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The total amount of money expended for the benefit of sick members in 12 years of its existence, ending in April, 1866, has been $25,530 68, or 127,653 francs, to 1,868 persons, and the amount paid to the fund in the same time has exceeded this sum about $1,200. The corporation contributes weekly to this fund, and also to meet individual cases which are specially aggravated.

MORAL WELFARE OF WORKMEN.

To meet the protection of the large number of single females employed by the company, who, as is often the fact in the manufacturing establishments of the United States, and perhaps elsewhere, are away from the guardianship of their friends, the boarding-houses referred to above are controlled by persons carefully selected for their ability to influence this class of work-people, and for their established good character, who will take an interest to secure the comfort of their boarders, and save them from bad moral influences, acting really, as far as possible, in the place of guardians. If a young female is known to visit places of evening amusement of doubtful character, or gives any reason for suspicion that she is guilty of immorality, or even of careless, unguarded conduct, she is admonished, and if reform is not immediate she is discharged from the house and from employment. The doors of the house are locked at 10 o'clock at night, and no one allowed to be out after that hour without a satisfactory excuse. Doubtless persons of immoral character secure employment by the company, and by superior secresy retain this connection. Among so large a number some will be impure, but it is believed that very few of these females are led astray while connected with the mill, if virtuous when commencing work. It is impossible for an openly vile person to retain connection with the company.

Men of intemperate habits, or of general bad character, are excluded from the company's service, though patience with them is encouraged, with the hope of securing reform; and this forbearance, and attendant labor, has often been rewarded. It is an established principle that all profanity or other bad language, and any bad example or severe use of authority among the head workmen, must be strictly avoided, especially when these overseers have in their charge females or young persons. More than one such responsible workman has been removed for using improper words or ill-treating his subordinates. It is absolutely demanded of these persons that they treat those under them as they would desire to be treated themselves if in their position.

The directors have placed their associate, the manager, at the works to represent their feelings to the work-people; to show them sympathy in their trials, to counsel them in their need of advice, and to be their friend.

Careful efforts have been made by him to secure their confidence, and he has cultivated the conviction that they could ever find in him a father,

brother, or friend. Many hearts have been moved to earnest gratitude for the aid which they have thus secured in their time of need. It requires a vast amount of patient listening to complaints, to tales of sorrow and want; but it has had its reward in seeing so many relieved, made glad and hopeful.

The real moral effect, and the real satisfaction in such a relation between employer and employed, cannot be written. The spirit of the employer is imparted to the more responsible and influential workmen, and to those under them, while a healthy moral condition is secured.

INTELLECTUAL WELFARE OF WORKMEN.

When the company was first established the directors appropriated $1,000, or 5,000 francs, for the purchase of suitable books for a circulating library, and provided a suitable room for it on their premises. The work-people have always been required to pay one cent each week during their service, and they thus become members of the “Pacific Mills Library Association,” which is managed entirely by themselves, they choosing their own officers for the control of its affairs and for the selection of books, but selecting the resident manager for the president and chairman of the library committee. This weekly payment secures the privilege of the use of the library and reading-rooms of the society. One rooin is appropriated to males, and is supplied with the local newspapers of the city, and of Boston and New York, together with numerous serials of a scientific and literary character, and is open from 6 o'clock a. m. till 9 o'clock p. m., warmed and lighted. It is in close proximity to the other room containing the library, now exceeding 4,000 volumes, and also a cheerful, airy, comfortable apartment for the females, which is carpeted, and made attractive by daily and weekly publications especially adapted to their wants, and stereoscopes with numerous slides, all in charge of an intelligent and cultivated young lady. It is open from 9 o'clock a. m. till 9 o'clock p. m., and is much frequented and valued.

A large number of volumes of the library are in constant circulation, as the number of the work-people who cannot read or write does not exceed 50 in 1,000, and these are universally of foreign birth. All new publications adapted to this class of readers are bought as soon as published. The privilege of taking books from the library is extended to members of families whose head is a member of the association. The funds of the society are also used to purchase tickets of admission to lectures and suitable popular amusements, which are distributed among the members.

This association, as well as the relief society, it will be seen, is supported and managed by the work-people themselves, who secure a valu. able return for their small outlay, and also the permanency of its operation, avoiding the dependence for existence and usefulness upon the life, or even connection, of any one person of special prominence.

A law of the State forbids the employment of children under 10 years, and requires that children employed between 10 and 12 years of age shall be in school 16 weeks in each year, and those between 12 and 16 years 11 weeks. The company contributes annually to the support of an erening school for both sexes.

SUCCESS OF THIS CO-OPERATIVE ORGANIZATION.

It has often been stated that care of employers for the elevation and welfare of their operatives, especially to the extent herein shown, is incompatible with pecuniary success. Facts prove that this is not true with the Pacific mills, but others must determine how much of this is due to the principles of action established and maintained.

It is also believed that the work-people have received great benefit. Some of the evidences of this are the following:

1. There have been no strikes among the work-people, which are their curse, and the dread of employers. They have been encouraged to feel that any grievances will be patiently listened to, and frankly discussed, and the result has always been favorable to good order.

