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and cold in tens of thousands, should surely gain for it some mercy in the judgment of the Western nations; but that the scheme should be deliberately carried out to ensure by a sistem of outrage that no Armenian woman over a large tract of country shall become the mother of an Armenian child, is an enormity such as surely never before entered into the mind of man to devisc. And yet the civilised peoples stand idly by and talk, and allow this poisoning of the fountains of life to proceeil month after month unchecked; surely inere selfish apprehension of the punishment that must follow such callous indifference to crimes should have roused them to action. Winter will soon be upon Armenia again, with snow lying deep for many months; the people will be almost naked, quite starving. Let us remember this time that the kindest way is to let them die quickly, and not dole out again enough bread to preserve them for longer misery. Let us kill them outright, rather than save them to suffer.

AND IN CRETE. The writer signing himself “W.” in the Fortnightly Review discusses the Cretan question. His theory is that Crete should be detached from the Ottoman Empire and annexed to Greece. He says that the arguments in farour of doing this are strong, but that there are no arguments against it. He forgets the very strong argument there exists in the shape of the reluctance of the Turk to quit his prey :

It was advocated by the Tsar Alexander in 1824, and by both France and Russia in 1866. Prince Bismarck was also strongly in favour of it. He told Lori Augustus Loftus at the time of the Cretan insurrection, thirty years ago, that “if England would assist in obtaining the cession of Crete to Greece all present difficulties in the East would be at once arranged," adding, curiously evough, “that the civil war in Crete could not continue without danger to other portions of the Ottoman Empire”-the very argument which is now used for disarming the struggling patriots.

many years.” The choir took up the refrain “For many years," and repeated it antipbonally till the sounds softly died away. Agnin the deacon began : “ To his wife, the orthodox and religious, crowned, and exalted Lady, the Empress Alexandra Feodorovn, for many years;” and again the choir repeated the good wish.

THE TSAR'S PRAYER IN THE SILENCE. The coronation cere:nony was now accomplished, and the bells clanged out and the cannon thundered, to announce the fact to the dense throng outside, who shouted out their joyful cingratulations. The members of the imperial family left their places and did homage. It was pathetic to see the wistful look in the face of the Dowager Empress as she tenderly embraced her son, and both were overcome by deep emotion. Then all others in the cathedral bowed low three times to the Emperor, who stood to receive this acknowledgment of their fealty. The bells and candon ceased, and there was profound stillness, as the Emp-ror knelt, and in clear, carnest voice prayed for himself': “Lord God of our fathers, and King of Kivgs, Who hast created all things by Thy word, and by Thy wisdom hast made man, that he should walk uprightly and rulo righteously over Thy world; Thou hast chosen me as Tsar and judge over Thy people. I acknowledge Thy unsearchable purpose towards me, and bow in thankfulness before Thy Majesiy. * Do Thou, my Lord and Governor, fit me for the work to which Thou hast sent me: teach me and gnide me in this great service. May there be with me the wisidum which belongs to Thy throne; send it from Thy holy heaven, that I may know what is well-pleasing in Thy sight, and what is right according to Thy commandment. May iny heart be in Thine hand, to accomplish all that is to the profit of the people committed to my charge, and to Thy glory, that so in the day of Thy judgment I may give Thee account of my stewardBhip without blame; through the grace and mercy of Thy Son, Who was once crucified for us, to Whom be all honour and glory with Thee and the Holy Ghost, the Giver of Life, fos ever and ever. Amen.”

DR. CREIGHTON'S IMPRESSIONS. The Bishop, summing up the last total of his inpressions, says:

Such a ceremony cannot be measured by our standards; it was an expression of national sentiment, penetrated by a poetry and a passion unknown to us, or rather I should not say unknown, in the sense of unfelt, but such as we should not care to express in any visible form. It was an exhibition of national self-consciousness upon a mighty scale, and as such produced a deep impression on all beholders. It focussed many national characteristics, and showed a serious sense of a great national mission, with which every Englisi muon could feel himself in fundamental sympathy.

