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Vol. XV.


No. 1.

should be addressed:


instructors themselves were, of all men, the most eager BULLETIN OF PHARMACY

to raise the standard of preliminary education, to ex

clude the ignorant and illiterate, to improve the quality Editor: JOSEPH HELFMAN.

of their instruction, to do their honest duty by the better Associate EDITOR: HARRY B. MASON.

half of their classes, to augment the value of their

diplomas, to make their degrees a coveted distinction, SUBSCRIPTION,

$1.00 PER YEAR.

to equip their pupils not for examination but for life! That we had not reckoned unwisely is shown plainly by

the number of letters from college teachers now appearAll articles for publication and all communications bearing on the text

ing in these pages. It is highly creditable to the teachEDITOR BULLETIN OF PHARMACY,

ers of pharmacy that the risk of a pecuniary sacrifice Box 484, DETROIT, MICH. abates not a particle their assent to a sound principle All business letters should be addressed:

nor their ardent desire for a wholesome reform. Their WILLIAM M. WARREN, Publisher,

communications make encouraging reading. Naturally DETROIT, MICH. enough they lay at other doors a proper share in the

accountability. It is, unhappily, only too true that the EDITORIAL.

druggist is himself often to blame for the admission of the glaringly unfit. It lies with the druggist to elevate

or debauch his calling by exhibiting a proper concern, TERMS OF ADMISSION TO SCHOOL AND COLLEGE.

or no concern at all, for the character of his apprentices. Among the many letters evoked by our present dis. The druggist who admits into his pharmacy as apprencussion respecting the measure of education that should tice an ignorant dunce who will “work cheap" has no open to the young student the doors of a reputable col- right to quarrel with the rankest specimen of a cramlege of pharmacy, we have now before us one which ming shop. Then, too, the Boards are far from blame. with a fierce and somewhat cynical indignation pays its less. The remedy for illiteracy and incompetency is compliments to certain cramming schools whose only largely in their hands. The fear is sometimes ex. thought is the passing of the board examination. The pressed that if they venture to use their power for good, writer approves our recent editorial, “but," he inquires an unsympathetic public sentiment will sweep them and skeptically, “what good will it do? There are 'schools' their laws out of existence. We fail to perceive the that seek denunciation. It advertises them. It tells danger or a single instance of its realization. We have young men where the quick and easies' are to be yet to find a State in which the life of the Board has found. They live by their shame, and the greater the been actually imperilled by the demand that all applishame the richer the living."

cants for a license to practice pharmacy must be able to With such educational carrion we have nothing to do. figure accurately, to spell correctly, and to exhibit the The cramming schools which pretend to prepare the general knowledge of an intelligent grammar - school student for the Board examination in a few weeks are graduate. We hardly fancy that public resentment is wholly beyond and beneath the range of the present likely to be soon incurred by any Board in the United discussion. We are dealing with possible reforms in States-for the severity of its requirements ! reputable colleges manned by self-respecting teachers. By some of our correspondents it is justly contended In broaching the subject we were convinced that the that it would be a hardship to keep out of college cer

tain poor and earnest young men whose early advan- what means the practical work in dispensing was carried tages for education had been scanty, and who, though on; and he is reported as having announced the decision ill - prepared at the beginning, soon make good their of his board at that time. deficiencies and are graduated among the leaders of This is all very gratifying indeed. For there is no the class. Students of this stamp sometimes make the doubt that manipulative work should be included in brightest ornaments of college and calling. To bar every State board examination. A surprising percentage their way would be educational snobbery. Very true, of the applicants who appear before the boards are indeed. We see no sound objection to the making of nothing but “crammers" — boys who have fiendishly judicious exceptions provided they are made not for rammed the contents of quiz compends down their revenue, and in good faith; provided the promising stu- throats; who have gotten board questions, either from a dent who falls short of the entrance standard is rigidly previous examination or from the journals, and then "conditioned;" provided the conditions are faithfully hunted the answers and packed these down on top of worked off; provided both degree and diploma are with the quiz compend material; and who have simply filled held until all the requirements have been satisfied. In themselves with a lot of undigestible, unrelated, usedulgence and consideration are pardonable in dealing less word-formulas that are the very antipodes of real with worthy beginners; at graduation, they are a dis- knowledge. And, unfortunately, valueless and uncredit to the school.

