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The immense expenditure of money on bicycles has naturally curtailed the spending powers of the public in other directions. Jewellers and watchmakers are evidently badly hit; bicycles have superscled watches as New Year and birthday presents for the growing members of the family. Another trade that has been badly hit is that in musical instruments :

ON TRADE.

The piano trade for the current year is said to have fallen off fifty per cent. Furniture dealers cite cases in which they have heard mothers say to their daughters that they could have their choice between new sets of parlour furniture and bicycles, and the choice has invariably been bicycles. Probably the worst sufferers of all are the horse and carriage trades, and the businesses connected with them. The practice of horseback-riding is nearly extinct and saddle-horses are a drug in the market. The livery stable business has been cut down from a half to two-thirds, and carriages are in such poor demand that several leading firms have gone to the wall.

These are the direct effects of the bic le passion. The indirect results are no less striking. It is stated by the journals of the tobacco trade that the consumption of cigars has fallen off during the present year at the rate of one million a day, and that the grand total of decreasa since the “ craze” really got under way is no less than 700,000,000.

The tailors say their business has been damaged at least twenty-five per cent. because their customers do not wear out clothes so rapidly as formerly, spending much of their time in cheap bicycle suits, which they buy ready-made. Shoemakers say they suffer severely because nobody walks much any longer, since persons who formerly got their exercise in that way have taken to the wheel, upon which they ride in low-priced shoes which are subject to very little wear.

The hatters say they are injured because bicyclists wear cheap caps, and thus either save their more expensive ones or else get on without them. One irate member of the trade proposes that Congress be asked to pass a law compelling each bicycle-rider to purchase at least two felt hats a year.

Dry goodsmen say that the passion of young women for the wheel has reduced their sales of dress-goods and expensive costumes from 25 to 50 per cent., because so many girls prefer a ride in a bicycle costume in the evening to sitting at home in more elaborate apparel.

Then come the booksellers with a complaint that much riding prevents much reading, and that their trade suffers in consequence. One great news-agency in New York city, which deals in books and periodicals of all kinds, says its total loss in trade this year from bicycle competition is no less than a million dollars. Saloon-keepers say that they suffer with the others, that their saloons are deserted on pleasant evenings, and that riders who visit them take only beer and “soft-drinks.”

The most curious complaint was made by a barber in New York city, “ There is nothing in my business any longer,” he said, “the bicycle has ruined it. Before the bicycle craze struck us the men used to come in on Saturday afternoons and get a shave, and a haircut, and maybe a shampoo, in order to take their lady friends to the theatre, or out somewhere else in the evening. Now they go off on a bicycle, and do not care whether they are shaved or not. You see where it hurts our business is that when a man skips a chave to-day, we can't sell him two shaves to-morrow; that shave is gone for ever.”

ITS BENEFITS. Of course a great deal of this is temporary, and if the cycle has injured many, it has also brought prosperity to many; especially in the matter of health it las been a God-send. Physicians are more and more recommending the bicycle as a sovereign remedy for indigestion, sleeplessness, and all manner of diseases :

Real estate has advanced perceptibly under the influence of the bicycle passion. There is a larger demand for country homes from families who wish to live where the children, as

THE WHEEL OF REVOLUTION.

WHAT CYCLING HAS DONE IN THE STATES. MR. T. B. BISHOP writes a very interesting article in the Forum concerning “ The Social and Economic Influence of the Bicycle.” Mr. Bishop stoutly condemns the folly of those vain persons who describe cycling as a craze likely to pass away. He points out that there is nothing in the world likely to stay so much as the wheel. By the use of the cycle, he says:

We have become a race of Mercurys, in fact, and the joy which is felt over the new power amounts to a passion. Nobody realises the force of this passion till he rides a wheel himself. Is it probable that having once become the possessor of a power like this the human race is going to abandon it ? As well might we expect it to abandon railways, and gas, and electricity!