THE PRAYER OF THE TSAR.

AND LET ALL THE PEOPLE SAY AYEN. The Bishop of Peterborough contributes to the Cornhill Magazin- an account of the Coronation at Moscow. From this brilliantly-written article I extract the following description of the culmination of the ceremonial, which evidently inade a deep impression on Dr. Creighton.

THE TITLES OF THE TSAR.
After the crowning of the Tsar and his wife,

The Emperor, again taking the sceptre and the globe, sat in his throne, while the deacon, in tones, throbbing with esultant joy, proclaimed the imperial titles. Louder and louier rose his voice as the long list went on, till it rolled through the building and broke upon the ear in almost overwhelming waves of sound. Rarely could the majestic effect of territorial names be more distinctly recognised, or more magnificently expressed : “ To our mighty Lord, crowned of God, Nicolas Alexandrovitch, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kieff, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of hazin Tur of Astrachan Tsar of Poland. Teir of Siberia Txir of the Tauric Chersonese, Tsar of Georgia; Lord of Pokuff; Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Vollivnia, Puolia, and Finland ; Prince of Esthonia, Livonia, Curland ant Semgallen, of Bielostok, Coria, Tver, Ingria, Perm, Viatka, Bulguria and other lands; Lord and Grand Duke of Nijni Novgorod, of Tchernigoff, Riazan, Polotelsk, Ro-tott, Jaroslavz, Bielolersk, Udoria, Obdoria, Condia, Vitebsk, Mot slaff, and all northern lands: Ruler and Lord

virtalian, and Kabardinskian lands, as of the region of Armenia; Ruler of the Circassian anıl Hill princes and other brds; Heir of Norway: Duke of Schleswix-Holstein, Stornnirn, Ditmarsch, and Oldenburg; grant, O Lord, a happy and prac.ful life, health, and safety, and prosperity in all good, victory and triumph over all his foes; and preserve liim for

Mexican Prospects. La Administrucion, an excellent monthly published at Madrid. and numbering among its contributors some well-known American, British and Continental writers, has an interesting article on economic progress in Mexico.

The statistics and details given by the writer show that this epubne this Republic-“ one of the most important in America" -is in a flourishing condition. The period of national deficits is gone; the income exceeds the expenditure to an extent which will make it possible for the Government to lighten the burden of taxation (instead of adding to it), and do more for the intellectual and material welfare of the people. In spite of the increased income administrative charges are beirg reduced as much as possible. The railway and telegraph systems are being considerably extended, and small holdings are being granted to agricultural labourers. Every branch of trade is in a prosperous condition, traffic is increasing at the poits, and the credit of the Republic is good. According to Sr. J. S. Gadeo, Mexican prospects are bright.

LI HUNG CHANG.

WHAT HE THOUGHT OF US. In the United Service Magazine for September an anonymous writer, who evidently knows what he is writing about, gives some acco:mt of the impressions of Li Hung Chang. It would seem that our visitor left this country firmly determined to introduce railways into China without any loss of time:

I think I may say that he has quite come to the conclusion, that of all forms of travel, the most comfortable is a good saloon carriage, with comfortable seats or sofas, in a railway on a well-laid line. On one occasion, when he had been driven some ten miles out of London in one of Lord Lonsdale's excellent carriages, he peremptorily declared that nothing should induce him to go back that way, and he returned by a special train.

Visions of the dusty travellers who arrived at Eynesford, rise before me when I hear of the emphasis with which the veteran Chinese statesman has innounced his intention of as quickly as possible getting extensive railways introduced into China. The contrast of a thoroughly dusty road immediately preceding the transit by a well-conducted special train, with a special saloon, charmingly decorated with flowers, and with ample room to movo or be moved about, may not have been unfortunate or unimportant if its effect on the body and mind of Li Hung Chang leads to the early introduction of railways into that vast Empire.

