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duelling, and of revenge in the a secular employment, and is not extreme, and lays no stress upon in orders : opposed to a clergythe virtues opposite to these. man.

Law Remedial, a fancied law LEARNING, skill in any sciwhich some believe in, who hold ence, or that improvement of the that God, in mercy to mankind, mind which we gain by study, inhas abolished that rigorous consti-struction, observation, &c. An attution or law that they were un- tentive examination of ecclesiasti. der originaliy, and instead of it has cal history will lead us to see how introduced a more mild constitu- greatly learning is indebted to tion, and put us under a new law, christianity, and that christianity, which requires no more than im- in its turn, has been much served perfect sincere obedience, in com- by learning. “All the useful learnpliance with our poor infirm impo- ing,” says Dr. Jortin, “which is tent circumstances since the fall. now to be found in the world is in a I call this a fancied law, because great measure owing to the gospel. it exists no where except in the The Christians, who had a great imaginations of those who hold it. veneration for the Old Testament, See NEONOMIANS, and JUSTIFI. have contributed more than the CATION.

Jews themselves to secure and exLaws of nations, are those rules plain those books. The Christians which by a tacit consent are agreed in ancient times collected and preupon among all communities, at served the Greek versions of the least among those who are reckon- scriptures, particularly the Septued the polite and humanized part agint, and translated the originals of mankind. Gill's Body of Div., into Latin. To Christians were vol. i, p. 454, oct. 425, vol. iji, due the old Hexapla; and in later ditto ; Paley's Mor. Phil., vol. i, times Christians have published p. 2 ; Cumberland's Law of Nu- | the Polyglots and the Samaritan ture ; Grove's Mor. Phil., vol. ii, Pentateuch. It was the study of p. 117; Booth's Death of Legal | the holy scriptures which excited Hope; Inglish and Burder's Pieces Christians from early times to on Moral Law; Watts's Works, study chronology, sacred and sevol. i, ser. 49, 8vo. ed.; and vol. cular; and here much knowledge ii, p. 443, &c.

of history, and some skill in astroLAY-BROTHERS, among the nomy, were needful. The New Romanists, illiterate persons, who Testament, being written in Greek, devote themselves at some convent caused Christians to apply themto the service of the religious...selves also to the study of that lanThey wear a different habit from guage. As the Christians were opthat of the religious, but never en-posed by the Pagans and the Jews, ter into the choir, nor are present they were excited to the study of at the chapters ; nor do they make Pagan and Jewish literature, in orany other vow except that of con- der to expose the alsurdities of Stancy and obedience.

the Jewish traditions, the weakness LAYMAN, one who follows of paganism, and the imp nie Vol. II.


tions and insufficiency of philoso- | whom for chronology, and the phy. The first fathers, till the continuation of history through third century,

were generally many centuries ?—to Christians. Greek writers. In this third cen- To whom for rational systems of tury the Latin language was much morality, and improvements in naupon the decline, but the Chris- tural philosophy, and for the aptians preserved it from sinking in- plication of these discoveries to reto absolute barbarism. Monkery, ligious purposes ?-to Christians. indeed, produced many sad ef. To whom for metaphysical refects; but Providence here also searches, carried as far as the subbrought good out of evil; for theject will permit?-to Christians. monks were employed in the tran- || To whom for the moral rules to scribing of books, and many valu- be observed by nations in war able authors would have perished and peace ?-to Christians. To if it had not been for the monas- || whom for jurisprudence, and for teries. In the ninth century the political knowledge, and for setSaracens were very studious, and tling the rights of subjects, both contributed much to the restora- civil and religious, upon a proper tion of letters. But, whatever foundation ?