ITS EFFECT ON CHURCH AND THEATRE. The change which the cycle has already wrought to society affords him a congenial theme upon which to descant at length. He says:

As a sociological revolutionary force the bicycle is without an equal. It is the first force of the kind which has damaged simultaneously the church and the theatre. Both are complaining of its inroads upon their domain and are seeking ways by which to counteract them. The churches suffer most severely in the smaller cities and towns and villages. The churches are fast losing their young people, and efforts to call them back by appeals to their sense of Christian duty, and by offering them storage room for their bicycles in the basement in case they will ride upon them to the House of God rather than into open communion with nature, are likely to prove unavailing

But if the cycle has hit churches hard, it has dealt a more murderous blow at theatres. According to one theatrical manager whom he quotes :

The theatrical season is dead everywhere as soon as the roads get good for bicycle-riding.

ON MRS. GRUNDY. Even Mrs. Grundy finds her dominion successfully challenged by the wheel of revolution :

New social laws have been enacted to meet the requirements of the new order. Parents who will not allow their daughters to accompany young men to the theatre without chaperonage allow them to go bicycle-riding alone with young men. This is considered perfectly proper.

Mr. Bishop dwells complacently upon the good comradeship which the wheel has engendered, although this is probably more visible in America than in this country :

Every rider feels at liberty to accost or converse with every other rider, not only bound but willing to give him aid in distress or accident, and in various ways to treat the bicycle as the badge of equality among all its possessors. Of no other form of popular exercise, or excursion, can it be said that it is s0 conducive to good manners, simple conduct, and kindly intercourse as bicycle-riding. It brings all classes together when all are in a condition of healthy enjoyment and physical content.

ON FAMILY LIFE.

But its gain to family life is, he thinks, the best of

all :

Fathers and sons, mothers and daughters, husbands and wives, whole families ride together, carrying with them wherever they go the spirit of the family circle. No other single social result of bicycling is comparable to this. Husband and wife are able to enjoy this together, and the result is a new bond of union which brings back, after years of married life, the close companionship of its earlier days. The whole family is in fact made one as it perhaps never was before.

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well as the parents, can ride with greater pleasure and freedom

ARE BICYCLES PERSONAL LUGGAGE ? and with less risk of accident than in the cities. This is one of the most beneficial effects of the bicycle. It is developing

A HINT FROM THE UNITED STATES. a love for country life, and is thus counteractivg that tendency The vexed question of the carriage of cycles by the of the population to concentrate in cities which has been so

railway company is one which abounds with interest to steadily on the increase in recent years. Suburban life with

every cyclist. In France I have frequently had my a bicycle loses much of its isolated character. Putting all

bicycle carried fifty or one hundred miles on the payment other social and economic effects of the bicycle aside, its influence as a missionary for scientific road-building is alone

of one penny or twopence registration fee; but here in sufficient to entitle it to the lasting gratitude of the American

England the railway companies instead of encouraging people.

cyclists have refused to carry them free as the personal NOTES BY ANOTHER OBSERVER.

luggage of the passenger. In this respect there is great

room for improvement, and it is to be hoped that some The New York Council of the League of American

public-spirited railway company will take the lead, Wheelmen, writing in Scribner's for September on the

offering to carry cycles free. The result of such a liberal same subject, refers as follows to two questions upon

policy would be that any cyclist—and the number of which the British public would be glad to have informi

cyclists which multiply daily-would direct as much tion: first, as to its effect upon the health of American

business to that line as possible. Such has been the women. Upon this point the writer is very clear and

experience of America, where the question of the carriage explicit. He says:

of the cycle as personal luggage has been not only before After a close study of the question for five years, I

am ready

the law courts, but has led to the intervention of the to express my belief that the use of the bicycle will do more to

legislature. The subject is discussed at some length by improve the physical condition of American women, and therefore of the American people, than any other agency yet

the New York Cycle Council in the September num' er of

Scribner. devised. Argument on this point has given way to demonstra

The article is very interesting, and what it tion. Women are riding the wheel in all parts of the country,