Very striking, too), was the fact, to which those who saw liim at Portsmouth all testify, that the thing about which he was even then most interested was the story he had heard of our Horse Artillery guns travelling wherever cavalry could go, and that they could go at a rapid pace over banks and ditches. Of the power of our fleet he was well aware, but for him, so far as army training was concerned, the point of importance was not the numbers that we could put in the field at Aldershot or elsewhere, but the nature of the training we are able to impart. Egypt and India and his own experiences with Gordon have taught him what sort of armies English officers can make out of native troops. What he wanted to see was a specimen of some of our training at home. No one who noticed the keen eye and vivid interest with which he watched, as a specimen of horsemanship, the musical ride, or the eagerness with which he saw the Horse Artillery gallop past and then ride over the manèges on Woolwich Common, could have much doubt what was passing through his mind, and it may make itself better known hereafter.

A FRENCH VIEW OF LI. A well known French missionary, Père Coldre, in the Revue de Paris, gives a curious account of Li Hung Chang, from a French and slightly critical point of view; but the article is one of tho most notable contributions to French periodical literature.

Père Coldre draws a striking contrast between the Chinese and Japanese Envoys sent by their respective countries to the Tsar's Coronation. Marshal Yamagata, the brilliant little Japanese soldier, was clothed in the freshest of European uniforms. Li, majestically draped in the ample robes of a Mandarin, might have been a contemporary of Confucius. The following facts about our late Chinese visitor are not without interest. Born on February 16th, 1823, he comes of a cultivated and literary Chinese family; he was educated with the greatest care, and became in his twenty-fourth year what we should style First Wrangler, in an examination which gathers together all the intellectual élite of China. There was at that time nothing of the soldier in Li Hung Chang, for it was not till the year 1850 that the great rebellion turned Chin into a vast battlefield, and ultimately caused the death of twenty million of men. Then followed years of fighting; and it was not till 1866, says Père Coldre, that. Li first entered into relations

with General Gordon. The writer evidently believes that the Chinese Bismarck allowed and even promoted the late Japanose-Chinese conflict. The incognate collection of provinces which go to make up the Chinese Empire had become torpid, and Li Hung Chang saw that nothing he could do would rouse them from their apathy. In spite of all his efforts, bribery and corruption reigned supreme, and although he worked unceasingly at the strengthening of the army and the fleet, he saw that only a war-and a war at this particular stage—would save his country. Once peace was declared, Li Hung Chang proved his extraordinary cleverness, and thanks to his inarvellous astuteness and diplomatic ability China has come out of the affair with no loss of territory, and with the payment of a comparatively small indemnity. One result of his late tour in Europe will be the expatriation of a hundred Germ:in officers, who, tempted by the promise of enormous “pay,” will reorganise the Celestial Army.

MR. WHISTLER, PAINTER AND COMEDIAN. THERE is an article in McClure's Magazine for September which gives, in a few pages, a bright and amusing account of Mr. Whistler. The following are somo of Mr. Whistler's bon mots :

Much of his table-talk wonld be pointless in print, as it owes its chief charm to his voice and manner and gistures, His great delight is to startle people, and he will often say things simply because they are unexpected. An admirer once said to him, “Mr. Whistler, there are only two great painters, yourself and Velasquez.” Thereupon he slowly winked his left eye and asked, " Why drag in Velasquez :" A laily raving about the Thames scenery to him said, “Tue whole trip was like a series of your superb etchings." “ Ye-es," he replied, “Nature is creeping up."

Mr. Whistler's house at Chelsea was very pretty and artistic as fir as it went, but, either through laziness or impecuniosity, he only furnished one room besides the bedroom during the first year or two of liis stay. Everywhere you encounteed great packing-cases full of pretty things, and saw preparations for papering and carpeting, but somehow or other nothing ever got any forwarder. What was done was perfect in its way. The white wainscoting, the rich draperies, the rar Oriental chin:', the pictures and their frames-the old silverall had a charm and a history of their own.

