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It was at Villafranca, at the very outset of the campaign, Humbert was not much known, and his father's genuine in the action between part of the division led by Prince popularity and reputation for bon camaraderie had rather Humbert and two brigades of Austrian cavalry, that the eclipsed the merits of the son. But the Prince soon prince first tasted powder, while at Monte Torre his proved that he was something more than a plucky brother Amadeus not only won the same experience, soldier, and that he inherited the best qualities of the but received his first wound. Thenceforward Humbert Savoy family. He has fully justified the pupular hopes, was ever bravely to the fore, and at Custozza he fought and as monarch has displayed both commonsense and so fiercely, and exposed his life so freely during a charge tact, and though occasionally more outspoken than of Uhlan cavalry, that it was with great difficulty that he would be thought fitting for a king-from our cautious, managed in the smoke, dust and confusion to penetrate British notion of royalty—there is no doubt that his unscathed through the Austrian horse and throw himself geniality and perfect courtesy to high and low have into a square of his own infantry, who pluckily withstood helped to make him thoroughly beloved of his people. and beat off repeated attacks of the enemy. Curiously After his marriage, he and the Princess made à tour enough, this staunch little square, numbering in all 416 through the chief cities of Italy—with the natural soidiers, consisted of men
exception of Rome—and drafted from every part
were everywhere enthusiof Italy—an encouraging
astically received. A year for the future
later, on November 11th, sovereign of the newly
1869, a son was born, welded kingdom. It was
and na ed Victor E doubtless these early
manuel Ferdinand Marie scenes that helped to in.
Januarius, the title of spire the Prince with his
Prince of Naples being martial tastes and to im
bestowed on him in recogpart the soldier's stamp
nition of his place of to his figure and bearing.
birth. This young Prince Two years later, Prince
is said to be of modest Humbert married. It is
somewhat shy said that Victor Emman
demeanour, but he most uel grew uneasy at the
favourably impressed our Heir Apparent being still
Queen on the occasion of a bachelor, while his
his recent visit to England, younger brother Ama
and he is known to bo deus was married, and
devotedly attached to his told General Menabrea,
parents. He has been the Premier, that he
brought up as a soldier, really must find a wife
and has attained to the for Umberto; to which
rank of Major-General. the former quietly replied
On Rome falling to the that he had already
Italian troops the Prince found the lady in the
and Princess moved to person of the King's own.
the Quirinal, and the niece, the Princess Mar
latter soon took her guerite Marie Therèse
natural place at the Jeanne of Savoy,
Court; a more important daughter of the late Duke
position even (in view of Ferdinand of Genoa.
the absence of a Queen) Victor Emmanuel
than that held by our astonished, for he had
own Princess of Wales never thought much
THE QUEEN OF ITALY. about the young Princess; but Menabrea told him (From a photograph by Guigoni and Bossi, Vilan.)
HIS THRIFT AND ECONOMY. 80 many stories of her
On the death of Victor attractiveness and so enlarged on her nobility of feeling, Emmanuel, Humbert issued a brief proclamation to that the King determined to rush over to the Duchess of his subjects, announcing his devotion to progressive Genoa's palace at Turin and see for himself what the Liberalism and to Italy, and when shortly after he damsel was like. He came, he saw, and was conquered, was enthusiastically hailed from beneath the balconies and was enabled to rescue the Princess from the Prince of of the Quirinal as King, the warmth of his people's Roumania, who, it was believed, was on the very point acclamation so touched him that he embraced his of tendering an offer of marriage. The young bride, young son, the Prince of Naples, with these significant only sixteen years of age, was happily won for Prince words, “My son, I swear to you to live in such wise Humbert, and the marriage was celebrated at Turin amid that at my death you may be proclaimed King with a scene of festivity and magnificence, on April 22nd, similar devotion.” And one of the new King's earliest 1868, the happy occasion being further signalised by the acts was undoubtedly both right-thinking and popular. creation of a new Order, the Corona d'Italia.
Victor Emmanuel had been most extravagant, both in THE HEIR APPARENT.
regard to the lavishness of his charities and his pleasures, The young Prince and his consort thus emerged on to but he was so generally beloved that Parliament was the stage of international politics, and much general minded to defray the debts from the public purse, concuriosity was aroused as to the future King of Italy. siderable though they were. This, however, the new
King would not hear of. Humbert declared that his father's debts were his own, and that it was no one else's duty to liquidate them. Consequently, he set to work to economise throughout the royal establishments, and by rigid reductions succeeded in raising a fund suffi :ient not only to pay off the accumulated debts, but also to enable him to draw upon it for charitable purposez, to which he is generally foremost in subscribing. For instance, about a couple of years ago, at the time of the earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, King Humbert sent 140,000 lire (£5,600) out of his private purse in aid of the relief fund, 205000 lire of this being reserved specially for the poor of Messina; while after the disaster at Adowa he sent no less a sum than half a million lire (£20,000) for the benefit of the widows and orphans of the soldiers killed in Africa.