says concerning the relations between cycling and the and their increasing numbers testify to its benefits and its

railways is as true in this country as it is in the United popularity. The average woman loves to be out of doors; sho States. The cycle does not weigh more than thirty or enjoys the change of scene, the gentle exercise, the delightful forty pounds. If it were to be ruled by our courts that companionship of congenial friends, and the exhilarating railways were to carry cycles as part of the personal benefits of contact with the pure air and bright sunlight, which luggage of the traveller, it would give a great incentive the knowledge of cycling brings within her reach. To the to cycling throughout the whole kingdom. It will be woman, as to the man, these features, possessed by no other seen from the following extracts from the article in form of sport, comprise the foundation on which the popularity

question that the United States judges have been of the bicycle will rest.

governed very largely by the ruling of our Eoglish Chief The other point upon which information is wanted is Justice Cockburn. It would be interesting to know why the way in which cycle-paths are made in America. He the ruling of the English Chief Justice, which has been says :

efficacious in New York to compel railways to carry Under favouring conditions, cycle-paths cost from seventy cycles free, should not be equally useful in our own land. five to one hundred and fifty dollars per mile. The surface width of the path should not be less than four feet, and need

The contest over the passage of the Armstrong Law, comnot be more than seven feet, escupt in rare cases.

The paths

pelling New York railways to carry bicycles as baggar, are generally laid out on the grass-erown roadside, parallel

began in November, 1895, when the chief consul of the Ner with the waggonway. The grass is first cut close to the ground,

York State division of the League of American Wheelme? after which the material (soft coal, cinders, or screeneri gravel)

wrote a letter to the Trunk-line Association of Railways, and is put on in a thin layer, and so shiped and packed as to slope

invited a friendly conference for the purpose of establishing downward from the centre to each side. The grade in most

some common and equitable rule that should govern the transcases follows closely the original surface of the ground.

portation of cyclists and their wheels. This request was

denied, and the wheelmen made the most of their alternative SPEED AND ENERGY.

in procuring the enactment of the new law, which is working The Leisure Hour summarises an account of a series of smoothly and equitably. experiments made in Paris for the purpose of securing an

THE RULING OF THE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE. autographic record of the force exerted upon a cycle pedal through a complete revolution :

Radical as this new statute may have appeared, it is An examination of the records showed, in the first place,

doubtful if any substantial right is thereby secured which that there was no absolute dead point such as occurs with an

was not already guaranteed to the travelling cyclist by a fair

interpretation of the common law. Many years ago, in ordinary connecting-rod and crank motion; and, secondly, that England, Lord Chief Justice Cockburn reviewed with great there is always some pressure on the pelal during the rise, and

care the question of what might and might not be properly this of course tepds slightly to reduce the speed. Fo a speed

and lawfully taken by a passenger as luggige on his journey of ten miles an hour, nineteen foot-lbs. of work was done per by rail, and laid down a rule which has since been many semi-revolution, anil for a specd of twenty miles an hour the times quoted with approval by the courts of England and work done per semi-revolution was sixty-seven foot-lbs. These America. It is this: figures show that the average pressure of the foot required on Whatever the passenger takes with him for his personal the pedal increases very rapilly with the speed, treble the use or convenience, according to the habits or wants of the work being needed in order to double the velocity.

66

particular class to which he belongs, either with reference to

the immediate necessities or the ultimate purpose of the The Revue des Revues for August 1st has an interesting journey, must be considered personal luggage. article on “Goethe Portraits," by V. Charles Simond.

“ This would include not only all articles of apparel, The same number contains an article on Edmond de

whether for use or ornament, but also the gun-case or fishing Goncourt by the editor, and another on the work of the

apparatus of the sportsman, the easel of the artist on a two brothers Goncourt by M. Rémy de Gourmont. In

sketching tour, or the books of the student, and other articles

of an analogous character, the use of which is personal to the the mid-monthly Revue there is an article on

traveller, and the taking of which has arisen from the fact of Literary Movement in Armenia," by Tigrane Yergat. his journeying.”