The following is a description of the eccentric artist's personal appearance :

All through the summer Mr. Whistler holds a kind of reception every Sunday afternoon in the garden.at the back of his house. His face is a remarkable one. It is covered with countless wrinkles, but is clear of complexion, and evidently very well groomed. He wears a well-curled grey moustach, and slightly imperial. His eyebrows are unusnally busly, and his glistening brown eyes peep out from underneath them like snakes in the grass. His hair is the most “ amazing" part of his get-up. It is all arranged in separate curls, most artistically put together. They are all dyed black, with the exception of one which remains quite white, and on grand occasions is tied up with a small-ribbon.

When he goes out in London he always gets hims:lf up very elaborately, in a way that is sure to rouse attention. He weari a very long black overcoat, rather like that of one of the little men in the “ Noah's Ark," and a French top hat with the brim standing straight out. In his hand he carries a kind of wand of bamboo about four feet long and very thin. His glores and boots are very carefully selected, and of irreproachable fit. When he walks about the streets of London, he generally has a crowd of small boys in pursuit, and nearly everybody turns around to look at him with a smile as he passes. However, lit very rarely walks, but usunlly goes everywhere in a banson, except just in the very fashionable quarters.

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THE LATE SIR JOHN E. MILLAIS.

I.-AS AN ILLUSTRATOR. MR. AND MRS. PENSELL, writing in the Fortnightly Review on “John Everett Millais, Painter and Illustrator," devote most of their space to a consideration of his work in black-and-white. At present, they say, until his paintings are collected and hung together, it would be premature, if not impossible, to give a just and thorough criticism of Millais as a painter, but his work as a book-illustrator can be discussed.

THE MODERN DÜRER.
Of this they speak very highly. They say :-

It is strange that, up to the present, only the original drawings by the Old Master has been collected; though, during this century, and especially the latter half of it, original drawings in black-and-white have been made which are equal to those by Dürer. The work of Dürer, which we now rave over, and, in an ignorant fashion, try to imitate, was made for the people, even as were the drawings which Millais did for Once a Week, Good Words, and the Cornhill, or Moxon's edition of Tennyson.

WHERE HIS WORK IS TO BE FOUND. In 1859 he commenced work for Once a Week, and his name appears on the cover of the new magazine as one of the regular artist-contributors. He continued during 1860 to work for it, and in the following year, with the starting of the Cornhill, he was given “Framley Parsonage to illustrate. In this story he really finds himself. The last drawing in the volume, “ Is it not a Lie ?” is as good, as distinguished, as anything he ever did in his life.

The Pennells say his drawings in black-and-white are distinctively English

Far more important, they are thoroughly artistic. Some, especially his illustrations for Trollope's “Framley Parsonage," “ Orley Farm,” and the “Small House at Allingham,” are perfect presentments of the life of his owu time, and the volumes which contain these masterpieces can be purchased at out-of-the-way, second-hand bookshops for eighteen penco each.

HIS SUCCESS. Millais did not confine nimself to the subjects of his own time in black-and-white any more than in paint. History, sacred and profane, poetry, old and new, were treated by him with the same enthusiasm, the same energy, the same endeavour to illustrate the author's meaning. Though among his drawings, as well as his paintings—and the same can be said of every other great man-there were failures, still the larger part of his work was an unqualified success.

