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HENRY PHARMACAL CO., 121 Vine St., ST. LOUIS, MO. A Monthly Journal Published in the Interests of Women Physicians

VOLUME XXVII
SUMBER 3

March, 1917

| $2 per year in advanco | Single Copies, 20 conto

Original Articles.

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out by the WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOURNAL to the State medical societies, medical colleges, etc., in

the United States and Canada. The questionaire THE FIELD FOR WOMEN OF TODAY IN

was as comprehensive as possible in order to MEDICINE.

cover the various phases of the subject which BY MARY SUTTON MACY, M.D.,

had been brought out by my numerous corre. NEW YORK,

spondents.

QUESTIONAIRE.
Neurologist, Demilt Dispensary; Assistant Consultant in
Medicine, Children's Hospitals and Schools,

Information Concerning the Field for Women of
Randall's Island.

Today in Medicine, In February, 1916, I undertook, at the request

1. (a) How many physicians and surgeons are licensed

in your State?....... of the editor of the WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOURNAL,

(b) How many of them are women ?.........

womeu ....................

(a) How many physicians are members of your State a research into the opportunities of today which

(b) How many of them are women ?.... were available to medical women, and in the

(c) How many officers in your State Medical Society ? introductory outline of the subject I said:

(d) Are any of them women? If so, what positions

are so filled ? If not now, have women held such “So much has appeared of late in the secular

office at any time in the past, and when, and for

how long? .... press, and to some extent in the medical press

(a) How many County Medical Societies in your state also, as to the opportunities open to women in

(b) How many officers in your own County Medical

Society? ............. the profession, their physical and mental fitness

(c) Are any of them women? If so, what positions do

they fill? If not now, have women held offices in for the general practice of medicine, that it has

past? When and what office, and for how long seemed advisable to give the subject a rather

a term, or how many terms?...

(a) Have you any Medical Colleges in your State?.... thorough and, I hope, unprejudiced going over,

(b) Are they connected with Unlversities ?.

(c) Are they co-educational ?......... with a view to establishing certain facts in our

(d) Do women hold positions as professors, assistants,

or lecturers in such colleges ? own minds as well as in the public mind.

If so, what posi

tions, and state the names of the women holding Sometimes a group of people preen thein

them? . ....

What is the relative proportion of medical men selves unduly upon what they are doing or

and medical women on the college faculty and in

the classes? have done in a given field, and then suddenly

(a) How many State Hospitals have you in your State ? their eyes are opened by some little unlooked for

b) Does the State law require a woman physician on

the state of each of the State Hospitals ?......... bit of statistics, and they stand appalled before

(c) How many women are on the states, or serving as the real truth. I have in mind a graphic in

internes in the State Hospitals over and above

those required by law?........................... stance. We Americans have been patting our

(a) How many general hospitals in your vicinity ?.....

(b) How many physicians on the staffs of such hosselves on the back, not only figuratively, but

(c) Are any of them women? If so, how many ?...... actually, in our self-congratulation at what we

(d) How many beds in each such hospital?............ have done as a nation to help suffering Belgium.

le) Are such hospitals open to physiciansmen or

women--not on their staffs, for the care and I wonder how many Americans realize that we

treatment of private patients ?.....................

VII. (a) Have you women in your State who are specializhave given exactly 634 cents per capita, even

ing in their medical practice? Is so, please give including the Rockefeller donations and the

names, addresses, and specialty ...........

b) What is the proportion of men and women recogmoney value of all the knitted socks, scarfs, etc.,

nized as specialists by the profession?............

VIII. (a) How many medical men and women Own or run of our enthusiastic fairs and bazaars and similar

private sanataria in your vicinity ?..... agencies. If we look a little further, and see (b) Have they medical women associated on the star

or as internes? If so, how many ?..., what others have done, we may well catch our

(c) Please give addresses of such sanataria, and state

whether run by a medical man or woman ........ breaths before the figures from Australia-i. e.,

IX. (a) How many medical women in your vicinity are en$1.27 per capita for Belgium alone.

gaged in laboratory work exclusively ?........

b) Are they connected with Board of Health labora“Now, it is possible that we as women may

tories, with hospitals, or in private laboratories ?..

(c) What is the proportion of medical men and women have cause to be surprised at some of the facts

in laboratory work?.......... which develop in the course of this inquiry 1 ani X. (a) Are there any women connected with your State

Board of Health? If so, what are their positions making for the WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOURNAL into

and names? ..

)) Are there medical women on your local Board of the Field for Women of Today in Medicine. I

Health, or employed in its service as directors. do not know what results are to follow, nor what

inspectors, or in any other capacity ?..............

(c) What is the proportion of men and women in adverse or favorable facts I am going to uncover

Board of Health work?........