• The

THE DECISION OF THE NEW YORK COURT. The New York Court of Appeals, in the case of Merrill cereus Grinnell (30 New York, 591), has declared its judgment to be exactly in accord with that expressed in the English cases. In the case just cited the Court said :

Baggage is defined by Webster to mean the clothing and other conveniences which a traveller carries with him on a journey.' It is, of course, impossible to enumerate the articles that constitute what is called in the definition .clothing,' and it is still more difficult to specify what shall pass under the name of other conveniences.' . .. Again, the baggage must be such as is necessary for the particular journey that the passenger is, at the time of the employment of the carrier, actually making; : : . the articles that will pass under the denomination of other conveniences' are as various as the tastes, occupations, and habits of travellers. The sportsman who sets out on an excursion for amusement in his department of pleasure needs, in addition to his clothing, his gun and fishing apparatus ; the musician, his favourite instrument; the man of letters, his books; the mechanic, his tools. In all these cases, and in a vast number of others unnecessary to enumerate, the articles carried are necessary in one sense to the use of the passenger. He cannot attain the object he is in pursuit of without them, and the object of his journey would be lost unless he was permitted to carry them with him.”

The language and intent of these decisions would seem to be unmistakable. They clearly, and in the most direct terms, point out the propriety of including in the term “baggage the bicycle, which the touring cyclist takes with him as a part of his personal property essential to his journey.

A SOUND RAILWAY POLICY. By a rule of their own the wheelmen favour the railways which are known to be friendly. Thousands of others, in their business as merchants, manufacturers, shippers, and commercial trarellers, are constantly directing the shipment of goods in such manner as to give preference to lines whose policy toward the wheelmen is known to be equitable. As between two prominent railways running westward from New York city, it is estimated that in the year 1895 upward of $100,000 was, in this manner, added to the income of the one whose friendly attitude toward cyclists is well known.

There are probably 2,500,000 bicycle-riders in the United States, and it is estimated that a million wheels will be sold «luring the present year. Take into account 250 bicyclefactories, 24 tyre-makers, and 600 concerns dealing in bicycle sundries, all representing a combined investment of $75,000,000, and the bicycle question seems to gain proportions. Add the number and value of repair-shops, race-tracks, and clubhouses, and the aggregate leaps again. Consider the fact that this country contains about 30,000 retail bicycle-dealers and about 60,000 persons employed in the “sundry” factories, and that these numbers are every day growing apace, and the importance of the bicycle business to the common carrier becomes suggestive.

dercies of the country, as he is in his refusal to make peace with Menelik, a refusal which keeps nearly two thousaud soldiers suffering in captivity and hunger. Peace might havo been made after Abu-Alagi, after Makalle, after Abou-Carima. One man alone has prevented it: Umberto. With a sovereign of this obstinacy it is extremely difficult for a minister of the loyalty of Rudini to take his own course; he is at every step hampered, harassed, clogged, forced to withdraw to-day what he said yesterday, and conscious that to-morrow there may lie before him the painful dilemma of offending his Sovereigu or failing his country. Umberto has unfortunately never been served by a statesman who made him understand that a constitutional king should have no wishes, no opinions, no actions of his own. Because his father in exceptional times used his individual influence upsparingly, he is unfortunately persuaded that to so use it at all times is a privilege of the throne.

HIS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE AFRICAN WAR.

