was not in its title; as arbitrary and unreasonable, creating a crime where none existed, and so going beyond the police power of the state; as needlessly abridging the natural rights of prop erty, contract, and personal association, thus conflicting with the 14th amendment to the national constitution; as discriminating against the rights of teachers to pursue their lawful and useful calling unhindered by restrictions laid upon men of no other business or profession; as being founded simply and solely upon the distinction of color, in violation of the 14th amendment.
Without hesitation the court sustained the objection to the law, that its body contained more than its title, and declared it unconsti tutional and void.
Torrens Law Unconstitutional.-On November 9 the supreme court of Illinois declared the Torrens LandTitle act unconstitutional.
The question came before the court in the quo warranto case of The People vs. Samuel D. Chase, which was appealed from the Cook county court. The judgment of the county court was reversed.
The Torrens law aims to simplify the transferring of land titles. It provides that a purchaser of land shall receive from the registrar a certificate of title. When he transfers the property this certificate is surrendered and another is issued to the new owner. Every lien is indorsed upon the certificate, and also on the official register,