-to Christians. To was good in the Mahometan reli- whom for the reformation ?-to gion, it is in no small measure in-Christians.” debted to Christianity for it, since “ As religion hath been the Mahometanism is made up for the chief preserver of erudition, so most part of Judaism and Chris- erudition hath not been ungratetianity. If Christianity had been ful to her patroness, but hath consuppressed at its first appearance, tributed largely to the support of it is extremely probable that the religion. The useful expositions Latin and Greek tongues would of the scriptures, the sober and have been lost in the revolutions sensible defences of revelation, the of empire, and the irruptions of faithful representations of pure and barbarians in the east and in the undefiled Christianity, these have west ; for the old inhabitants been the works of learned, judiwould have had no conscientious cious, and industrious men.” Noand religious motives to keep up thing, however, is more common their language ; and then, toge- than to hear the ignorant decry all ther with the Latin and Greek human learning as entirely useless tongues, the knowledge of anti- in religion ; and what is still more quities and the ancient writers || remarkable, even some, who call would have been destroyed. To themselves preachers, entertain whom, then, are we indebted for the same sentiments. But to such the knowledge of antiquity, for we can only say what a judicious every thing that is called philoso- preacher observed upon a public phy, or the literæ humaniores? -to occasion, that if all men had been Christians. To whom for gram- as unlearned as themselves, they wars and dictionaries of the learn- never would have had a text on el languages ?-0 Christians. Tol which to have displayed their ignorance. Dr. Jortin's Sermons, course of eight sermous preached vol. vii, charge 1; Mrs. H. annually at the University of OxMoore's Hints to a Young Prin- ford, set on foot by the Rev. John cess, vol. I, p. 64; Cooke's Miss. Bampton, canon of Salisbury. AcSer. on Matt. vi, 3; Dr. Sten.cording to the directions in his nett's Ser. on Acts xxvi, 24, 25.

LECTURES RELIGIOUS, either of the following subjects : are discourses or sermons deliver- —to confirm and establish the ed by ministers on any subject in Christian faith, and to confute all theology. Beside lectures on the heretics and schismatics ; upon sabbath day, many think proper the divine authority of the holy to preach on week-days ; some- scriptures ; upon the authority of times at five in the morning, be- the writings of the primitive fafore people go to work, and at thers, as to the faith and practice of seven in the evening, after they the primitive church; upon the dihave done. In London there is vinity of our Lord and Saviour preaching almost every forenoon Jesus Christ ; upon the divinity of and evening in the week, at some the Holy Ghost; upon the articles place or other. It may be ob- of the Christian faith, as comprejected, however, against week-day hended in the Apostles' and Nipreaching, that it has a tendency cene creeds. For the support of to take people from their business, this lecture, he bequeathed his and that the number of places | lands and estates to the chancellor, open on a sabbath day supersedes masters, and scholars of the Unithe necessity of it. But in answer versity of Oxford for ever, upon to this, may it not be observed, 1. trust that the vice-chancellor for That people stand in need at all the time being take and receive all times of religious instruction, ex- the rents and profits thereof; and, hortation and comfort ?—2. That after all taxes, reparations, and nethere is a probability of convert-cessary deductions made, to pay ing sinners then as well as at other all the remainder to the endowtimes?—3. That ministers are comment of these divinity lecture sermanded to be instant in season and mons. He also directs in his will, out of season ?-And, 4. It gives that no person shall be qualified ministers an opportunity of hear- to preach these lectures unless he ing one another, which is of great have taken the degree of master utility. After all, it must be re- of arts, at least, in one of the two marked, that he who can hear the Universities of Oxford or Camtruth on a sabbath day does not bridge, and that the same person act consistently to neglect his fami- shall never preach the same serly or business to be always present mons twice. A number of excelat week-day lectures ; nor is helent sermons preached at this lecaltogether wise who has an opporture are now before the public. tunity of receiving instruction, LECTURES BOYLE'S. See yet altogether neglects it.


a lecture set up in the year 1672 to be spent in prayer, and the other by the Presbyterians and Inde in a suitable exhortation to the pendents, to shew their agreement people. When the heat of the war among themselves, as well as to was over, it became a casuistical support the doctrines of the re- lecture, and was carried on till the formation against the prevailing restoration of Charles II. These errors of popery, socinianism, and sermons were afterwards publishinfidelity. The principal minis- ed in several volumes quarto, unters for learning and popularity der the title of the Morning Exerwere chosen as lecturers ; such cises. The authors were the most as Dr. Bates, Dr. Manton, Dr. eminent preachers of the day: Mr., Owen, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Collins, afterwards archbishop Tillotson, Jerkins, Mead, and afterwards was one of them. It appears that Mr. Alsop, Howe, Cole, and these lectures were held every others. It was encouraged and morning for one month only; and, supported by some of the princi- from the preface to the volume, pal merchants and tradesmen of dated 1689, the time was afterthe city. Some misunderstanding wards contracted to a fortnight. taking place, the Presbyterians re- Most of these were delivered at moved to Salter's hall, and the In- Cripplegate church, some at St. dependents remained at Pinner's-Giles's, and a volume against pohall, and each party filled up their pery in Southwark. Mr. Neal numbers out of their respective observes, that this lecture was afdenominations. This lecture is terwards revived in a different kept up to the present day, and is, form, and continued in his day. we believe, now held at Broad. It was kept up long afterwards at street Meeting every Tuesday several places in the summer, a morning