HIS BIBLE PICTURES. As though to make it clear that he was not tied to modernity, in 1863 there appeared in Good Words his illustrations to the " Parables of Our Lord,” a series of Bible pictures which, it is safe to say, have never been equalled. In these there is the same conviction and realism that one finds in the work of Rembrandt and, the old men. The Parable Series was peprinted in 1864, in book form, by Routledge, and of all the lwoks of this period it is the rarest. The prey and the sport of the Sunday-school and the nursery, it has vanished. Some day the intelligent collector and dealer will struggle for this shockingly-bound pastel board-printed, gilt-edged volume, as already he struggles for the etchings of Rembrandt and

The black-and-white art of the sixties was a genuine and original movement in this country, and to Sir J. E. Millais belongs the credit for much of it. At the Exhibition, which is sure to iz held before long, a room should be devoted to his contributions to what justly may be called “the Golden Age of English Illustration.” To leave such a record in paint and print is to have made life for him worth living.

II.-AS A PAINTER, In the Magazine of Art for September, Mr. M. H. Spielmann, the editor, mourns the loss of " England's greatest painter of the century” :

Millais (be writes) was the most universally beloved man who, through his genius, has ever made his way into the heart and the affections of a nation. . A life of glory, prematurely cut short, has been snatched away, leaving English art deprived of its brightest, if not its greatest, ornament.

AN UNCOMPROMISING ENGLISHMAN, Millais came of an old Jersey family, and he claimed that his family and that of the French Millet could be traced to a common ancestor. But there was nothing French about him, for Mr. Spielmann continues:

He was an uncompromising Englishman-a point on which I would insist in view of the contention urged by foreign critics that his attitude towards art was essentially a “ Latin one : by which is roughly meant that the painter's business is to paint, exclusive of all considerations of the subject and the morality of it.

THE PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHERHOOD. Mr. Spielmann's estimate of the art of Millais is interesting. Referring to the Biblical pictures, he writes :

There was always that impressiveness in these religious works which belongs to manly sincerity and devotion; but they lacked the note of grandeur when Millais was left to himself. “The Widow's Mite was intellectually inadequate —for in spite of the happy arrangement and composition of the work, the figure of Christ was lacking in divine dignityjust as in his latest work, “ The Forerunner," the figure of St. John was, as a creation, intellectually deficient.

Millais's great pictures of the Pre-Raphaelite period—in many qualities really great-are the combination of others' powers besides his own. His is the wonderful execution, the fine composition, the brilliant drawing; but Dante Rossetti's imagination was on one side of him, and Holman Hunt's intellect was on the other.

There were some who could appreciate the religious symbolism which was one of the principles of the Brotherhood; others, though fewer, forgave the artist for the sake of his sincere and careful elaboration of detail; fewest of all could see eye to eye with the painter how“ The Carpenter’s Shop" should be made like a carpenter's shop, and how realism. with eloquent symbolism enforced, could make as pious and passionate a piece of painting as the grace, the picturing, and attitudinising of any of the Old Masters you may choose to name. In 1859 came

“ The Vale of Rest.” It was received with a tumult of criticism and protest.

How came Millais, then, to attain his high position in the art world ? Mr. Spielmann makes answer :

It was the universality of his genius in every section of the pictorial arts, which constituted his claim to the position which he conquered. He was a dramatist with the true artist's instinct of leaving his drama unfinished, though sometimes suggested; he had feeling for colour unsurpassed in England; his drawing was irreproachable; his line and composition were almost inspired; his black and white has never been excelled. In portraiture, in landscape, in flower-painting, as well as in simple drama, he has been supreme,

Whistler.

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THE FUTURE OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING RACE. free to work out its own development in its own way; it will A PROPHECY BY SIR WALTER BESANT.

be impossible for them to quarrel; they will understand that

free trade between themselves will be the best in their own In the North American Review for August, Sir Walter

interests; their pries will be courteous, each to each; they will Besant discourses upon the future of the English-speak

be rivals only in art, science, and literature. Above all, they ing race, amplifying and enlarging on much of what he

will form a firm alliance, offensive and defensive, with such a said in his address at Browning Hall on July 4th : navy that all the world united in arms would be powerless THE GROWTH OF OCR RACE.