But Victor Emmanuel galloping over the Lombard plains under a storm of bullets, shouting “ Avanti ragazzi ! ” was in a very different position to demand obedience to that which is occupied by Umberto, sitting at a writing-table in a room of the Quirinale, and with a stroke of his pen ordering battalions to go and die in Africa. It is through him that Ricotti's scheme of army reform has foundered ; it is through him that the African budget is not to be reduced; it is through him that the leaden weight of the Triplice still drags on Italian national life; it is through him that the elections are not to take place; and it is through him, as I have said above, that six months have elapsed since the defeat of Abou-Carima without any peace being made which would restore such as still live of the Italian captives to their country: and the number of the survivors shrinks, alas ! with every day through typhoid, sunstroke, hunger, suicide. But for vim Rudini would have made that peace, and withdrawn from Ma: sowah and Kassala, six months ago; and the prisoners would have been by this in their homes. The interregnum which has followed on defeat has been, and is, neither peace nor war, and it is much to be feared that the King hopes, by the aid of England, to reopen hostilities in the autumn. There is little doubt that there is some secret pact between him and the Emperor of Germany, from which Austria is excluded ; and it may well be that German aid is promised in it to hold down the Italian populace should they rise during a second African campaign.

HIS REFUSAL TO SACRIFICE CRISPI. When Rudini came into power the nation expected, under his administration, two great measures : the impeachment of Crispi and the condemnation of Baratieri. It has been disappointed of both. The moral effect on the populace is extremely bad. The finest opportunity was offered for showing to the nation that justice was equal for all; but the occasion was lost. Baratieri was not even degraded and consigned to a fortress, and Crispi was not even called on to resign his seat and his orders. · Fine times for rogues !” says the artisan, as he eats his noonday crust, and the peasant as he plods after bis oxen in the furrow.

The populace which, in its own rude unaided way, nearly always gropes rightly towards the truth, knows that the Throne stands between the offenders and their just punishment, and shields them whilst just men are sacrificed.

QUIDA'S PRESCRIPTION. It is the whole Constitution which requires revision. The whole bo ly politic needs fresh air, new systems, cleansing, invigorating, changing; above all, if the monarchy last, the laws which muzzle the nation in its name must come to an end ; the Throne must have no other protection from discussion and censure than the simplest citizen possesses; the power to choose the Prime Minister must be vested in the Chamber instead of in the Monarch. So long as this power lies under the Crown, the Crown can entirely paralyse all action of the Chamber. The Crown must be absolutely forbidden to shield from their just punishment its personal favourites, whether these be corrupt politicians or incompetent soldiers, and its enormous civil list must be cut down to moderate proportions.

ANOTHER VIEW OF KING HUMBERT.

By Ouida. In the Character Sketch a contributor gives what may be regarded as the favourable view of the character of the King of Italy. In the Fortnightly Review for September, Quida, whose bitter animus against the new régime in Italy is only too notorious, gives us the other side of the shield in an article entitled “ The Marquis di Rudini and Italian Politics.” She says :

HIS UNCONSTITUTIONAL INTERFERENCE. No sovereign nominally constitutional has ever interfered more continuously than the present King of Italy. In trifles and in great things this interference is perpetual. When General Pelloux answered Rudini's summons to come to Rome the other day, he was met at the station by a message from the King to go first to the Quirinal. In his maintenance of the Triplice the King is in dogged opposition to the whole ten

SOME WORLD RECORDS

Icap has been made of 23 feet 6 inches. In pole-jumping, in YET TO BE BROKEN.

which human effort is aided by the use of a pole, a height of

11 feet 9 inches has been cleared. THERE is an article in the Gentleman's for September In other branches of athletics, which do not attract so much which will be read with interest by a very wide public. public attention as the more showy walking, running, or It is entitled Extremes of Human Achievement,"

jumping, weight-putting and hammer-throwing have also had

their champion performers, who, by training other muscles, and is in fact an account of “ Records " which the modern have been able to make remarkable records. The sixteen. athlete has established, and which it is the object pound weight has been thrown a distance of 47 feet 10 inches. of all athletes to break with as little delay as possible.

This performance dates only from last year, and this year the The writer thinks that “the introduction of the present

hammer, also weighing sixteen pounds, was thrown 147 feet.

