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to the state of British India; in which he sharply rebuked the countenance given to idolatry, by British officers. “So long," said he, “as European magistrates are obliged to be present at the festivals, and spread the golden cloth over the image, as the representatives of the state, and European officers are obliged to present a salute to the abominable thing, and European functionaries are obliged to collect the wages of iniquity, the curse of the Almighty rests upon India, and an invincible barrier is raised against the progress of the Gospel, and the extension of truth ; a burden of uncancelled guilt lies upon the government and people of Great Britain ; and in the skirts of our garments is found the blood of souls.” He pointed out the difficulties which prevented the availableness of the measures which had been adopted to remedy these evils, and earnestly recommended others which he thought might subserve the best interests of the nation and the cause of religion. He concluded by saying,

“I wish not to throw cold water on the subject of China, by any means ; but if you wish to enter China, if you wish that the way may be opened for the introduction of the Gospel into that vast empire, what do I advise you to do? Fullil your obligations to India, the country which God has put into your hands, and then he will give you China as a prize and reward. I am ready to hide my head with shame before this assembly, and in the presence of my Master, for my countrymen, for our seats of learning, and for the Church of the living God. Had you been called to defend the rights and liberties of your country, and had failed to display the courage and magnanimity which characterized your ancestors, I should deeply have deplored it. llad you been called upon to go to the extremities of the earth, to explore regions comparatively unknown, and to add to the triumphs of science and philosophy, and had been found wanting in the spirit of enterprise to accomplish the undertaking, this I should have deeply deplored. What, then, shall I say, when the call has been reiterated from the heavens above, and froin the earth beneath—from the sanctuary, and from the press

- from the Christian Church--from the lips of the missionaries—and from perishing millions ; inviting you to the post of honor, of danger, and of sacri. fice; to stand on the ramparts of depravity, and contend with principalities and powers, and the rulers of the darkness of this world, and spiritual wickedness in high places; and to tread in the steps of prophets and apos. tles, of confessors and of martyrs ? and that call is so little regarded ?"

5. The Lord's Day OBSERVANCE Society.

“The annual meeting of this society was held at Exeter-Hall, on Friday, April 29th : the bishop of London in the chair. The speakers were, Sir Oswald Mosley ; the Rev. Dr. Dealtry; William Roberts, Esq. ; the Bishop of Chester; the Rev. George Cubitt; the Rev. Christopher Benson, master of the temple; John Hardy, Esq., M. P. ; the Rev. J. H. Stewart; and Sir Andrew Agnew.

“The report stated that the committee, not expecting to bring their un. dertaking to an easy or an early conclusion, were grateful for the success which they had met with. Perseverance was necessary; and in depend. ence on the blessing of God, they had been enabled to hold on thus far. The Sabbath was of infinite value to man; and the committee, by addresses, appeals, arguments in print, and oral communications, had pressed forward to their great ultimate object in the face of a powerful current of hostile in. fluence, aided by the formidable force of the public press. Every step in

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their progress proved that the end could not be accomplished without a strong simultaneous co-operation of the whole body of Christians. The committee had gone through a painful inquiry into the vast amount of profanation under which the Lord's day may be said to groan, and which would appear incredible to those who keep themselves within the bounds of order and decorum. The committee had determined to make Scripture the arbiter between the demands of the world and the privileges of the Sabbath, and to insist upon the whole Sabbath, and not an abridgment of it; it must be entire and unmutilated. It was the duty of a Christian government to promote the glory of God and the best interests of the community, by providing for the due observance of the Sabbath. Adverting to the apathy of the legislature on this question, the report remarked, 'Our railroad adventurers are so busy with the earth, that they seem to have forgotten that there is a heaven.' Several bills which had passed the house of commons with a clause prohibiting the employment of the road on the Lord's day, had had that clause struck out in their passage through the lords. The Islington market bill experienced a similar fate, the evils of Sabbath-breaking, as far as regards trading, amusement, the transit of goods and passengers on public roads, canals, and rivers, were not abated; though, with respect to travelling by stage-coaches, a small decrease in the number employed had taken place. Out of 3,000 coaches licensed in 1932, no less than 1,633 were licensed to run on the Lord's day. The number licensed this year is 2,950; of which '1,521 travel on the Lord's day, performing thereon 8,294 journeys. This calculation did not include glass coaches, hackney carriages, and cabriolets. The pestilential evil of Sunday newspapers was spreading; and considering the malignant form it had assumed of late, it might be a question whether the enemy of souls wielded any more destructive weapon. This society, however, was gaining strength. The movements in the north of England, and especially in Derby, were very gratifying. Auxiliaries had been established in Yorkshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Buckinghamshire, Devonshire, Salop, Norfolk, Northumberland, and Sussex. No one year had been so productive of interesting correspondence as the last, during which the committee had circulated 15,000 copies of the tract containing portions of the evidence on Sabbath breaking, given before a committee of the house of conmons; and 113,250 copies of the society's own publications. A Sabbath Observance Society had been recently formed in the Canton de Vaud, Switzerland ; and the minister (the Rev. C. Recordon) was engaged in translating into French the bishop of Calcutta's sermons on the Lord's day.

