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REVIEWED.

LADY PONSONBY AS OPTIMIST. In a short but suggestive paper of three pages Lady Ponsonby places the conclusions at which she had arrived as the result of her experience of life. The infinite expanse of the unknown, and unknowable, that surrounds us encourages her to fly from the gloomy conclusions that may be drawn from the infinitesimal that is known :

In everyday life we must needs adopt the ways of science and stand courageously by our relative knowledge, and, in homely language, “ do our best" according to the light that is in us; but when weighed down and crushed by the sense of evil apparently incurable and by the incomprehensibility of the most elementary data, it would be well bravely to turn to the other side. Surely the balance is more evenly hung than pessimists would have us think. In considering the unknown and the inexplicable, the cup of cold water, the silent look which lived in St. Peter, will assume proportions they never had before when works were weighed and accounted great or small.

THE JEWS AND JESUITS. Dr. Emil Reich contributes an interesting article upon Jew-Baiting on the Continent," in which he draws attention to the extraordinary similarity there is between the Jews and the Gentiles. He says:

The modern Jews are, in history, the only class of people that, being openly attacked, recoil from openly fighting their assailants. And this is the historic novelty. Or, rather, not quite novel. For there has been indeed, and there still is, another class of people equally hated as the Jews by immense numbers of civilised men, and who have likewise never resisted attacks in an open and recklessly bold manner. The Jesuits, then, and the Jews are the great types of the stranger. Being clearly distinguishable—one by their costume and organisation, the other by certain physical features and social habits--they cannot submerge in the mass of the strangers generally. When, therefore, circumstances prepare an attack on either of them, they are a clear aim, and the simplest know where to hit.

His conclusion is that even if there were no Jews, Jew-baiting would go on :

As in the case of the Jesuits, nothing will convince or can convince the Antisemites, and for the simple reason that their existence as a strong political party depends on the belief in those alleged atrocities. And if all the Jews of Germany and Austria suddenly left Europe altogether, the Antisemites, far from ceasing their agitations, would continue to exist as heretofore. They would fight the “Semitic” element in Christians generally or in Turks, Russians, or-Englishmen. This is no mere assumption. For so far have things Antisemitic come to develop that the word Semite," again, and precisely as the wor! "Jesuit," is used in a general sense, and quite irrespective of Jews.

HOW MUCH COW-DUNG DO WE DRINK? Mrs. Frankland, in an article dealing with the sterilisation of milk, makes the staggering statement that Berlin citizens consume fiftcen tons of cows' dung every day with their milk! This statement is manifestly incredible; possibly, instead of daily, the consumption should have been yearly. No doubt there is much to be said in favour of sterilising milk, but such statements as to so much bacteria in milk as the following do not convey much impression to the general reader. When bacteria mount up to millions, and surround us at every turn, we are

THE REVIEWS

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. The Nineteenth Century for September,contains several good articles. . I notice elsewhere Mr. Swinburne's poem and Mr. Frederic Harrison's sympathetic criticism of John Stuart Mill. One of the best articles of general interest is Urs. Walter Creyke's “ Sailing for Ladies in Highland Lochs.” Mrs. Creyke writes well, and is evidently quite familiar with her subject.

THE IRISH SISYPHUS. Mr. Arnold Forster contributes a gloomy survey of the results of the Gladstonian land legislation in Ireland.

He says :

Since 1870 no fewer than twenty-four Acts dealing with Irish land have been passed by the Imperial Parliament, and the present year has produced a twenty-fifth.

Year after year the Land Law of Ireland has been ripped up, patched, tinkered, amended, repealed, till po man knows, or has the means of knowing, what are his own rights or those of his neighbours. This is hardly the way to encourage the growth of confidence. With regard to the law itself, no man in Ireland knows what it is. In the 261 pages of statute la w and the countless thousands of pages which contain the judicial decisions or the obiter dicta of the judges, there is no real body of law at all. There are, it is true, an infinite number of casual and often contradictory provisions, thousands of categorical propositions, every one of which is modified, or nullified, by some cross reference, by some decided case, or by come expression of opinion in Parliament or in Court.

His own recommendation is thus expressed :It is, therefore, not only desirable, it is essential, that the whole system of Irish land tenure as it now exists should be destroyed. Dual ownership must cease to exist. The land courts must be abolished and men once more allowed to earn their living with some confidence in the future. Purchasethe one and only method by which we can escape from our present difficulty-must be made easy, universal, and just.