agaivst them. And, as an example for all the world to see, In a hundred years the English-speaking race has leped un

there will be the great federation of our race, an immense from twenty millions to a hundred and twenty milliois, and

feleration, free, law-abiding, peaceful, yet ready to fight; has extended its possessions by something like a fifth part of

tenacious of old customs; dwel ing continually with the same the habitable globe. It would be impossible to find any other

ideas; keeping, as their ancestors from Friesland did before exanıple in history of an increase so rapid, and an extension of

them, each family as the unit; every home the centre of the territory so vast. If in fifty years' time the United States will

earth; every township of a dozen men the centre of the have a hundred millions instead of sixty, Australia will havo

government. twenty millions instead of four, South Africa ten millions Practical men will probably suggest that the British instead of two, and so on. Let us remember that the continent Colonists would do well not to throw away the bond of of Australia will be able to support a population of two hundred union which they have at present in the hope of millions, and that Soith Africa will support as many as are achieving hereafter the arbitral union of which Sir likely to demand its hospitality for a hundred years to come. Walter Besant speaks.

GREATER BRITAIN REPUBLICAN. Discussing the future of the race, Sir Walter dwells much upon the significance of the fact that-

HOW TO STUDY HISTORY. While all the states that have come out of Great Britain In the Contemporary Review, Sr Roland K. Wilson have had to create their own form of government, every one writes an interesting article on the questiou “Should has become practically a republic.

History be Taught Backwards ?”. After discussing the Yet while all the Colonies are virtually Republican, way in which history can be taught backwards, he sums the mother country is less Republican than she was up his conclusions as follows: twenty years ago :

1. For the purpose of inculcating moral lessons any periol The form of government under which the English peoplo

will serve in the hands of a skilful teacher, but the times live is so firmly established, it rests on such solid foundations

nearest our own are the most fruitful in lessons of easy of the will, consent, and deliberate choice of the people, that

application to present needs, and generally, though not init will not be removed or changed till something happens t:)

variably, the moderately remote are preferable to the very change this will and consent. Nor do I think that there will

remote. be in the great coco iies any approach to English ideas in this

2. For the purpose of explaining present politics in the more respect. With every generation the republican ideas certainly

direct sense, by showing how things have come to be as they become intensifiel; with every gen :ration, then, these great

are, the study of present phenomena should first be carried up colonies will become more and more separatel from the

to the point at which the need for historical explanation is fe.. mother country in feeling. There is one event, and only one,

to be really pressing; and when historical inquiry is resortei which would be able to convert a republic into a monarchv;

to, it should proceed from known effects to the immediate that would be a life and death struggle, a disastrous war, a

cause thereof, thence to the causes of those causes, and so on. term of deep-seated national humiliation, when the country

3. The principle of mastering the nearer before the more miglit take shelter under a dictator who might becoms

remote periods is in all cases to be recommended, but more emperor or king.

especially to those whose studies are in danger of being brokea

off before the whole ground can be covered. This hypothesis, of course, cannot be seriously considered.

4. There is no reason for departing from the usual co

secutive style of narration with respect to any particular THE DISRUPTION OF THE RACE.

series of closely-connected events, so long as attention is Yet Sir Walter thinks that otherwise the disruption of directed at the commencement to that more recent and alreads the race is inevitable:

known state of things, the transition to which from an earlie If, however, the English government remaios what it is,

and different state of things it will be the object of the story and the English colonies become more and more obstinately

to explain. The third chapter of Macaulay's “ History o republican, there will most certainly exist a permanent cleavage

England,” contrasting the condition of the country und between them, growing every year wider and wiler. That is

Queen Victoria with its condition under Charles II., afforda a true, and it is a danger which can only be met in one way,

good example of this. which I will presently explain.