nourishing as this material is to the applicant, it very A number of very interesting communications in this often enables him to pass successfully the gauntlet of and in the next issue of the BULLETIN will close the the board and issue forth with his registration certificate discussion for the present. That we shall have occasion under his arm. Too often the board examination does to return to the topic in the future is very probable. not discriminate between the man with real knowledge In the meantime we are not ill content with the imme. and him with the spurious; too often, indeed, the quizdiate result of the argument, and we have too much compend fiend has the advantage, because questions are faith in the future of pharmaceutical education to doubt asked dealing with isolated facts, into which his mem. that it will soon witness the moderate measure of reform orized word-formulas exactly fit. which we earnestly advocate. No young man is fit to One way to avoid this unfortunate condition of things study pharmacy until he has mastered the rudiments of is to ask questions which test the genuineness of the a sound English education. That is painfully little. To student's knowledge; which call upon his capacity to exact less is to render our technical education a farce reason with, and apply, his knowledge; which deterbeside which the “commercial education” of our busi mine, in short, whether he is possessed of word-formulas ness colleges may be regarded as a fountain of light and that he can repeat parrot-like but does not understand, learning.

or whether he has real knowledge that he can use and direct to emergency. This, we say, is one way to dis

cover and “pluck" the professional crammer. Another IMPORTANT AND ESSENTIAL- PRACTICAL EXAMINATIONS BY BOARDS OF PHARMACY.

way is to subject him to an examination in practical

dispensing. Give him an emulsion to make; have him The new “All-State” Board of Pharmacy in New dispense a prescription in which there is involved some York which came into legal existence the first of the difficulty that should be avoided; in short, make him do present month, succeeding the three sectional boards of work which will (a) show his manipulative skill, and which Erie County (Buffalo), Greater New York, and the rest will also (6) disclose his ability to avoid or discover inof the State, has decided to include practical dispensing compatibilities, errors in dosage and in solubility, and operations in its examinations. The applicant will be other things of like nature. You can soon find out, in surrounded with the tools of his art; work will be given the first place, whether your applicant knows anything him to perform; and then it will be seen how well he of the practical side of his art, and, in the second place, acquits himself in the things which the practicing phar. whether he is a mere quiz-compend crammer incapable macist has daily to do. A few other State boards, prom- of using and applying the knowledge which he seems to inent among which are those of Illinois and Connecticut, have so conveniently on the end of his tongue. The have included this practical work in their examinations for practical test is by no means conclusive; it cannot, in a number of years. In Massachusetts the idea has been and of itself alone, determine the applicant's competency; discussed for a considerable time, and upon one occasion and entire dependence should therefore not be placed it was definitely announced that it would be adopted. upon it. But it is a most valuable part of the board Nothing has so far been done in that State, however, examination and certainly should always be included in although it is now declared that the board has decided it, not only for the reasons which have been set forth to carry the plan into effect at an early date. President in the foregoing, but for others which are almost Nixon several weeks ago attended an examination held equally cogent, and which space forbids our presentby the Connecticut board in order to see how and with ing at this time.

evil, and the to make their apiran Druggist.


them to prevent, so far as they may, the furtherance of

this awful curse. In one report it was stated that certain Within the past year we have from time to time told

druggists, situated in the "low" quarters of one of the of the horrible extent to which the negroes and low

Southern cities, “not only openly cater to the unforwhites of certain districts in the South have become

tunate wretches who have already become victims, but addicted to the use of cocaine, and, to a lesser degree,

lend their aid in leading the uninitiated and uninformed of morphine also. Reports indicating the further spread

into the path that kills.” We are convinced that this of the evil, and the unrestricted sale of these narcotics to

could be true of no reputable pharmacist; no pharmacist habitués, continue to make their appearance. A Chat

worthy of his responsible position in society would be tanooga correspondent of the American Druggist tells a

guilty of such a heinous moral crime. harrowing story of the conditions as they exist in that city. “In one section of Chattanooga, situated in the lower quarters," he says, “is a place known to the police

