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Total
• Physicians

Women
Physicians

12

Illinois

Total

Women political corruption of medical and sanitary State

Physicians - Physicians

(AMA. figures) (Approximate)
character? Wake up, Pennsylvania!
There is nothing surprising in the list of States Alaska .......

97
offering the most favorable opportunities for Canal Zone......
medical women, except the fact that there are awaii

162
......

735
no more of them. Six of the twenty-eight States Philippine Islands.
reporting on these questionaires appear to offer Porto Rico.......

494
excellent opportunities and, in five of them, at Alberta

537
least, the opportunities seem to be as well util- British Columbia....

463
ized and appreciated by the women as is pos- Manitoba .........
sible.

New Brunswick........... 257

446
In order to verify the reports of these ques. Nova Scotia............
tionaires in certain particulars, and to enlarge Ontario ........

3,032
the scope or field as much as possible, I have had Prince Edward Island..
checked up in the Dictionary of the American Quebec ...........
Medical Association (Fifth Edition) for 1916 Saskatchewan .....

489
Yukon ......,

. the numbers of medical women in the United

6 States and Canada, with the results shown in Newfoundland ....

95 the following table:

In other words, in the Continental United State

(A.M.A. Agures) (Approximate) States there are 145,240 physicians, of whom Alabama ..... • 2,569

5.518 are medical women; in the United States' Arizona .. ..... 307

9 territories and island possessions there are 1,372 Arkansas ....

.2,637

25 physicians, of whom 33 are medical women; California

5,687

520 and in Canada, including Newfoundland, there Colorado .....

... 1,733

111 are 7,707 physicians, of whom 107 are medical Connecticut

....1,678

63 women. Delaware

261

The number of women is given as approximate District of Columbia

1,482

only in the above table because of the difficulty Florida

1.321

sometimes in determining definitely whether a Georgia

3,421

name were that of a man or a woman. Under Idaho .

438

11 such circumstances it seemed best to underesti10,648

657 mate the women rather than err in the other Indiana

4,872

169 direction, especially if the college from which Iowa .....

3,751

170 the person graduated was co-educational. Kansas

2,683

114 “Marion,” “Evelyn,” “Francis,” and “JeanKentucky

3,584

70 were among the names always counted as men Louisiana

2,060

unless graduated from a woman's college. I! Maine .......

1,205

36 might be imagined a simple thing to check the Maryland

2,292

women's names, or the men's names, iņ any Massachusetts

5.869

given list, but it has been my experience in this Michigan

4,360

176 checking of names in the American Medical AsMinnesota

2,447

sociation Directory to find a “Melvin” graduMississippi

2,048

ated from the Woman's Medical College of Missouri

6,399

158 Pennsylvania, an “Addison” from the New York Montana

636

22 Medical College and Hospital for Women-two Nebraska .....

1.911

98 distinctly women's medical colleges. On the Nevada ........

154

other side of this picture may be mentioned a New Hampshire.

690

“Beth” from Harvard and “Ivy” from New New Jersey.....

3.239

152 York University and Bellevue Medical College, New Mexico....

430

and, most confusing of all, two “Pearls" from New York. ......

15,670

Harvard.
North Carolina

2,102

22 From data thus gathered from the American North Dakota...

586

Medical Association Directory, and subject to the Ohio ..........

8,045

301

possible error, already noted, of underestimation Oklahoma .....

2,634

54 of women, the following percentage table has Oregon .......

1,187

been made to show: First, the proportion of Pennsylvania ...

11,502

482

the general population which is composed of Rhode Island....

772

26

physicians; second, the percentage of physicians South Carolina..

1,399

licensed in any given State, Territory, or ProSouth Dakota....

676

vince who are medical women: third, the perTennessee ........... 3,457

centage of the membership of the State or TerriTexas .......

6,240

torial Medical Society of the various States and Utah

465

Territories who are women; fourth, the percentVermont ...

668

age of the medical men of the State or Territory Virginia .....

2,547

who are also members of the State or Territorial Washington .....

