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Thibetians, but also is the great, hundred in his pay. Besides his object of adoration for the various religious influence and authority, tribes of heathen Tartars who the grand lama is possessed of unroam through the vast tract of limited power throughout his docontinent which stretches from the minions, which are very extensive. banks of the Wolga to Correa, on The inferior lamas, who form the sea of Japan. He is not only the most numerous as well as the the sovereign pontiff, the vicere- most powerful body in the state, gent of the Deity on earth, but have the priesthood entirely in the more remote Tartars are said their hands; and besides fill up to absolutely regard him as the many monastic orders which are Deity himself, and call him God, held in great veneration among the everlasting Father of heaven. them. The whole country, like They believe him to be immortal, Italy, abounds with priests; and and indowed with all knowledge they entirely subsist on the great and virtue. Every year they come number of rich presents which are up from different parts to worship sent them from the utmost extent and make rich offerings at his of Tartary, from the empire of the shrine : even the emperor of Chi.Great Mogul, and from almost na, who is a manchon Tartar does all parts of the Indies. not fail in acknowledgments to The opinion of those who are him in his religious capacity; and reputed the most orthodox among actually entertains at a great ex. the Thibetians is, that, when the pence, in the palace of Pekin, an grand lama seems to die, either of inferior lama, deputed as his nun- old age or infirmity, his soul, in cio from Thibet. The grand la. fact, only quits a crazy habitama, it has been said, is never to tion, to look for another, younger be seen but in a secret place of his or better ; and is discovered again palace, amidst a great number of in the body of some child by cerlamps, setting cross-legged on a tain tokens, known only to the cushion, and decked all over with lamas, or priests, in which order gold and precious stones, where at he always appears. a distance the people prostratt

Almost all nations of the east, themselves before him, it not be-lexcept the Mahometans, believe ing lawful, for any, so much as to the netempsychosis as the mostimkiss his feet. He returns not the portant article of their faith ; esleast sign of respect, nor ever specially the inhabitants of Thibet speaks even to the greatest prin- and Ava, the Peguans, Siamese, ces; but only lays his hand upon the greatest part of the Chiri-se their heads, and they are fully per. and Japanese, and the Monguls suaded they receive from thence and Kalmucks, who changed the a full forgiveness of all their religion of Schamanism for the sins.

worship of the grand lama. AcThe Sunniasses, or Indian pil.cording to the doctrine of this megrims, often visit Thibet as a hol tempsychosis, the soul is always in place ; and the lama always en- action, and never at rest ; for no tertains a body of two or threel sooner does she leave her old habitation, than she enters a new to the dictates of his religion, one. The dalai lama, being a di.ldwells in divine tranquility in a vine person can find no better building that is both temple and lodging than the body of his suc-palace. If some of his votaries cessor; or the Foe, residing in the in modern times have dispensed dalai lama, which passes to his with the adoration of his person, successor: and this being a god, to still certain real modifications of whom all things are known, the the Shaka religion is the only faith dalai lama is therefore acquaint- they follow. The state of sanctity ed with every thing which hap-which that religion inculcates, pened during his residence in his consists in monastic continence, former body.

absence of thought, and the perThis religion is said to have fect repose of nonentity. been of three thousand years It has been observed that the standing; and neither time, nor religion of Thibet is the counthe influence of men, has had the terpart of the Roman Catholic, power oi shaking the authority of since the inhabitants of that counthe grand lama. This theocracy try use holy water and a singing extends as fully to temporal as to service : they also offer alms, spiritual concerns.