AN ANECDOTE OF JOHN FORSTER. Sir Wemyss Reid, whose father, it will be remembered, was a Congregational minister in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, reports his experiences of Tyneside revisited in his article entitled “A Northern Pilgrimage.” In the course of this paper, which is full of genial interest, he mentions an amusing illustration of the local estimate of literary success. When he was thinking of coming up to London to try his fortune, a friend and neighbour waited upon bim, cautioned him as to the dangers and perils which he was running, and he enforced it by the following terms:

“* Thomas," he said, in tones of solemn warning (and nobody but the boy in question knew how much he hated to be addressed as Thomas), “ ah'm sorry to hear that ye want to go to London, and to take to this writing in the papers. It'll bring ye to no good, my boy. I mind there was a very decent friend of mine, auld Mr. Forster, the butcher in the side. He had a laddie just like you; and nothing would sarve him but lie rust go away to London to get eddicated, as he called it; and when he had got eudicated, he wouldn't come back to his father's shop, though it was a first-class business. He would do nothing but write, and write, and write; and at last he went back again to London, and left his poor old father all alone; and a're nerer heard tell of that laddie since !” It was thus that the fame of John Forster, the author of the “Life of Goldsmith” and the destined biographer of Charles Dickens, was cherished in his native town by his father's ancient

friends!

apt to become indifferent to the danger that is pressing the conditions are exactly the same as they were before the upon us.

recent disaster, only accentuated. Northern Italy is still One investigator, for example, found as many as 960,000 to

louder in her cries for the abandonment of colonial aspirations 1,600,000 per cubic iuch, or, in other words, from thirty-three to

and peace at any price, whilst Southern Italy is equally loud fifty-six millions per pint. The multiplication of bacteria in

in demanding the recovery of national glory, and the conmilk goes on even more rapidly if the temperature of the sur

tinuation of the war until the Emperor of Ethiopia is entirely

crushed. rounding air is somewhat raised; thus another sample of milk was collected and found to contain 391,000 bacteria per cubic

ALCOHOL AND EVOLUTION. inch; twenty-four hours later, during which time it had been

Professor Ray Lankester reviews the book recently kept at a temperature of 77 degrees Fahr., there were

published by Mr. Archdall Reid on “The Present Evolu13,702,000,000 bacteria present per cubic inch !

tion of Man.” This summarises Mr. Reid's teaching on THE BAPTISM OF CLOVIS.

the subject of the liquor traffic :Dr. Jessopp tells in his own bright way the story of the Like the diseases of the white man, unlimited alcohol conversion of the great founder of the Frankish dynasty. blights the races of the New World and of Africa. The He says:

tendency of evolution is to produce a race immune to phthisis, I do but aim at pointing out briefly the meaning of a single

syphilis, and the acute fevers, and capable of sitting down in anniversary and the transcendent importance of the event

the presence of floods of alcoholic liquor and barrels of opium which Frenchmen are celebrating now. Few great conquerors

without the desire to get drunk or narcotised. With the view have achieved so much as Clovis with resources, at first sight,

of hastening the maturation of this race of the future, Mr. 80 inadequate to the success achieved. When he died he was Reid is disposed to deprecate a repression of the liquor traffic

. but forty-five years old. At fifteen he began his career as

-Let the drunkard drink and perish, and his seed with him, little more than a leader of outlaws; he ended by being king

is Mr. Reid's motto. of almost the whole land from the Pyrenees to the Rhine. He

WANTED—A CHILD'S ANTHOLOGY. founded a dynasty; but he did very much more: he founded an empire. The dynasty came to an end, the empire lasted.