An apparently much more astonishing performance is that of day system of athletics in this country dates from about throwing a cricket-ball the extraorlinary distance of 127 yaris 1850, when the great athletic meetings began to be held.”

1 foot 3 inches before it struck the ground, which has not Here are some of the facts and figures :

been surpassed since 1873. CYCLING, SKATING AND STILTING.

EDMOND DE GONCOURT. One mile has been cycled in 1 minute 50 seconds, 100 miles IN EDMOND DE GONCOURT French literature has lost in 3 hours 53 minutes; in one hour 28 miles 1,031 yards have a fine historian, a notable art critic, and a great novelist. been covered, and in twenty-four hours 529 miles 578 yards. His work is but little known to British readers, yet he As tours de force of endurance note may be specially taken of the cycling of 1,4041 miles in six days of eighteen hours a

was the master and precursor of Zola, and scarce a French day, of 1,000 miles cycled on the road in 5 days 5 hours

writer of any note, from Daudet to Rosny-who both pay 49 minutes, and of Mill's wonderful ride froin Land's End to

him eloquent tributes in the Revue de Paris—but must John o' Groat's, 900 miles, in 3 days 5 minutes 49 seconds.

acknowledge their indebtedness to the author of The skater far outstrips the runner in speed, but does not

“Germinie Lacerteux,Renée Maupérin,” and “La nearly come up to the cyclist. A mile has been skated in Sæur Philomène.” 2 minutes 123 seconds, five miles in 17 minutes 45 seconds, M.J. H. Rosny deals with De Goncourt rather as a writer and 100 miles in 7 hours 11 minutes 384 seconds.

than as a man, although he touches incidentally on what A form of competition quite unknown in this country was after all the central fact and mobis of his master's stilt-walking-is practised to a considerable extent in some districts of France. Recently, at Bordeaux, a young man

private and literary life, his culte and love for his dead beat the record by covering 275 miles in 76 hours 35 minutes.

brother, Jules de Goncourt, said by many—M. Rosny The stilts used were about six feet long and weighed 16

thinks unjustly—to have been the most gifted of the pounds. With these rather ungainly implements he took steps

brothers. of four feet in lengtlı, thus being enabled to cover the ground

Under the curious, well-chosen title, “ Ultima,” M. with comparative case.

Alphonse Daudet, in whose country-house at Chamrosay

M. de Goncourt spent the last week of his life, gives a There is little doubt that twenty-five years ago there were

touching and vivid record of the conversations and little very few men who could run a mile in five minutes, whereas

events which preceded his dear friend and adopted now four minutes and a half for the same distance is considered

father's last illness; and this closing chapter, dedito be below the standard of first-class performances. The

cated to the friends of Edmond de Goncourt, is mile, indeed, was actually run, in 1886, by W. G. George, in worthy to take place with that passage in the famous 4 minutes 123 seconds. Briefly to recount some of the most “Journal des Goncourt," where Edmond noted down, prominent present-day “bests on record” in running, one day by day, hour by hour, during the June of 1870, hundred yards has been run in 9 seconds; half a mile in the progress of his young brother's last illness and 1 minute 533 seconds; five miles in 24 minutes 40 seconds; death. twenty miles in 1 hour 51 minutes 63 seconds; and a hundred miles in 13 hours 264 minutes. The celebrated “ Deerfvot,"

Incidentally M. Daudet reiterates his determination in 1863, ran 11 miles 970 yards in an hour, and in 1882

not to become a member of the French Academy. Indeed, another performer ran 150 miles 395 yards in 23 hours.

the die is now cast, for he is, by the terms of M. de In walking contests, which are by no means so attractive to

Goncourt's will, the virtual head of the much-discussed the ordinary spectator, a mile has been done in 6 minutes

Académie de Goncourt, an institution which will have 23 seconds; five miles have been walked in 35 minutes for object that of providing eight or moro young literary 10 seconds; and a hundred miles in 18 hours 8 minutes men with the wherewithal to live while producing 15 seconds. In one hour 8 miles 270 yards have been covered masterpieces. During his long life Edmond de Gonby walking. The only other pedestrian feat of which mention court often had occasion to see how lack of means need here be made is the remarkable distance of 623 miles

hindered the production of good work, and what bitter 1,320 yards done in a six days' contest in 1888 by Littlewood,

struggles some of his own friends, notably Daudet and of New York-a truly remarkable example of what can be done by unaided human effort.