5. The general acceptance of these views would revolutionis the method of writing “Outlines of History” for beginners:

but standard histories like that of Gibbon, sweeping majestiApart from the form of government, what line of change cally over vast tracts of time in the downward chronologi -al awaits our race in the immediate future? The colonies will order, would retain their charm and their utility for ripr drop off one after the other, and become independent. Aus stud!'nts, altedy acquainted with the general relation of the tralia, which could not, as yet, defend herself against Japan, past to the present, and desiring (as in the instance girea must, as she grows stronger, become independent. We shall above) to fix and deepen their impression by travelling back then--say in fifty years—see six great Euglish-speaking in more leisurely fashion over the old ground. nations; every one will be more populous than France at the present day; filled with people who have absorbed all foreign

De Gids contains the first instalment of a Dutch ilmixtures; governed by the same laws; inheriting all the

version of “The Amazing Marriage. In a footnote it is Anglo-Saxon qualities, virtues, and weaknesses.

stated that this rendering of George Meredith's “Ja est ARBITRATION THE BOND OF UNiox.

nov. I” is an attempt to introduce that author to the Between these six nations, Sir Walter thinks there will

reading public of Holland, and that, although this exist only one bond of union, viz., a Boa :/ of Arbitration, rendering my be regarded as

inere woodcut in at which they will all be represented :

comparison with the original picture, it will nevertheless The six nations will be separate, yet upiteil; e..ch will be suffi:e to convey a fair idea of the latter.

THE SIX NATIONS THAT ARE TO BE.

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JOHN STUART MILL.

BY FREDERIC HARRISON. MR. FREDERIC HARRISON contributes to the Nineteenth Century for September one of those eloquent and luminous appreciations of a great English inan of letters which of late we have been accustomed to find only in the pages of the Forum. Mr. Harrison's present subject is John Stuart Mill, Mr. Mill is Mr. Morley's master, not Mr. Harrison's. But as Mr. Morley is in Parliament, Mr. Harrison offers his services as a kind of pis aller, and does his best to do justice to the most important name in English philosophy between Bentham and Spencer.

MILL AS A CITIZEN. Mill was not merely a man of letters and a philosopher, he was a Member of Parliament and a public-spirited citizen. Mr. Harrison says:

Mill held a very unusual position-at once head of a school of philosophy, and also a most active social reformer, a politician of mark, and the inspirer of many practical movements, moral, economic, or religious. With Mill's political activity and his writings on politics we are not now concerned. They belong to his own generation, not to ours. And, however rich with light and leading to the movements which they founded or inspired, their effect was in no sense either so great or so permanent as that of his books. His whole conduct in public was that of a courageous, conscientious, and noble-minded citizen, who gave his countrymen a rare example of how to play that most perilous of all parts—the philosopher as ruler. Whether we agree or not with all his aims, his bearing was always a combination of patience, justice, a lofty morality, and unflinching courage.

MILL'S PERSONALITY. Mr. Morley's splendid tribute to John Stuart Mill's personal character is quoted by Mr. Harrison with entire approval. He says :

It is perhaps not easy for those who did not personally know him to do justice to all that was great and good in Mill's nature. By education and by temperament alike he was one of the most reserved and self-contained of men, formally and externally not very sympathetic, a Stoic by birth and training, cramped from childhood by an unnatural and almost inhuman type of discipline, a man to whom the ordinary amusements, humonrs, and passions of life were as utterly unknown as were its follies and its vices. His punctilious courtesy was such as to seem somewhat pedagogic to the ordinary man of the World; as his generosity was so methodically rational as to seen almost ungracious to the idle good fellow.

Infinitely patient, just, tolerant as he was, he was always dominated by the desire to strike the balance of right and wrong, of the weight of evidence, the force of argument, pro and contra, every act under observation and every proposition that he heard. This produced on the ordinary and casual observer an impression of pedantic formalism most undeserved by a nature that was the very soul of compassion, benevolence, and honour,

mind and nature are to be found rather in the three short popular essays to which he gave his whole soul in later life, and whereon he placed his chief claim to leadership. These are “Liberty” (1859), “ Utilitarianism ” (1863), and “The Subjection of Women” (1869). They are all summaries of his beliefs, manifestoes, appeals, almost sermons in their inward fervour, addressed to the people, condensed and published in sternly popular form. To reach the essence of Mill's nature and influence we must always go straight to these short but typical works of his mellow and widowed age.