1,695

Medical Society; and fifth, the percentage of West Virginia.

1,729

the medical women of the State or Territory who Wisconsin ......

2,803

are also members of the State or Territorial Wyoming ......

251 • 14 Medical Society.

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Percentage of
all Medical
Men in State
who are also

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State Medical

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Alabama ..........0.06%
Arizona

..0.13 Arkansas

..0.15 California ... ..0.13 Colorado ........ ..0.18 Connecticut

.0.14 Delaware .........0.12 Dist. of Columbia. ..0.41 Florida

.0.15 Georgia

..0.12 Idaho .

.0.11 Illinois

.0.17 Indiana ...

.0.17 lowa

.0.17 Kansas .....

.0.15 Kentucky

.0.15 Louisiana

.0.11 Maine ......

.0.16
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan

..0.14 Minnesota

.0.11 Mississippi Missouri .....

.0.19 Montana

.0.14 Nebraska .........0.15 Nevada ......... 1.0.15 New Hampshire....0.16 New Jersey ........0.11 New Mexico........0.11 New York.........0.15 North Carolina.....0.09 North Dakota ......0.08 Ohio ..............0.16 Oklahoma .........0.12 Oregon ..........

.0.15 Pennsylvania ......0.14 Rhode Island.......0.13 South Carolina.....0.08 South Dakota......0.10 Tennessee .........0.15 Texas .......

.0.14 Utah

.0.11 Vermont ..........0.18 Virginia

.0.12 Washington .......0.11 West Virginia ......0.12 Wisconsin .....

..0.11 Wyoming .........0.14

......0.13 Canal Zone.........0.31 Hawaii

10.08 Philippine Islands..0.01 Porto Rica.........0.02

Percentage of
Physicians in
the State who
are Women
0.47%
2.93
0.95
9.14
6.41
3.75
2.30
3.99
2.50
0.82
2.51
6.17
3.47
4.53
4.25
1.95
1.12
2.99
3.23
8.09
4.04
3.92
0.88
2.47
3.46
5.13
3.25
5.07
4.69
2.09
4.54
1.05
2.22
3.74
2.05
7.24
4.19
3.37
0.93
2.81
0.87
1.30
3.44
1.80
0.78
4.54
1.73
2.82
5.58
5.81
3.09
1.23
2.31
2.05

Percentage of
all Members of
State Medical
Society who
are Women

0.34%
1.66
0.66
6.17
1.94
3.02
0.00
4.63
1.15
0.42
1.43
4.04
2.40
3.10
2.83
1.40
1.65
2.08
2.03
4.85
2.83
2.67
0.77
1.38
2.39
3.30
0.00
4.29
4.04
2.37
3.59
1.01
1.55
2.48
1.76
4.25
3.43
1.86
1.09
1.08
0.58
1.25
1.68
1.04
0.39
4.13
1.74
2.25
1.69
9.09
2.13
1.15
4.44
1.89

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Percentage of all Medical

Women in State who are also Members of State Medical Society 50.00% 33.33 28.00 31.73 14.41 46.04

0.00 42.37 18.18 21.43 18.18 37.65 37.28 38.82 30.70 42.86 60.87 38.89 32.42 37.16 44.31 41.67 44.45 27.22 31.82 32.65

0.00 60.00 44.74 55.55 241.55 54.54 38.46 34.55 46.30 29.07 45.85 38.46 69.23 21.05 26.67 53.09 31.22 33.33 35.00 41.56 56.67 50.63 14.28 20.00 33.33 50.00 23.53 33.33

Alaska .........

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Continental U. S....0.14
United States, Alaska
Canal Zone, Hawaii,
Philippine Islands,
and Porto Rica....0.13
Alaska, Canal Zone,
Hawaii, Philippine
Is. and Porto Rica.0.01
Canada ..........,0.10

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Comparison of the statistics furnished by the questionaires with those in the above table, we find:

California, Illinois, and Nebraska); 6 Associate Professors (2 in Illinois, and 1 each in District of Columbia, Indiana, Maryland, and Penn

Figures from A.M.A. Directory Licensed medical women.....2.93% State Medical Society women..0.66 Licensed medical women. .....3.75 State Medical Society women..3.02 Licensed medical women, ....2.50 State Medical Society women. .1.43 Licensed medical women.....6.17 State Medical Society women..4.04

State

Figures of Questionaires Arizona ........Licensed medical women....... 0.85%

State Medical Society women., 0.54 Connecticut ....Licensed medical women....... 3.06

State Medical Society women.. 2.55 Idaho ......... Licensed medical women....... 1.