Zola, went through in their youth. Thanks to his and

to his brother's generous thought, the mute inglorious JUMPING AND THROWING.

Molière or Montaigne of the future will be given a In no department of athletics has a more remarkable chance of proving his worth. improvement taken place than in jumping: At the first On M. Daudet and the surviving members of this Oxford and Cambridge meeting in 1864 the best high jump original Round Table will fall the delicate task of filling was only 5 feet 6 inches, and the best long jump 18 feet. Not many years ago it was supposed to be beyond human

up each vacancy and selecting one from the many

candidates who are power to jump higher than 6 feet, and to cover by a long

sure to present themselves for jump more than 224 or 23 feet was thought little short of

election. Each member of the Académie de Goncourt impossibility. Yet these have all been exceeded, to the

will be entitled to an annuity of £280 a year, but ou incredulous amazement of foreigners who take the trouble to

becoming one of the Forty-in other words, when he has interest themselves in such matters. The record for high

joined the Académie Française--all his privileges in jumping stands—and probably will long remain-at the connection with the institution founded by the author remarkable height of 6 feet 53 inches, and a running long of “ Germinie Lacerteux” will cease entirely.

RUNNING AND WALKING.

JOHN BULL'S INTERESTS IN SAMOA.

WHO IS THE PREDOMINANT PARTNER ? In the Westminster Review for September, Mr. J. F. Rose-Soley publishes an elaborate paper on German and English interests in Samoa, which will not be read with satisfaction at Berlin. For Mr. Rose-Soley's point is that, excepting the great firm of Goeddefroy, which might be bought out to-morrow by any English capitalist -its interests being purely commercial-Samoa is virtually a British settlement.

GOEDDEFROY ET PRETEREA NIHIL. Mr. Rose-Soley's paper is a valuable feature of the extent to which a single commercial firm can create a political interest and establish a position which becomes essential to an Imperial policy. But in Samoa, outside Goeddefroy's firm, the Germans are nowhere. Mr. RoseSoley says:

Once we have done with the German firm and its plantations we have done practically with German influence in Samoa. If the German company, as is quite feasible, were to be bought out to-morrow by an English or French syndicate, the national interest in the group would entirely cease. The removal of this one company would leave British influence predominant in every direction, whether in the matter of land, population, or wealth. Let us take possession inland first. The Germans own 75,000 acres, nearly the whole of which belongs to the German firm; the British came next, with 36,000 acres; and following were the Americans, with 21,000 acres; the French, with 1,300 acres; and the people of various nationalities with 2,000 acres. Of the cultivated land, 8,100 acres went to the Germans, 2,900 to the British, 500 to the Americans, 780 to the French, and the balance to people of various nationalities. Thus Germany again stands first on the list, but if we deduct the area (7,850 acres) of the plantations owned by the firm, the German landed interest takes the lowest place. Even in the matter of residential white population, Germany, in spite of her many plantation employés, does not come first. Great Britain leads with 193 residents. The Germans are next with 1:22, then come the Americans, 16; a number, however, which includes 20 Mormon missionaries. There are only 26 Frenchmen, and the total foreigners resident in the group is but 412.