week at each place ; but latterly LECTURES MORNING, the time was exchanged for the certain casuistical lectures, which evening. were preached by some of the most LECTURES MOYER'S. See able divines in London. The oc- | Mover's LECTURES. casion of these lectures seems to LECTURE WARBURTO. be this:--during the troublesome NIAN, a lecture founded by bitimes of Charles I, most of the ci-shop Warburton to prove the truth tizens having some near relation of revealed religion in general, or friend in the army of the eari | and the Christian in particular, of Essex, so many bills were sent from the completion of the proup to the pulpit every Lord's Dauphecies in the Old and New Tesfor their preservation, that the mi.taments which relate to the Chrisnister had neither time to read tian church, especially to the aposthem, nor to recommend their ca- tacy of papal Rome. To this ses to God in prayer; it was, there foundation we owe the admirable fore, agreed by some London di- discourses of Hurd, Halifax, Bavines to separate an hour for this got, and many others. purpose every morning, one half LECTURES, in the church of England, are an order of preach the Legalist; a character diameers distinct from the rector, vicar, trically opposite to that of the true and curate. They are chosen by Christian, whose sentiment corresthe vestry, or chief inhabitants of ponds with that of the apostle, who the parish, supported by volunta- justly observes, “ By grace are ye ry subscriptions and legacies, and saved through faith, and that not are usually the afternoon preach of yourselves: it is the gift of God. ers, and sometimes officiate on Not of works, lest any man should some stated day in the week. boast.” Eph. ii, 8, 9. Where there are lectures founded LEGATE, a cardinal, or bishby the donations of pious persons, op, whom the pope sends as his the lectures are appointed by the ambassador to sovereign princes. founders, without any interposi- LEGEND, originally a book, tion or consent of rectors of in the Romish church, containing churches, &c., though with the the lessons that were to be read in leave and approbation of the bi-divine service: from hence the shop; such as that of Lady Moy- word was applied to the histories of er's, at St. Paul's. But the lec- the lives of saints, because chapters turer is not entitled to the pulpit were read out of them at matins; without the consent of the rector but as the golden legend, compiled or vicar, who is possessed of the by James de Varase, about the freehold of the church.

year 1290, contained in it several LEGALIST, strictly speaking, rediculous and romantic stories, is one who acts according, to or the word is now used by Protestconsistent with the law; but in ants to signify any incredible or general the term is made use of to inauthentic narrative. Hence, as denote one who expects, salvation Dr. Jortin observes, we have false by his own works. We may far- legends concerning the miracles of ther consider a Legalist as one Christ, of his apostles, and of arwho has no proper conviction of cient Christians; and the writers of the evil of sin; who, although he these fables had, in all probability, pretends to abide by the law, yet as good natural abilities as the has not a just idea of its spiritu- disciples of Christ, and some of ality and demands. He is igno-them wanted neither learning nor rant of the grand scheme of sal-craft; and yet they betray themvation by free grace: proud of his selves by faults against chronoloown fancied righteousness, he sub- sy, against history, against manmits not to the righteousness of ners and customs, against moraGod; he derogates from the ho- lity, and against probability. A nour of Christ, by mixing his own liar of this kind can never pass works with his; and, in fact, de- undiscovered; but an honest redies the necessity of the work of later of truth and matter of fact the Spirit, by supposing that he is safe: he wants no artifice, and has ability in himself to perform fears no examination. all those duties which God has re- LEGION THEBEAN, a name quired. Such is the character of given, in the time of Dioclesian,

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