The committee expressed their acknowledgments to the Wesleyan and Calvinistic Methodists for their zealous co-operation in this cause.

The receipts of the ycar, December, 1834, to December, 1835, amounted to £812; the payments to £740; but against the balance of £72, there were engagements to the amount of £363."

6. RELIGIOUS TRACT Society.

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of this society was held in ExeterHall on Friday, May 6th: Samuel Hoare, Esg., the treasurer, in the chair. The speakers were, the Rev. T. S. Grimshawe ; the Rev. Dr. Burder; the Hon. and Rev. Baptist W. Noel; the Rev. H. Townley ; the Rev. H. Stowell; the Rev. William Jackson, of New-York; the Rev. J. Cumming ; the Rev. Dr. Cox; the Rev. R. W. Sibthorpe; the Rev. F. Cunningham.

The report commenced by adverting to the opposition which is still made by the Chinese authorities to the circulation of religious tracts. From all other parts, with the exception of Madagascar, the accounts were of an encouraging nature. In reference to domestic proceedings, it was stated that the new publications within the year were 193. The publications circulated during the year had amounted to 15,914,148. The total circulation of the society, in more than eighty languages, had been about 235 millions. Several new societies had been formed. The total receipts had been £63,034 138.8d.; being an increase of £6,708 68. 10d.

Vol. VII.- October, 1836.