SAMOA ENGLISH BY LANGUAGE Out of the German population, nearly one-half are employed by the German firm; the balance are mainly store-or hotelkcepers. The professional men, the lawyers, accountants, and so on, are of the English race, the two newspapers published in Apia are printed in the English language, the head of Victoria appears on all the coin in circulation, and the natives, whenever they speak a foreign tongue at all, speak English. The German language has no hold on the land; it is spoken coly amongst a limited circle, and for all intercourse with patives, or business correspondence, the Teuton has to fall back on English. It is a significant fact that the German tirm, though it employs exclusively clerks of its own nationality, keeps its books in English. The import returns are decidedly in favour of the British, for out of £90,000 worth of goods imported in 1891, £75,500 came from Great Britain and her colonies, £16,600 direct from Germany, and the balance from the United States.

AND BY RELIGION. * It is more than sixty years since the London Missionary Society first commenced operations in Samoa, and to-day the whole group is nominally converted to Christianity. As far as all outward signs go, the Samoan of to-day is a most devout Christian.

The missionary of to-day has become a schoolmaster rather than an evangelist. Thus we arrive at the significant fact that the Samoan people have been, and are being, entirely educated by the missions. The utterly incapable and im

pecunious Samoan Government contributes not a penny towards the cost of teaching its own people. The work has been performed almost entirely by English money and English brains. The London Missionary Society, first in the field, has done the giant's share, and to-day it claims as adherents some 27,000 Samoans. In the absence of a census, whether religious or secular, exact figures as to population are not obtainable, but it is estimated that the group is inhabited by about 35,000 natives. Of this number the Roman Catholics, who have many workers in the field, may have 5,000 converts, the Wesleyang perhaps an equal number, the remainder belonging to the London Mission. Thus, with the exception of the small French Catholic Mission, the whole credit of Christianising these islands belongs to the English, an achievement which certainly ought to rank higher than the purchase of a few thousand acres of land, at a low price, from half savage native chiefs.

THE TRUE DUKE OF WELLINGTON. MAJOR-GEN. MAURICE contributes to the Cornhill Magazine for September an article, the effect if not the object of which is to give us a picture of the Iron Duke much less ideal than the somewhat glorified picture round which patriotism and gratitude have thrown a mythical halo. Colonel Maurice's Duke was a strong, hard man, by no means a lovable or amiable personage. Besides these disagreeable qualities in private life, he charges him with having done an injustice to the army. Colonel Maurice says:

It always seems to me that the disorders of the retreat from Burgos, and the famous circular letter dated Frenada, November 28th, 1812, in which he frankly scolded the whole army for them, made a complete change in his feelings towards the men who had fought under him, and in theirs to him. Even Maxwell, his devoted and enthusiastic biographer, is obliged to admit that, as addressed to the whole army, it was thoroughly unjust. It did the worst thing that reproof addressed to the correction of abuses can do.

When, on his return to England, he almost kicked off his connection with the army as with a worn-out shoe that had done its work, no doubt the influences upon him were mixed. He had an unrivalled position in society, one which, at least till the Reform Bill began to loom in the distance, was of supreme influence both in the country and in the House of Lords. Many of the statesmen with whom he associated were suspicious of a soldier as such, and the less he appeared to bind himself up with the army, the more easy was it for him to take the high offices which almost inevitably, despite the suspicions of many of his colleagues, opened to himn.

He had been in the Irish Office even before he had seen fighting, and had associated on intimate terms all his life with leading statesmen. His military career was obviously over; the largest career which opened before him was that of statesmanship. The habits of hard businesslike work which he had acquired in the field made an active career necessary to him. He was still young--only forty-six when Waterloo was fought. Probably the extent to which he threw himself into society, and preferred to be known as a man of fashion rather than as a soldier, was at first simply due to yielding to the attractions of a life which had been always familiar and pleasant to him, all the more attractive because of long years of campaigning. Nevertheless, I feel tolerably sure that the cause which made him cut himself off from all association with his old comrades in arms, so that hardly any of them were ever to be seen at Strathfieldsaye, was something more than this. When once the relations between him and his army, which began in 1812, and must have been increased by his undoubtedly just but most unpopular denunciations of the army which had won Waterloo for him, had been established, he was, as the stories of his relations with his own sons show clearly enough, not the man to take one step to clear them.

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