prayers and sacrifices for the Though, in the grand sovereign.dead. 'They have a vast number ty of the lamas, the temporal pow. lof convents filled with monks and er has been occasionally separated friars, amounting to thirty thoufrom the spiritual by slight revo- sand ; who besides the three vows lutions, they have always been of poverty, obedience, and chaunited again after a time ; so that rity, make several others. They in Thibet the whole constitution have theirconfessors, who are chorests on the imperial pontificate in sen by their superiors, and have a manner elsewhere unknown.licences from their lamas, with. For as the Thibetians suppose out which they cannot hear conthat the grand lama is animated fessions or impose penances. They by the god Shaka, or Foe, who make use of beads. They wear at the decease of one lama trans- the mitre and cap like the bishops; migrates into the next, and conse- and their dalai lama is nearly the crates him an image of the divini- same among them as the sovereign ty, the descending chain of lamas pontiff is among the Romanists; is continued down from him in LAMBETH ARTICLES. fixed degrees of sanctity; so thau See ARTICLES. a more firmly established sacerdo- LAMPETIANS, a denomina. tal government, in doctrine, cus- tion in the seventeenth century,the toms, and institutions, than actu followers of Lampetius, a Syrian ally reigns over this country, can- monk. He pretended that as man not be conceived. The supreme is born free, a Christian, in order manager of temporal affairs is noto please God, ought to do nomore than the viceroy of the so- thing by necessity; and that it vereign priest, who, conformable is, therefore, unlawful to make


vows, even those of obedience.||tongues be not the vehicles of vain To this system he added the doc. and useless matter, but used for trines of the Arians, Carpocra- the great end of glorifying him, tians, and other denominations. and doing good to mankind. What

LANGUAGE, in general, de was the first language taught man, notes those articulate sounds bylis matter of dispute among the which men express their thoughts.learned, but most think it was the Much has been said respecting the Hebrew. But as this subject, and invention of language. On the one the article in general, belongs side it is observed that it is alto more to philology than divinity, gether a human invention and that we refer the reader to Dr. Adam the progress of the mind, in the in-Smith's Dissertation on the Forvention and improvement of lan-mation of Languages; Harris's guage, is, hy certain natural gra-Hermes ; Warburton's Divine Ledarious, plainly discernible in the gation of Moses, vol. iii. Traite de composition of words. But on la Formation Mechaniques des Lanthe other side it is alleged, that gues, par le President de Brosses ; we are indebted to divine revela-Blair's Rhetoric, vol. i, lect. vi ; tion for the origin of it. With Gregory's Ess. ess. 6; Lord Monout supposing this we see not how boddo on the Origin and Progress our first parents could so earlyllof Language. hold converse with God, or the LATITUDINARIAN,a perman with his wife. Admitting|son not conforming to any partihowever, that it is of divine origi- cular opinion or standard, but of nal, we cannot suppose that a such moderation as to suppose that perfect system of it was all at people will be admitted into heaonce given to man. It is much ven, although of different persuamore natural to think that Godsions. The term was more espetaught our first parents only such cially applied to those pacific language as suited their present octors in the seventeenth cenoccasion, leaving them, as he did tury, who offered themselves as in oiher hings, to enlarge and mediators between the more vioimprove it as their fuiure necessi-lent Episcopalians, and the rigid ties should require. Without at. Presbyterians and Independents, tempuing, however, to decide this respecting the forms of church controvers', we may consider lan-government, public worship, and guage as one of the greatest bless certain religious tenets, more esings belonging to mankind. Dspecially those that were debated titute of this we should make but between the Arminians and Calsmall advancements in science, bevinists. The chief leaders of these lost to all social enjoyments, and Latitudinarians were Hales and religion itself would feel the wanı Chillingworth; but More, Cudof such a power. Our wise Crea-worth, Gale, Whitchcot, and tor, therefore, has conferred up. Tillotson, were also among the on us this inestimable privilege number. These men, although let us, then, be cautious that our firmly attached to the church of


England, did not go so far as|| LAW, a rule of action ; a preto look upon it as of divine insti-lept or command coming from a tution, and hence they maintain superior authority, which an infeed that those who followed other|rior is bound to obey. The manforms of government and worship ner in which God governs rationwere not on that account to be al crea:ures is by a law, as the excluded from their communioro ule of their obedience to hiin, As to the doctrical part of reli- and which is what we call God's gion, they took the system of Epis-moral government of the world. copius for their model, and like He gave a law to angels, which him, reduced the fundamentaisome of them kept, and have been doctrines of christianity to a few confirmed in a state of obedience points; and by this manner of|co it; but which others broke, and proceeding they endeavoured to thereby plunged themselves into shew the contending parties destruction and misery. He gave that they had no reason to oppose also, a law to Adam, and which each other with such animosity was in the form of a covenant, and bitterness, since the subjects and in which Adam stood as a coof their debates were matters of venant head to all his posterity, an indifferent nature with respect Rom. v. Gen. ii. But our first pato salvation. They met, however, rents soon violated that law, and with opposition for their pains,fell from a state of innocence to and were branded as Atheists and a state of sin and misery, Hos. Deists by some, and as Socinians|vi, 7. Gen. iii. See Pall. by others ; but upon the restora- Positive laws are precepts which tion of Charles II, they were|are not founded upon any reasons raised to the first dignities of the known to those to whom they are church, and were held in consi-given. Thus in the state of inderable esteem. See Burnet's His. nocence God gave the law of of his own Times, vol. i, b. 11, p. the sabbath ; of abstinence from 188; Mosheim's Ecc. Hist. vol. the fruit of the tree of knowledge, ii, p. 501, quarto edit.