HIS ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION. About a year after bis accession, an alarming attempt was made on Humbert's life. He was entering Naples in state, riding in an open barouche by the side of the Queen, and with Cairoli, the Prime Minister, sitting opposite, when a balf-crazy cook, Giovanni Passanante, dashed at his majesty with an open knife, and would undoubtedly have done terrible mischief had not Cairoli leaned forward and intercepted the blow, getting wounded himself instead of his royal master. The crime aroused intense excitement throughout Italy, and undoubtedly helped not only to discredit the Anarchists, then rising into unpleasant prominence, but also to quicken the better feelings of the enemies of royalty, and to enhance the general popularity of the sovereign. The Queen, however, sustained a bad nervous shock from the event, and for many months was seriously weakened and prostrate. Passanante was tried and condemned to death, but on the intervention of Humbert the sentence was commuted to penal incarceration for life, and since then the criminal lunatic has been transferred to an asylum.
HIS POPULARITY. Humbert's prevailing trait of character is his strong patriotism; at the same time he finds the routine of
government very irksome. Although he is of open and generous disposition, his temper is short, and he is said to be wanting occasionally in patience, while the complex minutiæ of public affairs worry him. He is not much enamoured of his exalted but responsible position, and (according to Mr. Arthur Warren, whose opinion cannot be disregarded) there is a tolerably widespread belief that while he would do a great deal for his country, he is not wholly without fear that Italy's troubles and some Minister of the fiery and uncompromising type of Crispi may combine at some critical juncture to shake the Monarchy to its foundations. At the same time it would be misleading to omit count of the King's strong popularity. He was always liked, but at the time of the cholera panic in Naples he rose to the dignity of a popular hero. He fearlessly traversed the hospitals and the fever-stricken slums of the city, and did not desist from his errand of mercy and succour till the cholera abated, after which he returned to Monza protesting, in response to the shower of congratulations that overwhelmed him on every side, “I have done nothing but my duty.”
HIS CONSTITUTIONALISM. It is King Humbert's way always to support and even think most highly of his Prime Minister for the time being, an attitude which, though commendable in moderation, may argue at times a certain want of sufficient strength and independence of mind. Victor Emmanuel's Ministers were chosen, until quite lately, from the Moderate Party, while King Humbert's have
PRINCESS HÉLÈSE OF MONTENEGRO,
The Fiancée of the Crown Prince.
(Photograph by Adèle, Vienna.)
been usually taken from the Left or Radicals. Cairoli was from many points of view an enlightened Minister,
and it is said, with much truth, that Italy's policy was to his study, where he works until the luncheon or late less liable to misconstruction during his tenure of office breakfast hour. The meal is succee led by an hour or than since. Whether this was mainly due to Madame two's work with his secretaries, or he will receive Cairoli's undoubted influence over the King it is Ministers or give audiences, after which he often goes for difficult to say. Crispi's adminis
a drive, handling the ribbons tration has been marked by
himself in right good style. various sensational events, such
Dinner is often followed by a as the Sicilian rising of 1894.
visit to the opera or a reception, and the Abyssinian disasters of
but even then the King seldom 1896, the latter having brought
goes to bed without an hour or about the resignation of the Gn
more spent on his correspondence vernment. The Marquis of Rudini's tenure of office has been
THE KING AT A BLIND ASYLUM. characterised by a welcome return to a more moderate policy,
Here is a picture of the King at both at home and abroad. One
the opening of the new Instituto of his very earliest acts was to
for the Blind at Milan, as told recommend to King Humbert the
by M. René Bazin, in his excelexpediency of granting an am
lent little work, “ Les Italiens nesty to those prisoners who,
d'Aujourd'hui”: without being guilty of felony,
The King arrived first from Monza, had been imprisonel for political
in a carriage and pair, nothing at all offences. To this the King gave
out of the common. He wore a great wise assent, and the conse
coat and a silk hat. As soon as the quence was that Europe was
different personages had been prespared the continuance of the
sented, every one, at his command,
put on their hats, and the King prinful scandal of witnessing the
hegan to chat familiarly with the unjustifiable imprisonment of Do
Milanese authoritics and the adminFelice Giuffrida, Deputy for
istrators of the new Institute, standCatania, in the dungeon of the KING HUMBERT (AS CROWN PRINCE) IN 1873.
