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tric fluid which flows from such an immense body and forms an atmosphere different from those which surround the smaller orbs of the Moon and Earth. It is a painful reflection to think, that the great body of Philosophers, who devote their time to the study of astronomy and chemistry, should so far bend to the superstitions of the day as to suppress their better knowledge of the error and falsehood of those superstitions. Dr. Halley, I believe, has been the only English Astronomer who ventured to decry those superstitions, and I am not aware of one chemist who has been “ bold enough to be honest, and bonest enough to be bold."

When we read the Mosaic account of the creation, when we read of Joshua and Isaiah stopping the course of this planetary system of which we are a part, when we read of Paul and Mahomet travelling into different heavens, astronomy compels us to receive it all as fiction, and to reject the books, which contain such nonsense, with contempt. All the pretended appearances of Gods, Angels, and Ghosts, are now known to be as many fictions, and still, in spite of our better knowledge, we are subject to penal laws, for not paying respect to that which our minds irresistibly hold to be falsehood, and disgraceful to the age and the advanced state of sientific knowledge. Sir Isaac Newton was as great a fanatic as a mathematician, but be began to suspect those holy books, and from a bigoted Calvinistic christian be verged into Socinianism before his death, which at that time amounted to heresy and blasphemy. If the mind of Sir Isaac Newton had been free from superstition in his youth, he would have made a much greater progress in bis astropomical discoveries. Simple as are those few observations, I advance them as sufficient to reject all pretended holy books, words of God-inspired writings, and all such nonsense.

And now, Sir Robert, you will say that in recapitulating the priociples of the Republican, I have made a Preface as well as a Dedication : but it should be recollected that we despise all established customs that are not founded in good. reason. I am sure that you will never be ashamed of this

epitome of my principles, on which you were so ready to be. stow your patrona ze. In taking leave of you under the title of“ Tbe Republican,” I return you my thanks for all favours conferred upon it, and I now dedicate the whole of the four volumes to your patronage. They contain principles and statements which I shall never be ashamed of, as I have stu. died to give them a foundation in nature. I shall re-assume the publication immediately when I can send them through the coinmou channels of publication, and my chief motive for dropping it is, that under the present system no vendor can sell it without the risk of a prison or exile. I may have occasion again to address you, but in the mean time I must inform you that I bave an admirable defence for Mrs. Car-, lile, against your Ex-oficio Information for the protection oi tyrants and tyranny; and the way I advise Mrs. C. to make her defence is to print it at once, as it is a folly either for you or me to observe common rules. I am, Sir Robert, in dutiful remembrance, Your faithful Supporter,

R. CARLILE. Dorchester Gaol, Dec. 23, Christi Missa Di.s, 182,

Che Republican.

No. 1, Vol. 4.] LONDON, FRIDAY, SEPT. 1, 1820. [PRICE 6p.


In our last we took notice, that the evidence adduced against the Queen, and the virulent charge of the AttorneyGeneral, fell far short of what slander bad propagated for several months before. Since writing our last article, the evidence, instead of being strengthened, has tended only to invalidate that of Theodore Majochi, or Signor Non mi ricordo. Every thing seems calculated to give the Queen an honourable acquittal, except the known partiality of her judges and jurors, and it is now become doubtful whether they can, consistent with their own and their master's safety, gratify his disposition. We confess that we feel surprize at the nature of the evidence sworn to: we feel astonishment, not at its force, but at its total want of weight to support the preamble of the bill. If every thing sworn to was literally and in fact true, it amounts to nothing, it is rather honourable than otherwise to the Queen. Its whole purport is, that she is a feeling woman, and has had the humanity to visit her servants when sick, and to comfort them by her kindness and attention. Her conduct is regulated by a species of familiarity among her domestics, that rather ennobles than degrades the possesser of wealth and distinction. Affability and fellow-feeling is her only crime, and we sincerely hope that she may long live to retain it, and to cherish such a disposition. It is not to be questioned that her attachment and familiarity was stronger towards Bergami than any other of her servants, and

VOL IV. No. 1.