(d) Is the medical school inspection under Board or in the course of this inquiry, but I sincerely

Health or Board of Education direction in your

locality? trust that we can fairly and honestly present in

Do medical women serve as school in.

spectors? If so, in what proportion to the men ? the end a case for the women which will better XI. (a) In private practice, how does the clientele of medi.

XI. (a)

cal women compare with that of medical men in bear comparison with the field for men of today

your vicinity ? ..... than I have shown is presented by the American (b) Do medical men call medical women in consultaand the Australian efforts for Belgium.”.

(c) Do medical women call medical women in consul.

tation? . In April I presented some statistics gathered, I

........................

Does your State offer a good field for medical for the most part, from personal acquaintances.

women ?

(b) How does it compare with the field for medical in five of the States of the Union and from the

Are the opportunities for medical Women in private Twelfth Census of the Continental United States

practice equal in number and remuneration to in 1900. As a result of the replies received, and

those in social service?.. from which the April preliminary study was

Please fill out the answers to any or all of the above

questions as fully as possible and mail to Mary Sutton made, I built up a questionaire, which was sent

vas

Macy, M.D., 101 West S0th St., New York City.
Macy, M.D., 101 West sóth St., New York City."

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50
THE WOMAN'S MEDICAL JOUHNAL

March, 1917

LIBRARY Answers to the questionaire sent out were re proportion of 2,597 women licensed in the State ceived from the following States and Provinces; and no women members of the State Medical So. Arizona New Hampshire (2)

ciety, California (2) New Jersey

From the following no proportionate figures Colorado New Mexico

were obtained: Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut New York (2)

Minnesota, Missouri, New York, North Dakota, Idaho North Dakota

Ontario, Panama Canal Zone, Pennsylvania, Illinois Ohio (2)

Texas, Wisconsin, though I was led to infer that Iowa (2) Ontario

there were no women licensed to practice in the Louisiana (2) Panama Canal Zone

Canal Zone.
Maina
Pennsylvania

According to those who filled out the questionMassachusetts (2) Texas (2)

aires, and whose knowledge may have been Michigan Utah

limited in the matter of their own individual Minnesota Vermont

county societies, women held official positions in Mississippi Virginia (2)

county societies in the following States in 1916 : Missouri (2)

West Virginia (2) California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio; and Nevada Wisconsin

women have held such positions in the past in

Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, New York, In all, forty-one questionaires were returned Ohio. fully or partially complete. Of these only

From the following States comes the report twenty were really what might be called fully filled in, and eleven of the forty-one served to

that women are at the present time, or were in verify or supplement certain States of which

1916, serving as officers or as chairmen of stand

ing comunittees of the State Medical Societies : they were duplicates. The net returns, then are from twenty-eight

New Mexico, Ohio. Such positions have been held States of the United States, the Panama Canal

by women in the past in California, Colorado, Zone, and one Province of Canada.

Connecticut, Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, New Reports on the proportion of women to men

Hampshire, New York, Ohio. licensed in the State and on the proportion of From the information given me, women have women to men in the membership of the State never held office in State societies in the followMedical Society were received from the follow- ing States: Arizona, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, ing:

Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Ne

Arizona ................. ..

... 0.85% women of licensed physicians.
0.54%

" State Medical Society membership. Connecticut ......

3.06% " ......................

" licensed physicians. 2.55%

“ State Medical Society membership. Idaho ...........

1.80% " " licensed physicians.

2.22% " “ State Medical Society membership. Illinois ...........................10. % (approximately) women of licensed physicians.

2. %( " ) St. Med. Society membership. Louisiana ................. 0.90% women of licensed physicians.

0.67%

“ State Medical Society membership. Michigan ............

........

0.93% " licensed physicians.
0.41%

" State Medical Society membership. New Hampshire ...

0.41% so licensed physicians.
3.35%

“ State Medical Society membership. Ohio ..................

3.29%

“ licensed physicians. 2.50%

State Medical Society membership. Utah ..............

2.58%

licensed physicians. 2.25%

" State Medical Society membership. Vermont ...................

1.43%

licensed physicians. 0.98%

“ State Medical Society membership. Virginia ............

0.83%

licensed physicians. 0.32%

State Medical Society membership.

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California, Colorado, Mississippi, New Jersey, vada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ontario, PanaNew Mexico, and West Virginia gave no returns ma Canal Zone, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Veron the proportions of women to men licensed, but mont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin. offered the following for the State Medical Societies:

Co-educational medical colleges are reported

from the following States: California, Colorado, California ............... 5.76% women

Connecticut (Yale opened in 1916-1917), Illinois, Colorado

.. 0.84% "

Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, MinneMississippi ....