ing meanwhile in the centre of the Mastia at Volterra, and the de
vestibule, which received the gush privation of the electorate of
of cold air from without. I didn't their municipal and communal rights. Numerous other notice any particular or excessive em pressement on the part of political prisoners were released, the consequence being
those around him. that the Radicals, who had fiercely opposed Crispi's
He spoke to every one in short phrases, and in a low voice rough-shod rule, were conciliated by Rudinis more
with a frequent, curious, upward jerk of the chin. His bearmerciful régime, and since then Italy has beheld the
ing is military, and one can guess from his appearance that he
prefers to talk standing, with his chest well expanded, and anomaly of a Conservative Ministry supported and main
making one or two steps forward now and then, a habit which tained in power by a Liberal and Radical majority.
he retains even during the Court receptions, and of which HIS LOVE OF MERCY.
young diplomatists in particular never compl uin. His mou
staches, though formidible, are less so than on the coinage, It is said to be largely due to King Humbert's personal
but his glance, somewhat astonishing in its fixity, has nothing intervention that this amnesty was conceded, and the harsh about it. The King bas gained enormously in popularity effect on public opivion has been undoubtedly salutary. since the cholera in Naples, and he feels it. It was recognised more and more that the Sicilian risings The arrival of the Queen is thus told:were not due to Socialistic propaganda so much as to purely economic causes. One significant incident is that
A carriage and four with smart postillions dashed up to
the steps. The Queen descended and passed in on the King's when the soldiery were ordered to firo upon the peasants arm between the hedges of guests. She wore a Medici black wbo had risen against the extortionate demands of the velvet cipe, a black velvet bonnet with large feathers, and a local tax-gatherers, the poor Sicilians lifted up portraits of dark blue gown. The two hedges bowed, the Queen smiled, their King and Queen to shield them against the bullets, and, as every one knows, her smile is celebrated. She hug as a Palladium or relic too sacred for the military to fire lovely long golden eyelashes, which give a charm to her glance. mpon ! A pretty clear proof, one would venture to M. Bazin seems to have been bored with the subsequent think, that these more than half-starved, ignorant proceedings, which included an address, and music peasants, misguided though they might be, were not all rendered by the blind pupils; but having had the pleasure of them dangerous, anarchical and revolutionary desper- ourselves of going over the very same establishment, adoes, as depicted by Signor Crispi in his famous spiech presided over by that energetic friend of the blind, the in the Chamber of Deputies. A new Commissioner for Abbé Vitali (with whom King Humbert conversed, on Sicily has been appointerl, and it is sincerely to be hoped the occasion described, with great animation), we cannot that the obvious advantage of having one responsible plead guilty to the same lack of interest in the instituMinister for the Ireland of Italy may conduce to some tion and its work. We remember in particular the well-planned and efficacious measures for the regenera admirable singing of the blind damsels in that graceful tion of the island.
spinning chorus from “ The Flying Dutchman,” and the
capital industrial work turned out in the workshops by King Hombert's personal habits and tastes are simple
the adult pupils. and regular. He is an early riser, and is generally astir about 7 a.m. After a light breakfast with the Qucen, he M. Bazin's further remarks are, however, worth often takes a walk in the beautiful gardens of the noting: Quirinal when in Rome, after which he betakes himself In Paris for a Negro Prince, Worth and Félix would have
THE KING AMONG THE PEOPLE.
been besieged; here every one came dressed quite plainly. and Italian literature, and like so many of her country. The greater part of the men present wore only round hats,
women, to be a good musician and vocalist, and her though at the evening receptions all changes as by enchant
receptions are noticeable, not only for the clerer people ment, and under the glitter and glare of torches and lamplight
one meets, but also for the absence of that excess of the greatest luxury in toilettes and jewellery may be seen.
ceremonial and constraint observable in other royal One more thing astonished me, namely, the almost entire absence of uniforms, of barriers, and of police. The white
circles. Informal receptions are held on Sunday erenplumes of an aisle-de-camp were visible waving here and
ings, which all those having the entrée and the standing there above the various groups, and a questorino with belted of personal friends are free to attend, and the relish of blue tunic asked people to make way for the King and Queen,
the King and Queen for all the current chit-chat and otherwise the sovereigns seemed unguarded. One could their familiarity with the up-to-date gossip about their approach them easily, as they were surrounded with peoplo neighbours are surprising. The following description of just as in any saloon where all the guests are known to or the Queen's private sitting-room throws light on her intimate with one another.