E. V. Lucas contributes some notes on “Poetry for

Children.” In an article suggesting the compilation of SOME RECOLLECTIONS OF CARDINAL NEWMAN.

two anthologies, one of children's poetry for adults, and Mr. Aubrey de Vere, in an article that is somewhat

another a child's anthology for children, E. V. Lucas disappointing, gives us some recollections of the great

says: Cardinal. One of the brightest passages is his description of Newman at Oxford. He says :

That for the child should, I think, come first, because he

has been defrauded too long; because, for too long, he has Early in the evening a singularly graceful figure in cap and been offered little but doggerel on the one hand, and fine, but gown glided into the room. The slight form and gracious to him incomprehensible, poetry on the other. Such a colleeaddress might have belonged either to a youthful ascetic of

tion might be satisfying enough to discourage parents and the Middle Ages or a graceful and high-bred lady of our own

guardians in the purchase of other and less worthy nem days. He was pale and thin almost to emaciation, swift of children's books, and so, in turn, deter publishers from adding pace, but, when not walking, intensely still, with a voice sweet

to the congested yearly output of this kind of literature. For and pathetic both, but so distinct that you could count each

there is no doubt that the children of to-day are too wantonly vowel and consonant in every word. I observed later that

supplied with reading. Our grandmothers and grandfathers, when touching upon subjects which interested him much he

whose nursery shelves held a poor dozen books, but who knew used gestures rapid and decisive, though not vehement, and

that dozen well and remembered them through life, were more that while in the expression of thoughts on important subjects fortunate than their descendants, who are bewildered by the there was often a restrained ardour about him, yet if indivi

quantity of matter prepared for them by glib writers, and who. duals were in question he spoke severely of none, however

after reading everything, find, little or nothing worthy of widely their opinions and his might differ.

recollection.

OTHER ARTICLES.

Mademoiselle Yetta Blaze de Bury writes one of her brilliantly-descriptive articles on Edmond de Goncourt. Mr. J. A. Steuart praises Ireland up to the skies as an ideal field for tourists, but rightly insists upon the urgent need to supply decent hotels in which to lodge the tourists who are invited to come. Mr. H. S. Salt, in : paper on The Humanities of Diet,” puts in a kindly word for vegetarianism.

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.
THE Fortnightly for September contains articles on Dr.
Jameson's raid by Edward Dicey; the Marquis of
Rudini, an Italian Politician, by Ouida; and John
Everett Millais_as Painter and Illustrator by Mr. and
Mrs. Pennell. The other articles are noticed elsewhere,
together with two articles bearing more directly on
current politics.

ITALIAN OPINION ON THE ABYSSINIAN WAR.
Mr. J. Theodore Bent makes some remarks on the war
in Abyssinia which I do not remember to have seen
elsewhere. He says:-

The war in Abyssinia in the past and the policy of the future is very definitely a contest between Southern and Northern Italy, and gives us another proof, if there was one wanting, that thirty years of union has not succeeded in uniting Italy, that the cautious Lombard is no fitting mate for the hot-blooded Neapolitan; and to this fact, more than to any other, is due the recent series of disasters in Abyssinia, and the enormous outlay of capital forced upon an already greatly impoverished exchequer.

So as to arrive at a clear conception of what has happened in Abyssinia, and to form a better idea of what is likely to happen in the future, we cannot do better than consider closely the arguments put forward by the exponents of these two lines of policy in Italy itself, for, as matters now stand,

A VEILED suggestion of the inevitable event appears in the Dublin Review, with its minute and most interestin. description of Papal elections and coronations, which those who are speculating about the appointment of the next Pope would do well to study. It is curious to note that in the election of the Infallible One most ludicrous mistakes are made by the voting cardinals. Mr. A. Shield gives a very vivid account of the Cardinal o? York, the brother of Prince Charlie, and last of the ill-starred Stuarts. Father Casartelli recalls the progress made by the University of Louvain in Oriental studies long before the Reformation. Professor Bright's criticisms of Luke Rivington's “Primitive Church” call forth warm rejoinders from Dom Chapman and the author criticisei, both of whom repel the imputations made against Catholic veracity.

THE NATIONAL REVIEW. The National Review is a fairly good number. It contains three articles on bimetallism, taking for the most part the opposite side to that favoured by the Editor. I notice elsewhere Mr. Meredith's sonnet. The other articles are varied, and do not call for very special mention.

THE RETURN OF MR. GLADSTONE.

Mr. H. D. Traill spends some time in discussing the question whether or not Mr. Gladstone would return to the leadership of the Liberal Party. He says:

Can we wonder then if this contrite ship's company are beginning to wish Jonah back again, and even-since their act is more remediable than that of the Joppan sailors-that there should positively be whispers of his return to public life? Of course, one will be told that such a notion is to the last degree absurd, and from the strictly party politician's point of view no doubt it is.