State Medical Society women.. 2. Illinois ....... Licensed medical women.......10.

State Medical Society women.. 2.

(Approximately) Louisiana ...... Licensed medical women....... 0.90

State Medical Society women.. 0.67 Michigan ......Licensed medical women....... 0.93

State Medical Society women.. 0.41 New Hampshire. Licensed Medical women....... 0.41

State Medical Society women.. 3.35 ..........Licensed medical women....... 3.29

State Medical Society women.. 2.50 Utah .......... Licensed medical women....... 2.58

State Medical Society women.. 2.25 Vermont ...... Licensed medical women....... 1.43

State Medical Society women.. :0.98 Virginia ....... Licensed medical women....... 0.83

State Medical Society women.. 0.32

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Licensed medical women.....1.12
State Medical Society women..1.65
Licensed medical women.....4.04
State Medical Society women..2.83
Licensed medical women.....5.07
State Medical Society women..4.29
Licensed medical women.....3.74
State Medical Society women. .2.48
Licensed medical women.....3.44
State Medical Society women..1.68
Licensed medical women.....1.80
State Medical Society women, .1.04
Licensed medical women.....0.78
State Medical Society women..0.39

From this it appears that the figures from the sylvania); and 3 Assistant Professors (all in questionaires are approximately correct for Con- Illinois). necticut, Ohio, Utah, Vermont, and Virginia, and It is also of interest to note a medical woman only relatively correct for Idaho and Louisiana; is president of the State Board of Health in whereas Arizona, Michigan, and New Hampshire Wyoming, in which State 14 of the 251 physiare all underestimated, and Illinois is much over- cians are medical women, and 3 of the 14 women rated in the answers to the questionaire. In the in the State are noted as interested in some latter case the difference seems to be too great specialty in medicine. Two of these three to be reconciled by the possible underestimation women are interested in Gynecology and one in in the American Medical Association Directory Ophthalmology—this latter case is the only count of women physicians.

woman who belongs to the American Medical

Association, and one of the only two women be From the American Medical Association Din longing to the State Medical Society. rectory list the following States have women with It has been implied by a number of our medirank of Professor, Associate, or Assistant Pro- cal brethren at various times that the field par fessor on medical faculties in co-educational excellence for medical women was social service medical schools: California, District of Colum- or laboratory work. In this connection it will be bia, Illinois (6), Indiana, Maryland, Nebraska, of interest to note that of the 5,124 women in and Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh); active practice in the Continental United States and the subjects so taught are: Dietetics, (365 are listed as "not in practice" and 29 as Bacteriology, and Pathology; Microscopy and “retired”), 1,313 are credited with interest in Chemical Diagnosis; Electro-Therapy and Radi- some specialty in the American Medical Assoography; Clinical Gynecology; Embryology; ciation Directory list: and of this number 34 are Obstetrics and Clinical Obstetrics; Medicine; specializing exclusively in Bacteriology, Clinical Pediatrics; Anatomy; and Laryngology and Pathology, Pathology, and Public Health; 5 Rhinology. This does not include the medical more are exclusively devoted to Rentgenology. women who are teaching in the women's medical In addition there are 34 more women “especially colleges, nor does it include women teaching in interested” in Bacteriology, Clinical Pathology, co-educational colleges with rank lower than Pathology, and Public Health, and 11 more in assistant professor. To me it was a bit of in- Rængenology, though this last 45 are not devotteresting information as illustrative of the scopeing themselves exclusively to these fields. and variety of subjects in which women hold The following chart, made up from the Ameriprofessorial rank in direct competition with men. can Medical Association Directory list, is of inThe twelve medical women filling these positions terest in showing the fields of special interest to rank as follows: Three Professors (1 each in women in the practice of medicine:

ery by.........