48

“ Mr. Noel said he was glad to hear that the committee had thought it right to allot £2,000 in the course of the last year to India and to China. This sum, however, was a small contribution, compared with the £54,00 expended upon the sale of small publications at home. England, with all her ministers, with her widely diffused education, with her reverenced Sab. baths, with her multiplied institutions for ameliorating in every way the moral and spiritual condition of the population, had £54,000 worth of tracts diffused among the people, while the vast regions of Hindostan and China had but £2,000. Yet it was cheering to notice that year by year these grants were enlarging. Not only did religious men now direct their attention to our intercourse with China, but since the trade had been opened, there were many accounts on which men generally wished to see that intercourse extended. Although the experiments which had been made were not many, yet it seemed impossible to deny a full assent to the proposition that China was perfectly accessible. Mr. Gutzlaff had made five voyages along the coast ; and it had only led him to describe each voyage as more successful than the one before ; and an American missionary had found the people at Canton ready to receive his books. With such opportunities of fered to them for distribution, would it not be in the highest degree neglect. ful not to employ them? The people were ready to receive and to read copies of Christian books : not, however, that he meant to say that there was a disposition to receive Christianity. But they were a reading, a curious, and a friendly people ; and were ready to receive whatever books were offered them. According to the last census, the population of China was said to be 350,000,000; more recently, however, the number had been reduced to 250,000,000; but still the population was so dense that they were obliged to emigrate to other lands in great numbers. In spite of the most rigid laws of the Chinese government, the necessity of the case was forcing thousands of the inhabitants into the Chinese Archipelago, in wbich there were European residents and European commerce. The Chinese mingled with the Europeans, they caught their language, knew something of their superiority; and was it conceivable that it would not operate in producing a most important change in the opinions of those ignorant people regarding the western nations ? By that slow operation a preparation was made for communicating the Gospel. At this moment there were hundreds of thou. sands to whom Christian tracts had immediate access; and some of those books might be taken by the sailors into the heart of their own families. Let them follow, in imagination, one of those sailors thus taking a book into his family, and there reading one of those strange publications from a foreign nation, and the people of the village, simply from curiosity, listening to tbe communication. Did they not see what a preparation was made for the Christian missionary whenever, in the good providence of God, an opening should be made for him to establish himself among them? It was just before the advent of the Saviour that the civilized world was prepared for the diffusion of Christianity, by the extension of that empire which broke down the barrier between rival nations. So the vast population of the east, amounting altogether to not far short of half the population of the earth, was only under two governments. India was already open to Christian publcations; and if, in the providence of God, the bigotry of China should berelaxed, then would the whole of that vast empire be prepared to receive the communication of the Gospel from Canton to Corea. But if there were those facilities for distribution, was there any agency prepared ? In that point of view the prospect was most cheering. Morrison, Milne, Medhurst, and Gutzlaff, had, with energy, perseverance, and devotion, given themselves to that work, and had mastered the difficult language. Morrison and Milne were gone to their rest ; but here was a proof of the value of a society like this. Their publications would live after them, and might communicate a knowledge of Christianity to millions, when their tongnies were silent in the grave. Death might carry away Medhurst and Gutzlaff; but their publications might be hailed with delight, by men of the greatest understanding and of the most devoted hearts. It was much to be deplored, that the liberality of this country, among all denominations of Christians, had not raised a sum of money that should be adequate to the demand. Every publication issued by this, as well as the Bible society, simply bore the stainp of the truths of the Gospel ; and that gave them a vast advantage. The Catholic missionaries had been so opposed to each other, that more than once they received an intimation from the emperor that they should live in brotherly love. Still, however, the operations of that body had been so well sustained, that in 1810 they presented a report to Sir George Staunton, from which it appeared that there were six bishops, twenty-five missionaries, eighty priests, and 215,000 converts, within the heart of that empire. When the meeting recollected that at this moment the prevalent religion of China was Budhism, and had been introduced without oral instruction, but was communicated by writing, they had a pledge of what the publications of the society might do when circulated among that thinking people. Only let Christians be more and more zealous in the work. That immense population was involved in ignorance, superstition, and despotism; and, therefore, let the superior privileges of those whom he addressed animate them to great and renewed exertion."

7. THE SUNDAY School UNION.

“The thirty-third anniversary of this institation was held at Exeter-Hall on Thursday, May 5th: Edward Baines, Esq., M. P., in the chair. The speakers were, the earl of Roden ; the Rev. A. Tidman; the Rey. John Leifchild; the Rev. C. Stovell; the Rev. Dr. Morison ; the Rev. William Thomson ; the Rev. J. P. Haswell; the Rev. William Beal; and W. B. Gurney, Esq.

“Mc. W.'F. Lloyd read the report, which commenced by detailing the society's foreign operations. It stated that the most earnest desire for instruction was manifested in various parts of the world, particularly in the West Indies. With regard to home proceedings, sixteen grants had been made toward the erection of schools, amounting to £295. The labors of the travelling agent, since the last anniversary, had resulted in the formation of seven unions, and in the visitation of twenty societies. The home grants during the past year amounted to £72 Os. 8d. ; the colonial grants, to

£30 4s. 1d.; and the cash grants, to £55. A summary of the returns of the four London auxiliaries presented 551 schools, 7,866 teachers, 80,631 scholars; being an increase on the last year of 17 schools, 245 teachers, and 1,927 scholars. The benevolent fund account showed the income of the year to be £676 19s. Id.; the expenditure £542 198. 2d.; leaving a balance in hand of £133 19s. 10d.

8. The LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIANITY AMONG THE JEWS.

The twenty-eighth anniversary of this society was held on Friday, May 6th: Sir Thomas Baring, the president of the society, in the chair. The speakers were, the Rev. Edward Bickersteth ; the Rev. T. S. Grimshawe ; the Rev. Peter Roe; the Rev. Daniel Wilson ; the Rev. Hugh Stowell; the Rev. M. Keuntze, of Berlin ; the Rev. T. Woodroffe; the Rev. A. Thomas; the Rev. John Hall; and the Rev. Michael Solomon Alexander.