By no means has every uneasy spirit been quieted, but the mass has been satisfied.

2. A higher class of workmen has been secured. Those best able to appreciate the privileges enjoyed in connection with this company have been drawn thither for employment. Specially is this true among the overseers, who engage the laborers in their different departments, and give character to the mass. Their intelligence and hearty co-operation in the plans for the material, moral, and intellectual advancement of the operatives, moulds the whole, and secures a higher standard. The general influence of the principles adopted by the company leads these promident workmen to feel that they are intrusted with a degree of guardianship of those under them, and this feeling is very manifest. Respect for the manhood of a workman moulds him.

3. Many of the work-people have invested their funds in savings banks, and this is specially encouraged. Formerly the company received deposits themselves from the work-people, allowing an annual interest of six percent.; but for some prudential reasons this plan was abandoned, and the depositors encouraged to invest in chartered banks. The company held in their hands at one time more than $100,000, or 500,000 francs, of the earnings of their work-people, which has been changed into other channels. There is no doubt that their deposits now exceed this sum largely.

4. Quite a number of the work-people own houses free of debt, while others have been partially assisted by the company, it reserving a portion of their wages each month in reduction of the debt. More than $50,000, or 250,000 francs, are thus invested.

5. Others invest their funds in the bonds of the United States government in preference to savings banks. 6. Several of the workmen are owners of the stock of the company, and

have the same rights in regard to the control of the officers and general management as other stockholders. Their stock has now a market value exceeding $60,000.

7. Investment of earnings in premiums on life insurance has been made by many of the workmen.

8. More than one of the workmen has been a member of the city gorernment in its board of aldermen and common council, and not an annual election passed without the choice of one, or more, to some of these important offices.

9. The pecuniary success of the company has warranted a liberal spirit in the payment of wages to the work-people. The least sum now paid in weekly wages to the youngest employé is $1 82, gold, a little more than 9 francs, and the number belonging to this class is very small. Boys of 16 years do not receive less than $2 85, gold, weekly, or more than 14 francs.

The least amount paid weekly to men is $6 75, gold, or nearly 34 francs, while a very large majority receive much more. Females receive from $2 18, gold, weekly, or about 12.50 francs for the least, to $6 72, gold, or more than 33 francs; while a few earn more. This excepts young girls, whose wages are the same as the least sum named above. Spinners, weavers, and a few others are paid in accordance with their product, some of them earning very large wages.

The stockholders, as previously stated, have invested $2,500,000 in the company. During the past 12 years they have received in dividends more than $3,000,000, and the fixed property has cost a much larger sum than the amount of the capital stock. The treasurer furthermore holds in his possession a very large amount of undivided earnings with which to purchase cotton, wool, and other materials, for cash.

APPENDIX F.

THE WOOLLEN AND WORSTED TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN.

Description and statistics from the third report of the commissioners appointed to inquire into the best means of preventing the pollution of rivers, (rivers Aire and Calder,) presented to both houses of Parliament by command of her Majesty, 1867. A glance at table D of the interesting and valuable returns (page 134) will inform the reader that woollen and worsted products to the extent of 381,200,000 pounds in weight, and of a value of £64,400,000 sterling, are annually sent out of the mills of Great Britain.

The West Riding of Yorkshire is not the only district in which this vast industry is located, but it may safely be taken that from one-half to two-thirds of the woollen and worsted trade is carried on there.

This trade is of ancient date in England. The Romans bad weaving establishments of woollen cloth at Winchester, where the copious springs from chalk afforded means both for power and for washing and dyeing. The mother of Alfred the Great is recorded to have been skilled in spinning wool. Flemish woollen weavers settled in England about the time of the Norman conquest, and continued immigration of woollen weavers from Flanders took place in the reigns of Henry I, Henry III, Edward I, and Edward III. The woollen tissues first spun and woven at Worsted in Norfolk, about the year 1388, became the staple trade of Norwich. Devonshire manufactured woollens soon after the introduction of the trade into England, and Worcestershire a little later. Friezes were also earls manufactured in Wales. In the middle of the sixteenth century Berkshire took the lead in woollen manufacture.

About the middle of the last century the West Riding of Yorkshire became the seat of the worsted and woollen trades. Halifax began to be specially noted for kerseys. From about this date these trades finding so much water available, not only for power, but also for washing, dyeing, scouring, fulling, and all other purposes, the Yorkshire manufacturers and traders were enabled to undersell those of other places.

The rivers Aire and Calder were made navigable by act of Parliament about the year 1698, and have from time to time been improved so as to meet and supply the requirements of a growing trade. This navigation has such advantages and has been so ably managed up to this date that it successfully competes with the established railways.

It is of the utmost importance to study the rise, progress and condition of any manufacture, especially if it has changed its locality. Successful trade is generally contingent upon local natural advantages which forethought and care may improve, or which continued abuse may deteriorate and even ultimately destroy. The West Riding of York

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