tastes: Meanwhile the King chatted resignedly with various personages. All Italians live on this footing of familiar
Books in many languages and on varied subjects not only diplomacy. I was told that in Genoa during the centenary of
fill the bookcases, but strew the chairs and tables, showing Columbus, the small steam launch of the King was surrounded
they are really used; stacks of music abound; fancy-worki, by boats full of common people, and that sometimes one or
finished and in course of making, meets the eye at every turn other of the poorer classes, otherwise quite unknown to the
--for the Queen puts to good use the few hours she can call King, would touch his arm or bis shoulder, saying: Buona
her own--and her quick intelligence and tenacious memory
allow her to make the nost of her reading. sera, Maestà ! I had scarcely got nearer home when the Queen's carriage
THE COURT AT THE QUIRINAL. passed me, the four horses snorting and shaking their bells. All the cabs stopped and ranged up alongside of the road,
The Quirinal Palace at Rome is the royal residence almost all the shopmen, paviors, and coachmen raised their
during the Parliamentary Session, which begins in hats and caps, but no one called out. And when I expressed
November. It occupies a commanding position on a hill my astonishment I was answered with, “ We are monarchists
150 feet in height, but is not quite an ideal palace, here, but not courtiers !"
having been built by three popes for different purposes. Although in some respects King Humbert bears a The garden_laid out in 1627 by Pope Barberini is decided resemblance to his father, he has not the same
exquisite. The best room is the Paolino Chapel, but it robust constitution, though he has, of course, grown
cannot be used, as the Pope persistently refuses to let stronger and stouter than when a young man. Smoking
divine service be performed there. The royal speech on was a favourite practice with Humbert, and at one time the opening of Parliament is delivered by King Humbert he carried this to excess; but on his doctor prescribing
in person, and we may take the opening of the Chamber abandonment of the habit he gave it up for good, and
in 1894 as a typical scene. The Queen drives from the has never reverted to it.
palace in a state coach drawn by six bay horses, and is
received at Montecitorio by the Committee of the Senate THE HAIR-DYED POODLE.
and Chamber deputed for the purpose. The King Of late years the King has aged somewhat, so far at arrives later with equal state. He and his consort are least as his hair is concerned, which has turned almost escorted to the thrones erected in the spacious amphiwhite, and regarding which the following is related in a theatre and take their seats, surrounded by the Crown clever magazine article of a few years back :
Prince of Naples, the Count of Turin, the Duke of The Queen was anxious that her husband should follow the Aosta, the Duke of Genoa, and all the Ministers. The example of his father and the fashion common among elderly diplomatic corps in their rich and varied uniformis Piedmontese officers, and dye his hair. Her pleadings were in form a striking feature of the brilliant scene. Emile vain, Umberto's is an honest nature that does not love these Zola and his wife (the famous novelist was then collectsubterfuges. Seeing entreaty was in vain, the Queen had ing material for part of his trilogy “Paris-Lourdesrecourse to stratagem. She caused a quantity of fine hair-dye Rome ") occupied à box just opposite the throne, and to be sent from Paris and put in the King's dressing-room,
were the objects of universal attention. At half-past together with directions for its use, making, however, no
eleven, after delivery of the Speech, the royal party allusion to the subject. The King too said nothing, though.e
returned to the Palace. could not fail to see the pigments. Now, the Queen has a large white poodle, of which she is very fond. What was her
HUMBERT THE HUNTER. horror a few days later to see her pet come running into her
The King possesses a large number of royal establishroom with his snowy locks all turned to a jet black. King
ments and properties, which cost him a great deal to Umberto had expended the dyes upon changing the colour of
These consist of no fewer than fourteen the poodle's hair! From that day forth the subject of hair-dye was dropped between the royal couple.
palaces and villas and five domains, chiefly scattered
over northern Italy, while one, the Abbaye de HauteTHE QUEEN.