“ The Rev. J. Davis read the report, from which it appeared that the contributions in the present year had amounted to £14,395 14s.; being an increase of £2,291 12s. 2d. over the subscriptions of the previous year. Of that sum, £1,731 had risen from the enlarged contributions of auxiliaries, an occurrence which, coupled with the circumstance of an increase of £1,200 in the last year beyond the preceding, showed that the very great interest which the public took in the institution was increased and extended from year to year. The committee had last year diminished its expenditure by. limiting its operations in certain parts; but in this year it had resumed that expenditure without any derangement to its finances, or without any neces. sity of going into debt. The report then went on to detail the operations of the society in foreign countries, which were altogether of a most encouraging character. It was stated, on the authority of an eminent German professor, that there had been more converts from the Jews in the last twenty years, than there had been during all the previous time from the commencement of Christianity.”

9. THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN School SOCIETY.

“The thirty-first anniversary of this society was held at Exeter-Hall, on Monday, May 9th : Lord Morpeth in the chair. The speakers were, Sir Cullen Eardly Smith; the Rev. Sanderson Robbins ; J. I. Briscoe, Esq.; Sir Harry Verney, M. P. : the Rev. Richard W. Hamilton ; the Rev. T. Smith; the Rev. Henry Wilkes; the Rev. J. Breckenridge, from America; Captain Young, R. N.; and the Rev. Dr. Schwabe.

“ Mr. Dunn, the secretary, read the report, which stated, that, during the past year, the society had lost its valuable friend, Joseph Foster, Esq., of Bromley. The model schools continued to sustain the high character they had so long enjoyed. The number of children educated in the borough schools alone had now amounted to 33,710. In the training establishment, from April 1835 to 1836, the unusual number of 173 candidates had enjoyed the benefit of attendance. Of the 173 candidates, 92 had been trained for the boys' schools, 81 for the girls' schools. Of the former, 38 had been appointed to new schools, 28 had succeeded other teachers, 14 had left Eng. land for foreign stations, and 12 had, from various causes, withdrawn from the institution. Of those which had been trained in the girls' schools, 48 had been appointed to schools in England and Wales, 9 had been sent out under the superintendence of the society for promoting female education in India and the east, 9 had proceeded to foreign stations, under the care of different missionary societies, and 15 had either withdrawn, or, at the time referred to, were unprovided with stations. The number of new schoois opened during the past year had fully equalled that of any preceding year. The schools throughout the country were, for the most part, proceeding satisfactorily. In reference to foreign operations, the report stated that education in the West Indies was steadily advancing. The accounts from Greece, Athens, and Spain, were highly encouraging. In conclusion, the committee made an earnest appeal for increased pecuniary assistance. From the treasurer's account it appeared, that the total income of the society during the past year amounted to £3144 ls. 4d.; the expenditure to £3,631 15s. 10d.; leaving a balance against the society of £487 14s. 6d."

10. THE NAVAL AND MILITARY BIBLE SOCIETY.

" The fifty-sixth anniversary of this society was held on Tuesday, May 10th : the marquis of Cholmondeley in the chair. The speakers were, J.P. Plumptre, Esq., M. P.; General Tolley ; the Rev. Peter Rod; Captain Pakenham, R. N.; the Rev. William Clayton ; Captain Elliott, R. N.; Captain V. Harcourt, R. N.; Captain J. W. Bazalgette, R. N.

"Colonel Le Blanc read the report. It commenced by stating, that the exertions made in both branches of the service to promote the objects of this society had been unabated in the last year; and described the increased value which attached to the moral conduct of the soldier and the sailor, when that conduct was regulated by religious feeling. The number of copies of the Scripture which had been circulated last year amounted to 7,878, of which 995 were distributed for the use of seamen on board his ma. jesty's ships; and the report observed that the captains of his majesty's ships had on all occasions received the grant of Bibles for the use of their crews with the greatest thankfulness. It then adverted to the case of his majesty's cutter, the Quail, which, on its way to Lisbon, encountered a

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