Notwithstanding this, Mr. Traill believes that

It would be safe for his Party to welcome Mr. Gladstone back again, and to most of them—to all of them whose ambitions would not be crossed by it-it would be agreeable. That it might not be displeasing to Mr. Gladstone himself to return one can readily believe; indeed, there is no evidence that he ever wished to go. Why, therefore, though at present they may be quite unauthoritative, should not the rumours of his intended return to public life be true?

WANTED-A NEW BRITISH MUSEUM. Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, the famous Egyptologist, embodies in an article entitled “ The Study of Man,” a proposal to found a new British Museum, covering an area about the size of Bushey Park. Ho thinks the proposal is practicable, and would not cost much :

We require a place where an example of every object of human workmanship can be preserved. A place where a hut or a boat of every race in the world can be kept ; with an outfit of the clothing, domestic objects, weapons, decorations, games, and other products, arranged in due order. A place Where complete tombs can be preserved with all the objects in position, like the splendid series in the Bologna Museum; where every series of results of excavation illustrating ancient civilisations, can be at once and completely housed. A place where architecture can be studied from actual fragments, where a group of capitals or a stack of mouldings can be kupt, whether they belong to a temple or an abbey. In short, a place where nothing shall ever be refused admission and preservative care, unless it be a duplicate of what is already Bucured. We need for all the works of man what the British Museum Library does for literature and all printed and written matter.

When we come to frame an actual estimate of the cost of land, building, repairs, and staff, the result is that we could provide an area equal to the whole exhibiting area of the British Museum for an annual cost of only 3 per cent. extra on the annual grant of that museum. We could double our accommodation for collections for an increase which would be scarcely perceived in the usual museum budget.

After explaining the way in which it does its work, Miss Edwards says:

In spite of certain drawbacks there seems no reason why a modified Conseil de Famille might not prove beneticial in England. The simplicity, the uncompromising economy of the system are highly commendable; the absolute impossibility of risking uncertain ch ges is a feature that contrasts favourably with our own legal procedure. But the self-incurred responsibility, that enforcement of guardianship obligatory on French citizens as military service itself-here we meet obstacles that might prove not easy to overcome.

WANTED-MORE CONSOLS. Mr. Hugh Chisholin, in a financial article entitlel The Coming Crisis in Consols,” calls attention to the financial mischief that is accruing from the gradual drying up of the funds available for investment with a Government guarantee. He says :

Is it not obvious that one of two things must happeneither we must “ slow down” in paying off a stock which, as an investment, is vital, and, as a national burden, is inconsiderable (the annual charge per head being bls. 8d., and the capital value £16 11s.), or else, if this rate of payment is maintained, some other national stock, carrying the national credit and safe as British solvency, must be brought into existence and added to the present fund?

After discussing in detail the comparative advantages and disadvantages of either alternative, he says:

Unless the present diminution of debt ceases, or the stock of Consols is materially increased, a crisis is plainly in view for that investing public which demands, at whatever cost, the security of the national credit.

THE SAFETY OF OUR NORTH-WESTERN FRONTIER. Sir J. D. Poynder, M.P., who has been making a trip. to Baluchistan and the North-Western frontier of India, describes what he has seen and concludes his observations in a strain of somewhat cheery optimisin :

Our position now along the north, as it is along the northwest, seems secure. We must keep the Hindu Kush at all prices as the natural boundary line between India and Russia. We have now a demarcated line from the Pamirs to the Helmund, which are at the two extreme ends of the NorthWest Frontier, and among our principal Imperial duties is that of keeping watch and ward over this boundary, not merely by upholding its integrity, but also by refusing to. tolerate the encroachments of foreign nations upon thestrategic accessories to that frontier. With this policy clearly proclaimed and unfalteringly pursued, we neeil be under no apprehension as to the retention of our Indian Empire. WANTED-PROTESTANT LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR.

Mr. Bernard Holland in an article entitled “The Christian Motive," points out with great force the contrast between the workhouse servic of nurses in England, which is recruited solely on financial grounds, and the Little Sisters of the Poor in France who tend the sick for the love of God. Mr. Holland says:-

If a religious order of women cculd be formed with the special object of attending the aged inmates of workhouses, they might find in the love of God and the esprit de corps of their order a compensation, not to be given by fair wages, rations, and an uniform, for the lack of interest in the “cases, the dulness of the life, and the absence of professional prizes. The dulness itself would be dimished by means of the circulation from place to place, which is possible in a religious order, since the members are bound by no local ties and are under the central control of their superiors. At any rate, the dulness, with such alleriations, would hardly be so great as that from which many unemployed, or half-employed women in the middle classes sutier -women, that is, who are above the plano

FAMILY COUNCILS.