combe, on the picturesque shores of Lake Bourget, near Queen Margherita since her accession to the throne Aix-les-Bains, is situated in a sort of enclave in French has more than justified the favourable anticipations territory. Several ancestors of the House of Savoy are formed of her. She then assumed her full position, and here buried. In the Gran Paradiso six hundred ibes or her grace, beauty, and winning ways have undoubtedly bouquetins are preserved, and in the Castel Porziano charmed all brought in contact with her. She is said domain there are a great many fine specimens of the to have been at first excessively fond of dress, and to American elk, specially imported from the Yellowstone have perhaps not sufficiently set the example of Range in the United States. Humbert is devoted to simplicity in Italian society. When quite young she sport, especially mountaineering sport, and one of his was thin and delicate, but since then has grown stouter favourite occupations has been to go on shooting expedi-possibly since she has given up, to some extent, tions into the Piedmontese mountains, where he is quite her favourite pastime of mountain climbing. Queen content to put up with the roughest shelter and subsist Margherita is said to be well acquainted with German on ordinary peasants' food. His indifference to changes
of weather is well known; rain, snow, and the Italian of agriculture, Italian farming, the rotation of crops sun are all alike to him, al contempt of the elements and kindred questions, is said to be quite remarkable. which his friends and suite find it very trying to The stables are his special care, and he is well up in the emulate. He is also an excellent horseman, and is said breeding and care of horses. to keep about three hundred horses altogether, selected from the best breeds of various countries, in a fine range The park at Monza, one of the largest in Italy, is of stables built by Victor Emmanuel at the Quirinal, and
between seven and eight miles in circumference, and in his stud farm in the country.
beautifully diversified, being laid out in ornamental
slopes, rising grounds and dells, interspersed with Monza, the ancient capital of the Lombards, and at grottoes, lakes, and fountains. It was originally planned present the summer and autumn retreat of the King and laid out by Eugene Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy and Queen, is situated in a fertile and prosperous plain, under the first Napoleon. Five gates give access thereto, close to the southern slopes of the Alps and about nine and a few picturesque villas and chalets are dotted about. miles north of Milan. Its antiquity may be gauged from It has a characteristically English appearance, and is the fact that the cathedral of St. John the Baptist (sce traversed by the placid stream of the Lambro, which is illustration) was founded by Queen Theodolindi, one shaded by some fine trees, larger than the generality of of the earliest Lombard sovereigns, in the sixth century. those seen in Loonbardy. The original
Hither King iron crown of
Humbert and Lombardy, said
his consort reto be hammered
pair as soon as out of a nail of
the Italian Parthe true cross, is
liament is prothere preserved
rogued, genein a casket. The
rally about the crown is of pure
middle of July, gold, with
by which time twenty-two pre
the Eternal City cious stones set
usually becomes therein, the iron
intolerably hot portion, which
and trying. Ungives the name,
til late in the consisting of a
autumn the thin circlet in
King and Queen the interior.
abide in their Along the nar
beloved Monza, row, cobble.
and the Quirinal stone paved
remains empty, streets of this
gers Ait backlittle town, ac
wards and forcording to the
wards between correspondentof
the capital and an Italian paper,
the Lombardian King Humbert
villegiatura. In may often be
his private life seen driving at
Humbert is said a quick rattle a THE CHURCH OF SAN GIOVANNI BATTISTA AT MONZA.
to be most unsmall low coun
affected and try cart, not unlike in general construction those affected simple, not free from a partiality for gossip about his by our London costermongers, but lighter and smarter acquaintances and neighbours and a keen desire to know in appearance. The Castle of Monza, or Villa Reale, as it everything that is going on in the town and its surroundis popularly called, is approached through an avenue of ings. But in all public matters he is strictly constitutrees which connects it with the Communal Palace, a tional, and no sooner does the Session recommence than brick structure built in the early Lombardo-Gothic style he hastens back to the seat of government with that of architecture on the site of a palace of King Theodoric. punctilious reverence for regal observances and proThe castle was erected in *1777 by the Archduke prieties which has doubtless largely conduced to his Ferdinand, son of Maria Theresa of Austria, while widespread popularity. Governor of the Austrian Province of Lombardy. The
C. E. D. B. architect was Piermarini, the designer of the great theatre of La Scala at Milan. The living-rooms of the King and Queen are simply furnished, though with The Bookmın for September contains quite a fierce decided taste and elegance. On the walls are to be seen portrait of Mr. Edmund Gosse, who is the subject of an choice works by modern Italian artists, the royal couple appreciative study in the series of "Living Critics." being great picture buyers, though King Humbert There is a portrait, too, and a short article on Mr. modestly disclaims all critical knowledge of art. As Stephen Phillips, whose little volume of verse, “ Christ he possesses no villa at Rome, the King devotes himself in Hades," attracted so much attention earlier in the with all the more zest to the embellishment and
Mr. Phillips, by the way, has a short poem in improvement of his Monza property, and his knowledge the New Review.