&c. LAURA, in church history, a Law of nature is the will of name given to a collection of little God relating to human actions, cells at some distance from each grounded in the moral differences other, in which the hermits of an- of things, and, because discoveracient times lived together in able by natural light, obligatory wilderness. These hermits did upon all mankind, Rom. i. 20. not live in community, but each Rom. ii, 14, 15. This law is comonk provided for himself in his leval with the human race, binding distinct cell. The most celebrated||all over the globe, and at all times; lauras mentioned in ecclesiasticalvet through the corruption of reahistory were in Palestine ; as the on, it is insufficient to lead us to laura of St. Euthymus, St. Saba, happiness, and utterly unable to the laura of the towers, &c.

acquaint us how sin is to be forgiven, without the assistance of|to it, we can have no knowledge revelation.

of sin. Christ himself came not Ceremonial law is that which to destroy, but to fulfil it ; and prescribed the rites of worships|though we cannot do as he did, yet used under the Old Testament.we are commanded to follow his These rites were typical of Christ. lxample. Love to God is the end and were obligatory only till of the moral law, as well as the Christ had finished his work, and end of the gospel. By the law, began to erect his gospel church, also, we are led to see the nature Heb. vii, 9, 11. Heb. x, 1. Eph.of holiness, and our own depraviii, 16. Col. ii, 14. Gal. v, 2, 3. ty, and learn to be humbled under

Judiial law was that which a sense of our imperfection. We directed the policy of the Jewish|are not under it however as a conation, as under the peculiar do-venant of works, Gal. iii, 13. or as minion of God, as their supreme la source of terror, Rom. viii, 1. al. magistrate ; and never, except in though we must abide by it, togethings relative to moral equity,ther with the whole perceptive was binding on any but the He-word of God as the rule of our brew nation.

conduct, Rom. iii, 31. Rom. vii. Moral law is that declaration Laws directive are laws without of God's will which directs and any punishment annexed to them. binds all men, in every age and Luws penal, such as have some place, their whole duty to him. penalty to enforce them. All the It was most solemnly proclaimed laws of God are and cannot but by God himself at Sinai, to con- be penal, because every breach of firin the original law of nature, his law is sin, and meritorious of and correct men's mistakes con- punishment. cerning the demands of it. It is Law of honour is a system denominated perfect, Psal. xix, 7. of rules constructed by people of perpetual, Mat. v, 17, 18. holy, fashion, and calculated to faciliRom. vii, 12. good, Rom. vii, 12. tate their intercourse with one spiritual, Rom. vii, 14. exceeding another, and for no other purbroad, Psal. cxix, 96. Some deny pose. Consequently nothing is that it is a rule of conduct to be adverted to by the law of honour lievers under the gospel dispensa- but what tends to incommode this tion ; but it is easy to see the full intercourse. Hence this law only tility of such an idea ; for as a prescribes and regulates the duties transcript of the mind of God, betwixt equals, omitting such as it must be the criterion of relate to the Supreme Being as moral good and evil. It is also well as those which we owe to our given for that very purpose, that inferiors. In fact, this law of we may see our duty, and abstain honour in most instances, is fafrom every thing derogatory tovourable to the licentious indulthe divine glory. It affords us gence of the natural passions. grand ideas of the holiness and Thus it allows of fornication,adulpurity of God: without attention cery, drunkenness, prodigality,

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