Miss M. Betham Edwards describes very minutely the composition and working of that extraordinary legal tribunal in France known as the Conseil de Famille. She says it is:

A domestic court of justice accessible alike to rich and poor anul at nominal cost, occupying itself with questions the most momentous as well as the minutest, vigilantly guarding the interests of imbecile and orphan, outside the law, yet by the law rendered authoritative and binding. For hundreds of pears the Family Council or informal Court of Chancery has thus acted an intermediary part.

of manual or factory labour, but who do not possess those

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. means of slaying the hostile hours which are given by the

Tue Contemporary Reviewn contains several articles of possession of wealth.

interest. I notice elsewhere “ The Truth about Lombard This suggestion has often been made. Is it not time

Street” and “The Study of History," and Mr. Greenwood's that the call came to some good woman to carry out the

Lament over the Decay of Party Government.” suggestion ? CANADA AND THE FUR SEALS.

PROFESSOR DICEY ON PITT'S PROPHECY. Sir C. H. Tupper, in an article entitled “ Crocodile A prodigious pother is raised by Professor Dicey as to Tears and Fur Seals,” stoutly denies that the Canadians whether or not Mr. Pitt shortly before his death expressed are exterminating the seals, and declares that the whole an opinion that the struggle to deliver Europe from outcry on the subject is due to the American monopo Napoleon would begin in Spain and be supported by lists, wlio wish to restrict the supply of seals to seals England. This, to Professor Dicey, is “the most killed on land. Sir Charles Tupper says :-

astounding and profound prediction in all political So long as a sealing fleet can catch over 70,000 skins a

history," so “ astounding and so profound” does it appear season and land them for from $8.00 to $10.00 a skin at

to him that he must employ all the apparatus of hisVictoria, B.C., it is clear there is no great fortune in a lease torical criticism in order to prove it a baseless political which allows a few citizens of the United States to kill 100,000 legend. It is a pity that a learned professor should a year on the Pribilov Islands upon payment of a royalty of indulge in shrieking exaggeration of this kind, which had over $11.00 a skin.

much better be left to the leading columns of the Daily The Regulations of Paris practically gave to the United Chronicle. Mr. Gladstone, in a note appended to Mr. States an extension of her territorial limits in Behring Sea

Dicey's paper, pours cold water upon his heroics in this fro.n three to sixty miles, while in many other respects they

fashion :imposed new and severe restrictions on Canadian sealers. Canadians were prepared for legislation on the part of the two

I see nothing wonderful in what is called the preliction. Po vers to give effect to these regulations, but it was a matter

It was natural that Pitt, in his position, should cast about for for astonishment when the Imperial Act went far in advance

new hopes and means, should despair of dynasties, and even of the Paris Award. The penalties are needlessly and unusually

should turn to Spain, as the country which, of all large States, sovere, and the concession of the right of visit and search, as

had been least in the war, and had, greatly from the provincial well as of seizure, to foreign vessels over British, is regarded

formation and history of the country, the most of popular in Canada as odious and unwarranted.

spirit left in her. I do not clearly understand that he sail The Canadians contend that it is much more humane

Spain would rise, but that it was the most likely to rise. I

do not remember now the exact year of Bunsen's death. But to kill the seals at sea, and their spokesman protests

I remember very well that he contidently anticipated as indignantly against the proposition that their liberty to

proximate events, the union of Italy, the emancipation of the kill seals in the open sea should be still further curtailed subject races in Turkey, and the abolition of slavery. I see to please United States' monopolists :

more insight here than in Mr. Pitt's speculation, supposing Canada has lived up to the spirit and letter of this award. him to have broached it. · The views of Canadian pelagic hunters are, in fact, shared by

CHURCH REFORM. the citizens of every country which does not own islands The Rev. Chancellor Lias trots out once more the frequented by seals, and consequently if the facts were known,

familiar plea for admitting the laity to somo voice in the the majority of the people of every country would support the case of Canada, rather than the greed of a powerful combina

management of the affairs of the Church of England. tion of leaseholders under the United States Government.