A SUGGESTION. as 'Cocaine Alley.' In this den of vice and filth, ex

Dr. George M. Gould, the eminent editor of the Philatending about four blocks, will be found at night any

delphia Medical Journal, recently reported in the editorial where from three to four hundred persons, mostly black,

columns of his paper the following experience: “Some but with a fair sprinkling of whites, all ‘snuffing' co

time ago we had occasion to call at a 'spice factory,' caine and lying around in every conceivable state of

and were struck by the fact that hundreds of tons of depravity. These habitués buy the drug throughout

marble chippings were being pulverized and used in the the night, in amounts ranging from five to fifty cents'

manufacture of all sorts of 'Ground Spices. We also worth. So general has the use of the drug become

learned that the floor sweepings of such factories were among this class that our local council has recently

cently regular articles of commerce, and listed at graded prices enacted an ordinance prohibiting its sale except on the

-We suppose according to the varying quantities of prescription of a physician; but since there is no law to

disease germs, dirt, and marble dust in them." Spices prevent the refilling of prescriptions, one prescription

are notoriously adulterated as found in the market, but can be made to do service for the entire community."

that the sophistication extends to this degree will be a There is no doubt that the cocaine evil in the South,

matter of surprise, we fancy, to even those who are and to a lesser extent in certain other sections of the

fairly well informed of the circumstances. In this concountry, is spreading rapidly, and that vigorous efforts

nection we would repeat again our belief that there is should at once be made to check it so far as possible by an excellent opportunity presented pharmacists to make surrounding the sale of the substance with effective re

capital out of this state of affairs. Keep pure spices; strictions. The need of bringing these restrictions about

convince the public that they are vastly better than has been more or less vaguely discussed in some States

those sold generally by grocers and others; make it a for two or three years, but so far nothing of moment has

professional issue, and we warrant that you will build been done, except that in several of the southern cities

up a nice trade in this direction. ordinances have been passed permitting druggists to sell cocaine and morphine only upon presentation of a physician's prescription. It would seem from what the

A WAY TO GET RID OF OPIUM DENS. Chattanooga correspondent says, however, that these It will be remembered that some months ago an ordinances may perhaps not have proved effective, and Illinois court decided that the underground representathat all such laws should be reenfored with a provision tives of the Celestial kingdom who kept opium dens in which would make it illegal for a cocaine prescription to Chicago were violating the pharmacy law, which rebe refilled except upon the written request of the physi- stricted the sale of such substances to registered pharcian himself. We should like to see the various State macists, and that the Board of Pharmacy, with the pharmaceutical associations, through their legislative assistance of the police, began hunting the pigtails out committees, take this matter up during the coming and bringing them to justice. More recently a Boston legislative year, and try to secure the passage of suit. Chinaman has been arrested two or three times for the able and sufficiently drastic laws. Measures have al. repeated sale of opium. Good! Let the beneficent ready been introduced in the legislatures of Georgia, work go on! There is no doubt that in dispensing pipe Alabama, and Tennessee, and we trust they will be dreams, quite as much as in handing opium over the followed by many others in additional States. Legis- counter in a definite sale, the pharmacy laws are violation will not entirely correct the cocaine evil, but, if lated, and that this view would be held in any State in properly constructed and vigorously enforced, it will ac- the Union. Here, then, is presented an opportunity in complish much toward that end."

our great cities to eradicate, in part at least, the vicious Meanwhile, pharmacists should, as we believe they do opium dens that ruin so many lives and blast so many in general, realize the moral obligation resting upon bright futures.


much as could well be attempted at the outset. * * * The “assistant” pharmacists who were provided for

under one or more of the preceding laws in New York THE NEW YORK “ALL-STATE" LAW IN OPERATION.