Practiced exclusively by.......... 53 women Total women. 499 1. Gynecolgy .....

Special interest expressed by.....466

\Practiced exclusively by.......... 2. Obstetrics ...........

.... Total women, 144 (Special interest expressed by.....

; Practiced exclusively by.. 3. Pediatrics .......

: 1 oo .

.. Total women, 129 Special interest expressed by.....

Practiced exclusively by.......... 4. Surgery

. Total women, 74 Special interest expressed by..... 63 5. Ophthalmology, Otology, Laryngology, and Rhin

(Practiced exclusively by.......... ology ...................

... Total women, 71 Special interest expressed by... 6. Neurology

(Practiced exclusively by....... .......

}... Total women, 66 Special interest expressed by...

\Practiced exclusively by........ 7. Psychiatry ........

}... Total women, 57 Special interest expressed by... 8. Ophthalmology .. SPracticed exclusively by.........

.Total women, 49 Special interest expressed by... 9. Clinical Pathology... \Practiced exclusively by........

... Total women, (Special interest expressed by..... 10. Anesthesia ....... (Practiced exclusively by........

{... Total women, 25 Special interest expressed by..... 11. Otology, Laryngology, and Rhinology ..... (Practiced exclusively by..........

.. Total women, 25 Special interest expressed by..... 12. Pathology ........... (Practiced exclusively by........

" }... Total women, 19 (Special interest expressed by... 13. Dermatology .... Practiced exclusively by........

.. Total women, 16 · Special interest expressed by.....

(Practiced exclusively by........ Røntgenology ...

. Total women, 16 Special interest expressed by..... Tuberculosis ..... (Practiced exclusively by........

. Total women, 16 Special interest expressed by..... 14. Orthopedic Surgery..... (Practiced exclusively by..........

1 woman?

... Total women, 10 Special interest expressed by..... 9 womens 15. Internal Medicine....... SPracticed exclusively by........

oo O

... Total women. 8 hin. Special interest expressed by..... Laryngology and Rhin\Practiced exclusively by ..........

1 woman! ology

Total women,
........

8
Special interest expressed by..... 7 women,
Public Health...
Practiced exclusively by........

... Total women, Special interest expressed by... 1 woman) 16. Bacteriology (Practiced exclusively by...........

4 women... Total women, 7 Special interest expressed by.....

, SPracticed exclusively by.......... 1 woman, 17. Ophthalmalogy & Otology.

Thatol women 3 Special interest expressed by..... 4 womensnl 18. Proctology ............. Special interest expressed by..... 3 “ . 19. Urology ................ Special interest expressed by..... 2 "

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From these figures it appears that Gynecology (449). Obstetrics (144), Pediatrics (129), and Ophthalmology (either alone or with ear, nose, and throat it can claim 125 women) are the specialties most attractive to the women who restrict or partially restrict their practice of medicine to some particular field, and together these four specialties claim 16.53 percent of all the

3 percent of all the medical women in active practice in the country, and 64.51 percent of those specializing.

Contrasted with this are the social service and laboratory fields—i. e., Clinical Pathology (34), Pathology (19), Rontgenology (16), Public Health (8), and Bacteriology (7)—which can claim but 1.64 percent of the medical women in active practice and 6.40 percent of those special. izing; and this in face of the fact that 25.62 per

cent of the active medical women are specializing in some field or other.

Of the 5,518 medical women registered in the Continental United States, 5,124 are actively engaged in practice; of the 6,96 percent who are not practicing, 29 or 7.36 percent are retired, presumably because of superannuation, since all 29 graduated prior to 1875, and most of them in the '60's, and have therefore earned their release from activity. Of the remaining 365 nonpracticing women physicians, 194, or 53.15 percent, are designated as Homeopathic, and 6 are designated as Eclectic, and 1 as Physio-medical; thus 55.06 percent of those who are listed as "not in practiceare Homeopathic, Eclectic, and Physio-medical graduates.