He says: The only other article is Mr. A. F. Leach's paper on

The first step towards placing the Church in touch with the

nation-which done but the most enthusiastic admirers of The Origin of Oxford.”

things as they are can say she is at present-and of securing

improvement in her practical working, is to treat the laits as Blackwood's Magazine.

an integral portion of the Church of God. If their assent has The first paper in Blackwood's is devoted to the Soudan to be obtained to all appointments ; if they are consulted in all advance, and asks “What next?Blackwood answers parish affairs, including the mode of conducting the services; the question as follows:

if no Church work or legislation is initiated without their The advance into the Soudan greatly increases our respon- approval, we may depend upon it that many obstacles which sibilities to Egypt, and renders it absolutely imperative that now exist to a cordial understanding between the clergy and we remain in our position of guardians of its interests. This the people would disappear at once. being so self-evident, it is our duty to make it clearly under

OTHER ARTICLES. stool that the question of evacuation is no longer within the range of practical politics. We have no hankerings after

Miss Werner, in an article on “ African Folk-Lore," annexation, not even after a protectorate, but we must frankly

describes the result of her efforts to discover the declare that our duty to Egypt an'l our duty to ourselves

originals of Brer Rabbit among the natives of Nyassademand the continuance of the occupation. By this straight land. Mr. H. A. Kennedy has a rather remarkable and forward attitude we shall increase the confidence of our friends vivid paper entitled “Super Hanc Petram," which and be more respected by our enemies.

describes the meeting between Leo XIII. anil the shade I notice elsewhere Mr. Greenwood's poem “A Midnight of Paul III. Paul III. advises Leo to let England go, Conversation," and Canon Rawnsley's “ Passion Play at and eulogises the Jesuits. In the midst of their converSelzach." There is an interesting article on "The sation the Apostle Peter himself appears, and they explain Fortunes of France" for the last fifty years. Mr. Black- to him the heresies of the English. Paul III, declares more's novels are selected for detailed notice. The that God's grace could never be with Luther, to which writer praises Mr. Blackmore very highly, and declares, Peter replies, it may be with him too and even in abunthat in one instance at least, he has fallen but a very little dant measure. Whereupon Paul II. vanishes, and Peter way short of either Fielding or Scott. The article on reveals to Leo in a kind of clairvoyant vision, the events " Continental Yachting” is chiefly devotel to a descrip- of the Passion as he saw it in the days long yone by. tion of yachting in Germany. The political articles are Miss Wedgwood writes on "The Old (rier Changeth," noticed elsewhere.

and there is the usual article on money and investments.

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. The Vorth American Review for August is a good number. I notice elsewliere Sir Walter Besant's “Future of the Anglo-Saxon Race,” Mr. Porter's article “ Is Japanese Competition a Myth?” Mr. Grant Allen's vindication of " Novels with a' Purpose," and two articles on the issues and prospects of the Presidential campaign.

WHAT DO CATS THINK OF MEN ? Dr. Louis Robinson, whose charming papers on “Wild Traits in Tame Animals,” I regret to see, have come to an end, discusses in his last paper the case of a dog and a cat. In the course of his dissertation he incidentally raises a curious question as to what cats think of men:

The dog's master is regarded as the “boss” of the pack. This way of treating new things as part and parcel of what is old and familiar is common enough. When some South Sea Islanders first saw a horse they exclaimed, “What a very large pig!” The cat was a solitary roamer, whose companions were the trees of its native forests. It found a home in the hollow trunks and safety among the branches. While I was considering what was the probable view held by cats about human beings, it was suggested by one ingenious friend that probably they regard a man as a kind of locomotive tree, pleasant to rub against, the lower limbs of which afford a comfortable seat, and from whose upper branches occasionally drop tit-bits of mutton and other luscious fruits. We may laugh at the theory, but it has quite a respectable string of facts behind it to back it up. If the Kanakas argued from the pig to the horse, why should the cat not pass from the familiar tree to the unfamiliar organism called man ?