are succeeded in the new law by “druggists;" the differ

ent classes of persons now recognized being “pharmaThe “all - State" pharmacy law of New York went cists." "drugoists" a

cists," "druggists,” and “apprentices." “Druggists" into effect with the beginning of the year. The three

are entitled to practice and have full charge of stores in boards and three laws formerly existent were replaced towns of five hundred or less anywhere in the State; but by one board and one law having entire jurisdiction over

in towns of greater population they must serve under the State. This is an accomplishment long looked for

licensed "pharmacists,” and can only have temporary ward to by those interested in the welfare of pharmacy

charge during the absence of the latter. Nor can drugin New York; for it has been realized that the interests

gists serve at all in New York City. All pharmacists neither of the pharmacists nor of the public were prop

licensed before the operation of the new law will of erly guarded by three standards within the State, and

course be allowed to continue in practice; though, unless by the confusion and lack of definiteness which naturally

ich naturally they hold their license by virtue of having passed an resulted. The new law, while open to criticism in some

examination, they will not be permitted to practice outparticulars, is on the whole generally regarded as being a

side that section of the State to which their license good one. Its most important provision is that in which

applied, except, of course, they now pass the examinait requires the annual registration, under rather severe

tion. This simply preserves to those who were originally conditions, not of pharmacists themselves, but of every licensed by virtue of being in business at the time the pharmacy, store, dispensary, or place where medicines

various laws were passed the rights then given them, are sold. Before a pharmacist will be given this annual

without enlarging those rights through the abolition of registration of his store he must satisfy the board that

the three pharmaceutical sections of the State and the the store is conducted in full compliance with the law.

establishment of uniform conditions. * * * The Each proprietor must give the name of every “pharma

new board of pharmacy has, it is reported, decided to cist," "druggist,” and “apprentice” employed in the

include practical dispensing operations in its examinastore, and when and how each was registered. If this

tions; this commendable decision we have discussed information is satisfactory the store will then be regis

editorially in another column. tered upon payment of a fee of $2. By these means the board prevents, or hopes to prevent, fraudulent reregistrations; moreover, it provides itself with a complete record of the number of "pharmacists," "drug