Of the 5,124 active medical women, 287 are Homeopathic, 77 Eclectic, and 13 Physio-medical

practitioners. That is to say, 7.36 percent of the 1. California, Colorado, Illinois, Massachuactive medical women are sectarian in their setts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oregon, and practice.

Wyoming offer the freest field to medical woIt was also of interest to me to discover that men, vide the fact that over 5 percent of the 34 colored women were numbered among th: physicians licensed in these States are women. active medical women. According to the States As to the relative activity in these States of the women specializing in relation to the women men and women, as evidenced by membership licensed to practice are as follows:

in the State Medical Society, we notice:

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Percentage of

Percentage of censed to Medical

Men who are

Women who State

practice
Women
State
also members

are also memmedicine

bers of State Specializing

of State Medi-
cal Society

Medical Society Alabama .....

12
California .........

.48.5%

31.7% Arizona ......

Colorado ...........

.49.9

14.4 Arkansas

Illinois .............58.7

37.6 California

520

108
Massachusetts ........63.7

37.1 Colorado ......

Nebraska ............51.7

32.6 Connecticut

New Hampshire.......71.4

60.0 Delaware ....

Oregon ..............51.1

29.1 District of Columbia...

Wyoming ............48.9

14.3 Florida Georgia

In Colorado, Wyoming, Massachusetts, Oregon, Idaho

Illinois, Nebraska, and California, in order of Illinois

145 precedence, the women seem least to have appreIndiana

47 ciated the value and advantage to be gained by Iowa

170

professional contact with their brethren and Kansas

114

sisters in an organization intended primarily for Kentucky

70

personal benefit to its members. Membership in Louisiana

a State medical society, which may have only ocMaine ......

casional meetings for discussion of professional Maryland

74

character, presupposes membership in a local Massachusetts

475

114 county medical society, which usually meets on Michigan

an average of ten times a year, and should be of Minnesota

96

substsantial benefit to its members professionally Mississippi

18

by the scope and character of the medical topics Missouri

158

discussed. It is apparent on the whole that the Montana

women of the country have not taken advantage Nebraska ....

of this professional opportunity to the extent Nevada ......

that the men have done, and these eight States New Hampshire.

offer a fair comparison in this respect. For the New Jersey.....

Continental United States we find 53.9 percent New Mexico......

of the men in their respective State societies as New York. ......

710

compared to 38.1 percent of the women. Of the North Carolina..

22

States listed above, New Hampshire only shows North Dakota....

her women to be above the average in their proOhio ...........

301

fessional alertness, but this is balanced in part Oklahoma .....

54

by the fact that only in New Hampshire, Massa Oregon ......

86

chusetts, and Illinois are the men beyond the Pennsylvania

482

average in alertness. New Hampshire has only Rhode Island.

26

690 physicians all together, of whom 35 are woSouth Carolina...

men; but even so, the percentage of physicians South Dakota....

in the community is 0.16 percent as compared Tennessee

with 0.14 percent for the Continental United Texas

States. It should by all evidences be an unusu. Utah ...

ally healthy State. Vermont

Of the eight States in this list, so far as I can Virginia .....

ascertain, California, Colorado, Illinois, MassaWashington

chusetts, and Oregon have one or more co-educaWest Virginia....

tional colleges. According to the information at Wisconsin .....

hand Wyoming has no medical college at all and Wyoming .......

New Hampshire only one at present which is not

co-educational. Of those having co-educational 5,518

1,313 institutions, according to my information medical

women are at least represented by membership, Comparing, so far as possible from the sta either professorial or as instructors, in the meditistics gathered, the relative activity of the medi- cal faculties of California, Colorado, Illinois, and cal men and medical women in the various Massachusetts, which fact suggests that the woStates, as evidenced by their numbers and by men receive professional recognition according the proportions of each in the State Medical So- to merit, and any deficiency of recognition is not cieties, we may draw the following conclusions: due to sex, but to ability.

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