Printed and Published by J. CARLILE, 55, Fleet Streci.

very natural too. She was a lone and persecuted woman, and stood in need of the confidence and protection of some gentleman, or some person in the character of a man. Every thing that has appeared in evidence respecting Bergami is highly advantageous to his character, and to that of the Queen in distinguishing him above her other servants. It is evident that he managed all her affairs with the strictest economy during his Chamberlainship, and resigned his office at a time and a place the most honourable to himself and to the Queen. The Queen's life has long been sought, and a reward held out for it, and it was but natural for her, even in self-defence, to have a confidential protector always near her person; and, for our parts, we think, that under such circumstances, his sleeping in the adjoining room, or under the same tent, was perfectly justifiable and requisite Her husband has continually had assassins dogging her, and is it not natural, that when she found so confidential a servant as Bergami, she should wish to have him at all times as near her as possible? We say that it was perfectly natural for the Queen to make him her friend, her confident, and even her equal in appearance, in the peculiar situation in which she stood. It is absolutely necessary, that a person so continually exposed to danger and insult as the Queen has been, should have a male friend continually with her, to whom she could unfold the sorrows of her bosom, and from whom she could imbibe a sincere consolation and condolence. The Queen, instead of being a licentious woman, has, in fact, been for the last five-and-twenty years, a martyr to her own virtue, and the vice of her husband. Her natural spirits were strong, which has only tended to irritate the feelings of her husband, because that he could not destroy her by breaking her heart, and sending her to a premature grave with grief. The Queen's triumph now seems certain-the nation has already acquitted her; and it matters but little what decision the House of Lords might come to on the subject. Seven persons have been examined up to the time of writing this, and each seems to invalidate the testimony of the former. The Attorney General's charge was a most vicious one, and such as evinced his character and feeling on the occasion :-he knows well that all his prospects are as much at stake as those of the Queen, and more so, for she may overthrow her enemies, but the Attorney General has damned himself to all intents and purposes-he can never rise after this business in public esLeem, whatever name he may take, or in whatever shape he

might appear in future. He has displayed such malignity on the occasion, as has not been surpassed by old Eldon. He has treated the Queen in a manner that no manly advocate would treat a female, whatever was her fault or her condition in life.

His assertions, as to the Queen's conduct, have been by no means borne out by the evidence, unless he had expected that they would have sworn in a more positive and decisive manner, and it seems that the Italians have been well drilled too by Mr. Maule; but unfortunately they have been taught to use the word Non mi ricordo rather too much, or, at least, they do not know when they should use it and when they should not. The fellows have coufessed that they have been drilled; they have confessed that they have had a rehearsal at the bar of the House, they have confessed the enormous profits they expect to make by their swearing; some 1000 dollars per month, some 800, and so on, and yet the whole of their swearing amounts to nothing. How different is the evidence of the two English Captains to that of the Italians. Captains Pechell and Briggs might rather be considered witnesses in favour of the Queen than against her, and why the AttorneyGeneral called them, no one but himself can conceive. She sailed in each of their ships, and neither of them ever saw any improper familiarity between her and Bergami, and to this they swore, when the contrary would have been a sure road to promotion for them. We must consider that the AttorneyGeneral brought forward those gentlemen merely as a relief to the public from the nausea of his scamping, perjured, and beggarly Italians. Perjury was never clearer proved than in the swearing of Theodore Majochi. The Attorney-General's interpreter said in court, that he (Majochi) was a mere jester, or a professed liar, and if the House of Lords intends to make a shew of justice, the public may, by-and-by, expect this fellow in the pillory, which will form a fine treat for them, to express their execration of such characters. He was sworn that he did not understand a word of English, whereas, he, last year, actually lived as servant in an English family in Gloucestershire, and we all know, that however dull an indi.vidual may be in speaking in a foreign idiom, he very soon understands the drift of a discourse when others are speakingWe have known a Dane to declare that he did not know a word of English on first coming to this country, but that in a fortnight he could understand the meaning of all that was said in his presence, although he could not express himself in the language for some months after.

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