** LIBERTY." The book on “Liberty," from beginning to end, is an invaluable text-book for the legislator, for the politician, for the social reformer; and its powerful protest against all forms of over-legislation, intolerance, and the tyranny of majorities, is rich with perennial wisdom and noble manliness. But as a piece of social philosophy it is based upon a sophism as radical as that of Rousseau himself, with his assumption of a primordial Contract.

UTILITARIANISM." The little treatise on “ Utilitarianism” was also a compact manual of Mill's ethical system, elaborated for years and diligently revised. It was begun in 1851, recast and finally published in 1861-63. It contains a wonderful amount of thought; it has had a great influence; and has met with incessant criticism and cominent. It remains, after all deduc. tions and corrections maile, far the most ample and rational text-book of the principle of Greatest Happiness as the foundation of Ethics. It is better reasoned, more fully developed, more enlightening and ennobling than anything produced by Bentham and his school.

“ THE SCBJECTION OF WOMEN." His biographer, Professor Bain, very justly calls this “the. most sustained exposition of Mill's life-lony theme—the abuses of power.” And Mr. John Morley calls it the best illustration of all the best and richest qualities of its author's mind." It is one of those very rare examples of a short treatise on a weighty topic, packed with accumulated thought, and fused with ardent conviction. In four short chapters it condenses a scheme of social Ethics. It is in its passionate logic the most“ notable result of this ripest, lofticst, most inspiring part of his life." And its practical effect on legislation, manners, and opinion has no doubt been greater than anything else which Mill gave to his generation. “ The Subjection of Women," however, is not a simple sermon against male ar gance. It is a systematic effort to recast the whole form of our domestic, social, and political life, and, as such, it must bo judged.

THE PROTEST OF THE POSITIVIST. Let us guard against misconception, if that be possible, on this thorny topic. We aimnit that many changes are needed in law, in opinion, in our habits, before all the powers of women can be fully developeil. There is permanent value in Mill's invectives against male tyranny in the past and malo arrogance in the present. And his impassjoneid rebukes have much nobility and no little truth. But they do not justify tho radical sexual revolution that he heralds.

With all its defects, the book has great beauties, lasting merits. All that could be done by a most generous, pure, and noble spirit starting with a vicious theory, Mill has done. To me it reads like a sernion of St. Bernard on the miraculous gifts of the saints, or some other transcendental figment. Beautiful and impressive as an occasional homily, as philosophy it is vitiated, not only by its metaphysical apotheosis of the Individual, but also by unsound physiological, cerebral, and ethical data. The truth lies not in the equality but in tho interdependence of the seses: not in their identities or similarities, but in their heterogeneities and correlations.

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HIS RELIGION.

Mill had assailed Comte, Mr. Harrison's master and prophet, but as Mr. Harrison writes :

Mill's religion was not after Comte's model, though it virtually amounted to the same result. Fairly considered, the three posthumous “ Essays on Religion” do not vary more than the development of a single mind over twenty years may explain. They combine to surrender all forms of belief in the Supernatural, in Revelation, or Christianity, and they practically close with a defivite acceptance of the Religion of Humanity, as in some form or other the permanent religion of the future.

HIS THREE MOST TYPICAL BOOKS. Mr. Harrison says:

If the larger doctrinal treatises of Mill have a wider teaching power, bis distinctive ideas and the keynote of his

IN Cassier's Magazine for August Mr rooksbank publishes a paper which he read before the Foundry men's Association at Philadelphia concerning the use of the sand blast process for cleaning castings.

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