.. 0.10%.

sota, Missouri, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, New Jersey.....

3.386

Ontario, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, West VirNew Mexico...... .... 0.94%

ginia, and Wisconsin. West Virginia.......

.0.544 16

In New Jersey and the Canal Zone there are no From Nevada comes the surprising report of a medical schools of any kind, which leaves, if my

Nevanto thithe panto. 2.59% progresociety, special ficiening, as one of state terested i state educa

informations are correct, Arizona, Idaho, Maine, offered women in: Arizona, Idaho, Maine, MisMississippi, Virginia, Nevada, New Hampshire, souri, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, PennNew Mexica, and Vermont without co-educa- sylvania, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. tional medical schools or schools where women Whereas, the opportunities are fairly favorable may obtain a medical education.

in Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, In the following States women are reported as Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New having places on the medical faculties, and the Jersey, Texas and Utah. figures are those given as the ratio of women to

It is interesting to note that in the questionmen:

aire sent in Idaho, which comes under the least Colorado-No ratio given.

favorable States, reports that though women Illinois—1:5 in one medical school.

constitute but 1.8% of the licensed physicians, Iowa—3:51.

they are wide awake enough to constitute 2.22% Louisiana-One woman, an instructor.

of the membership of the State Medical Society; Massachusetts-No ratio given.

apparently a larger proportion of the 98.2% of Minnesota-1%.

men physicians in the State are less active in the New York—4:106 at Buffalo (no ratio given else

Medical Society than is true of the 1.8% of where) Texas—2:27 in one medical school and 1:40 in

women physicians. another.

It is also interesting to note New Mexico in Wisconsin-.12%.

the same list, especially if we bear in mind the California, New York, and Ohio only report wo fact that a woman physician was President of men physicians connected with the State Board

ected with the State Boaril the State Medical Society in 1916, and that New of Health.

Mexico reports only 0.9% of her State Medical From New Jersey and New York only were

Society membership as made up of medical medical women reported as connected with

women. It would seem that New Mexico came medical school inspection.

into the “least favorable list" because of deIn Connecticut, Louisiana, Michigan, New

ficiency in opportunity for physicians in general, York and the Panama Canal Zone, medical

rather than for medical women in particular. school inspection is reported as done by Board Nevada, on the other hand, would seem to of Health. In Idaho, Louisiana (both boards), come into this category because of inherent deMissouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, ficiency on the part of her medical women. North Dakota, Ohio and Ontario, by the Board Forming, as they do. 2.59% of the registered of Education, but with the two exceptions noted physicians, none of them is progressive enough above no medical women are employed, accord to belong to the State Medical Society; none ing to the questionaires.

of them is reported as interested in any special From the following States I receive the report field of medicine, and, though the State reports that no medical school inspection is held: school inspection through the Board of Educa

Arizona, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas, Vir- tion, the women do not seem to have exerted ginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin; and in the re- themselves to enter that field of medical activity ports from the following the questions were and social interest. unanswered: California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, One other State in that list is surprising, i. e., Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania. The only apparent explanation is Utah; and from three of these States, (Cali- that political influence is working against the fornia, Iowa and Massachusetts) I had duplicate appointment of women who might, by good, conreturns of the questionaires.

scientious and unbiased work, show up some of In California and New York the law requires the more vital and exciting corruption of State that a woman physician shall be on each State and municipal politics in a community already Hospital Staff, and California reports five more famously infamous for its muck-raking and corwomen and New York twelve more women in ruption. Pennsylvania has a splendid medical such positions than are required by law. The college devoted to the education of medical following States have women on one or more of women, than which there is no better college in the State Hospital Staffs, though there is no man the whole United States; it has, also, at least datory legislation to that effect: Colorado, Con- two co-educational medical schools—the Uni. necticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, Virginia and versity of Pennsylvania, recently opened to Wisconsin.

women, and the University of Pittsburgh, also · From Colorada, Connecticut, Louisiana, Mis more or less recently opened or, rather, resouri and New York women are reported as opened to women—both of which University specializing or "engaged in laboratory work ex- Medical Schools rank well among similar in. clusively," and from the following came reports stitutions in the country. Under such condiof women specialists in other than laboratory tions favorable to education of women in work: Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecti- medicine it is surprising, to say the least, that cut, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, she offers no opportunities for women to work Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, on her State Board of Health or in her State Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Wisconsin.

Hospitals; and is it possible that she has no From these replies it seems fair to conclude medical inspection of her school children? Are that the following States offer the most favor the medical men of Pennsylvania callous to able opportunities for women: California, Col- the health problems of the rural districts? Or orado, Connecticut, Illinois, New York and Ohio. are they afraid the women will show superior The least favorable opportunities seem to be qualifications in correcting rural and municipal

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