EDUCATION VERSUS HEREDITY. In Dr. H. S. Williams's paper, “Can the Criminal be Reclaimed ?” he makes a curious statement as to the extent to which education can overcome the strongest hereditary instincts in the case of birds. For instance, he tells us thata young crow, if taken from the nest during the first week or ten days of its life, becomes the most confiding and amusing of pets, seeming to regard men as beings of its own kind. If a few days later on another nestling is taken, this one also will become domesticated, but it will never be tame and confiding as the first; it will have something of the suspicious nature of a wild crow. Yet another week or ten days, and the remaining nestlings are able to fly about with their parents and have become altogether irreclaimable. No amount of training will erer suffice to tame them. They are “natural, inherent, hereditary” barbarians, apparently; but the tame brother, which, if taken to the woods and placed with its fellows, will fly back to the city and seek out its master in preference to crow companions, is a living illustration that a factor other than heredity has been overlooked in such a verdict.

the wilderness that received them they felt the awe of great solitudes, and must for a time have spoken in subdued tonesas do the wanderers to-lay in the remote valleys of the great mountain ranges, or over the vast plains of our western wilds. But, as the woods have been cleared away and the prairies have come under cultivation and cities have multiplied, we diave learned to address each other in voices like so many peacocks on house-tops exchanging views of the disturbers of the night.

OTHER ARTICLES. Mr. H. W. Lucy discourseth on the power of the

There is very little in his article to call for notice, but the closing paragraphs may suggest remark:

The London newspapers, each in its way a power in the land, solemnly stalk along their own pathway, ludicrously ignoring the existence of other pedestrians. Possibly it is, on the whole, well that the British press should not be united after the fashion of the ancient guilds. If it were, its power in the land might more nearly approach that of the House of Commons than is already achieved.

British press.

THE FORUM. THE Forum has no fewer than five articles bearing upon the Presidential Election, which are noticed elsewhere; so are the articles on “Harriet Beecher Stowe" and the Canadian Election, and Mr. Bishop's interesting papers on the influence of the bicycle.

HOW JULES SIMON LEARNT GREEK. M. Jules Simon in a posthumous article entitled “ Lifa in a French College Sixty Years Ago," mentions incidentally the way in which he learnt Greek. He says :

My library is unpretentious, containing books which are for use and not for any outward show. They were acquired ona by one. I have bound them, taken care of them, and changed their positions many times before determining their final resting-place. To-day, albeit there are close upon 25,000 volumes, I can go with eyes closed and find each one. This little bookcase on the right contains one hundred small, wellthumbed volumes-the Tauchnitz collection of Greek classics. They are not faultless. They do not contain a single note, but give the text and no more. For a long time these hundred books constituted my entire library. At that period I knew a little Greek and I relied upon the absence of any notes, translations, or summaries in order to become the more ready familiarized with the language; like a foreigner who, wishing to learn a language of which he is totally ignorant, engages board with natives who do not understand a word of his own idiom.

SOFT-HEADED ALTRUISTS. Mr. W. H. Mallock, in an article entitled “Altruism in Economics,” devotes himself with gusto to demonstrating that nothing can be more soft-headed than to be soft-hearted. He takes as his text Mr. Benjamin Kidd's statement as to the growth of altruism among the richer part of the commu

munity, and thus sums up his conclusions :

What Mr. Kidd constantly speaks of as “the softening” in the character of the “power-holding classes,” which is leading them, he says, to share their advantages with the weaker and more incapable, would really be something more than lie innagines. It would be the inevitable cause of a softening in the wills of those whom they sought to benefit. It would weaken those who are already weak; it would make those weak who are already strong; nor is there any sign that by the largesse of equal intellectual opportunities there would be any increase in the stock of talent of the first class. There would be merely, at best, an increase in the lower kinds of accomplishments beyond any use that the community woull be able to make of them, and ruinous before all things to their discontented and disappointed possessors. These reformers

THE AMERICAN ACCENT.

In an article entitled "A Newport Symposium,” by Mrs. Burton Harrison, in which certain imaginary personages discuss the ideal society, one, Mr. Easy, makes the following suggestion as to the treatment of the American voice :

Every school, everywhere, should have competent instructors in the use of the voice; every physician should carry in his pocket a prompt and cffectual remedy for our national catarrh. There is a metallic, unmusical and harsh buzz in the letter R, especially, that bewrayeth us to the least discerning of the rest of mankind; it ought to be abolished by you reformers, fven if you must make a new alphabet that has no letter R in it. And, not only that, but, as we have ceased to be of a sparse population, our voices have become too loud. Our immigrants of nearly three hundred years ago brought with them the low and soft voices of their English progenitors; in

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