THE N. A. R. D.: GREATER NEW YORK AND VICINITY. gists," and "apprentices" in the State, of where each is The N. A. R. D. situation in Greater New York is employed, and of how many registered employees there apparently developing successfully. A second meetare in every store in the State. This record will be of ing of the Joint Conference Committee was held the invaluable assistance in looking up complaints of vio- middle of last month. Contrary to expectations, the lations of the law, and in other exigencies. * * * German Apothecaries' Society was not represented; by a Provision is made in the law for a class of “apprentices;" vote of 29 to 21 it had decided that it could not consistand these must also be registered. The board is given ently join in the movement after having withdrawn from authority by the law to establish proper requirements for the N. A. R. D. It is understood, however, that the apprentices; and if the reports be true it has decided on society, collectively and individually, is in favor of the making a 15-year age minimum, and requiring evidence movement to prevent cutting, and that, when the plan is of the completion of a grammar - school course or its finally in operation, it will support it. Representatives equivalent. If the board firmly enforces this educational of the other four pharmaceutical associations of the requirement, great praise will be due it. The most greater city were present at the conference, and all effective way to correct the low preliminary require agreed upon organizing the city and putting the N. A. ments which have done and are doing so much to cripple R. D. plan into operation as soon as possible. A minipharmacy and to hold her back from receiving her own, mum price-list schedule was finally adopted, which will is to apply the remedy at the root of the evil. Begin be put into effect as soon as the blockade is established. with the apprentice who is to become the future phar. This list provides that all 5., 10., and 15-cent articles macist; and do not let him enter the calling at all until shall be sold at full prices; all 25.cent articles at not less he has that degree of education which will fit him to than 20 cents; all 35 - cent articles at not less than 25 study the facts of pharmacy with comprehension, and cents; all 50-cent articles at not less than 45 cents; all which will prepare him to safeguard the interests of the 60-cent articles at not less than 55 cents; all 75-cent public. A grammar - school standard is admittedly not articles at not less than 65 cents; all $1 articles at not a high one, but it is at least a good beginning and as less than 85 cents; all $1.25 articles at not less than $1.10; all $1.50 articles at not less than $1.25; and all at Norristown for Montgomery county. * * * The $2.00 articles at not less than $1.75. It was voted to “Hamilton County" association in Ohio has widened make this schedule cover everything save infant foods its scope to include the entire Ohio valley, comprising and beef extracts, which were not thought to be really the southern portion of Ohio and Indiana, and the proprietary articles. An executive committee, composed northern portion of West Virginia and Kentucky. The of one representative from each association, was ap- name of the body has been changed to the “Ohio Valley pointed; and two or three days later this committee met Druggists' Association." The methods of the Northern and made arrangements to begin a thorough and system. Ohio association have been adopted, an organizer ematic canvass of the city at once. As soon as the can- ployed, and an office opened in Cincinnati. The sucvass is completed, if 75 per cent of the druggists have cesses of the Northern Ohio association will doubtless been secured, the price schedule will be put into effect. be repeated. * * * Another attempt to accomplish * * * Meanwhile, the New York jobbers are appar- something has been made in Baltimore. At the semiently giving loyal support to the retailers, and firmly annual meeting of the State Pharmaceutical Association, adhering to the resolutions which they themselves held last month, a committee was appointed to arrange passed at their notable meeting held in November. It a price schedule and to employ a canvasser to submit it was reported last month that a number of druggists who to the druggists of the city. * * * We learn from a had always been in the habit of buying their proprie- report in a Columbus (Ohio) paper, the authenticity of taries direct from the manufacturers tried to do so then, which we cannot vouch for, that “several of the memwith the result that their orders were returned; and that bers” of the Columbus association have been found the jobbers of the city, too, refused to fill orders which violating the local agreement, and that they will conviolated in any way the tripartite agreement. * * * sequently be expelled from membership in accordance The activity of the associations across the river in New with the laws of the association. * * * Concerning Jersey, and in other places around New York, which the situation in Indianapolis, Detroit, and Minneapolis, was considered at some length in the last BULLETIN, where price schedules have now been successfully continues; in two or three cases, as with the associa adhered to for some time, there is nothing new to retions of Essex county and of Jersey City, a price schedule port; things are apparently proceeding harmoniously in has been put into successful operation. The other asso. all three places. * * * The Minneapolis association ciations have adopted schedules and will put them into is at this writing arranging for a banquet to be given effect as soon as the work of organization has been com- some time during the present month. * * * Assopleted. These schedules, as far as we can discover, are ciations have recently been formed with successful in nearly or exact agreement with the Greater New results in Bay City and Battle Creek, towns in this York schedule given above. * * * Largely through State. Full prices have been restored in both places; the efforts of Mr. J. C. Gallagher, one of the prominent the only qualification to this statement being that in workers for the N. A. R. D. in New Jersey, an energetic Bay City full prices on a few staples handled by the association has been formed in Paterson, which has had department stores have not been secured. It is hoped the reputation, we believe, of being an incorrigible cut that these stores will soon be brought into line, however. rate center. Paterson contains thirty drug stores; and one of the reports of the second meeting of the associa

THE PENNSYLVANIA PROSECUTIONS. tion contained the statement that every retailer in the city was present either in person or through a repre

The prosecution of druggists in Pennsylvania for failsentative.

ure to keep their renewal certificates displayed in their stores, and for other alleged violations of the pharmacy

law, inaugurated by the State Board of Pharmacy, conTHE N. A. R. D.: AFFAIRS IN VARIOUS CITIES.

tinues, after two or three months of excitement, to be a The Philadelphia price schedule has not yet been put matter of general concern and interest. The action of into effect; it will be brought forward at this month's the board in dismissing the cases of a large number of meeting of the body for final revision and formal adop- Philadelphia druggists who declared that they were tion. Meanwhile, the N. A. R. D. plan seems to be ignorant of having violated the law, apparently alle“working" in Philadelphia. At any rate, the one cutter viated most of the hostility which was expressed against in the city who has refused to cooperate with the asso. the board in some quarters in Philadelphia. Inasmuch, ciation in any way has evidently found it difficult to get however, as a number of other cases were afterward goods, for he has sued the association for conspiracy. carried through to conviction and the imposition of a We speak of this in another paragraph. The Philadel penalty, the board still came in for a share of rather phia association is doing excellent work in assisting in severe comment. A "mass” meeting was held by a the formation of county associations about Philadelphia; number of druggists who felt hostile to the board, and four of these have now been formed, the last one being at this resolutions condemning the board were passed,

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