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SOME ANSWERS-BY THOMAS CARLYLE AND OTHERS. COME months ago I published a letter from a footman the past history of one's own native country, everybody mav D in Wales, in which I appealed to my readers and be advised to begin with that. Let bim study that faithfully;
asked their advice as to the books he would be innumerable inquiries will branch out from it; he has a broadlikely to find most useful. As might be expected, I have
beaten highway, from which all the country is more or less received many answers from many correspondents in
visible; there travelling, let him choose where he will dwell.
Neither let mistakes and wrong directions-of which every various parts of the world. From these I make a selection.
man, in his studies and elsewhere, falls into many--discourage
you. There is precious instruction to be got by finding that I.-NR. CARLYLE ON THE CHOICE OF BOOKS. we are wrong. Let a man try faithfully, manfully, to be First and foremost, I have to thank Mr. Rowlands for
riglit, he will grow daily more and more right. It is, at bottom,
the condition on which all men have to cultivate themselves. sending me a copy of a letter by Thomas Carlyle which
Our very walking is an incessant falling--a falling and a bears directly upon the footman's inquiry. The letter
catching of ourselves before we come actually to the pavement ! itself was printed in Chambers' Edinburgh Journal as far
-it is emblematic of all things a man does. back as 1313. Mr. Carlyle's remarks are pertinent, so
In conclusion, I will remind you that it is not by books alone, sensible, and so well to be remembered that, although or by books chiefly, that a man becomes in all points a man. many of our readers may have seen them, no one will Study to do faithfully whatsoever thing in your actual situation, object to seeing them again.
there and now, you find either expressly or tacitly laid to your Dear Sir,-Some time ago your letter was delivered me; I
charge; that is your post; stand in it like a true soldier. take literally the first free half-hour I have had since to write
Silently devour the many chagrins of it, as all human situa
tions have many; and see you aim not to quit it without you a word of answer. It would give me true satisfaction could any advice of mine
doing all that it, at least, required of you. A man perfects
himself by work much more than by reading. They are a contribute to forward you in your honourable course of self
growing kind of men that can wisely combine the two things improvement, but a long experience has taught me that advice
-wisely, valiantly, can do what is laid to their hand in their can profit but little: that there is a good reason why advice is
present sphere, and prepare themselves withal for doing other $0 seldom followed; this reason namely, that it so seldom, and
wider things, if such lie before them. With many good can almost never be, rightly given. No man knows the state
wishes and encouragements, I remain, yours sincerely, THOMAS of another; it is always to some more or less imaginary man
CARLYLE. Chelsea, 13th March, 1843. that the wisest and most honest adviser is speaking.
As to the books which you--whom I know so little of-should read, there is hardly anything definite that can be said. For
II.-THE EXPERIENCE OF A FISHERMAN. one thing, you may be strenuously advised to keep reading. One who is by trade a North Sea fisherman, but who Any good book, any book that is wiser than yourself, will has been for some years on shore, sends me the following teach you something-a great many things, indirectly and
account of his experience, dated Great Grimsby Trades directly, if your mind be open to learn. This old counsel of Johnson's is also good, and universally applicable :
and Labour Council, April 20th:-* Read the book you do honestly feel a wish and curiosity Re the Best Reading for a Working Man, let me briefly to read.” The very wish and curiosity indicates that you send my experience: then and there, are the person likely to get good of it. History : Hallam’s Constitutional History of England "Our wishes are presentiments of our capabilities;” that (Chandos); Hallam's Middle Ages of Europe (Fred. Warne is a noble saying, of deep encouragement to all true men; and Co.); Macaulay's History of England, 2 volumes (Long. applicable to our wishes and efforts in regard to reading mans); Hume and Smollett (Longmans); and for later as to other things. Among all the objects that look history, use his own judgment, after reading these. wonderful or beautiful to you, follow with fresh hope the Political Economy: Carlyle's Sartor Resartus (Past and one which looks wonderfullest, beautifullest. You will Present), Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Professor Marshall, gradually find, by various trials (which trials see that you Thorold Rogers (Work and Wages), Karl Marx (Capital), make honest, manful ones, not silly, short, fitful ones), what Henry George (Progress and Poverty), Wallace (Land is for you the wonderfullest, beautifullest-what is your true Nationalisation), Paine's Rights of Man. element and province, and be able to profit by that. True Philosophy and Theology, Literary, etc.: Lewes (Biographical desire, the monition of nature, is much to be attended to. But History of Philosophy) (Routledge); Paine's Age of Reason; here, also, you are to discriminate carefully between true desire Carlyle's Essays; Emerson (Prose Works), Minerva; Bacon, and false. The medical men tell us we should eat what we Minerva; Macaulay's Essays, Minerva ; Mazzini, Thoreau truly have an appetite for ; but what we only falsely haye an (Biglow Papers), Lowell, Walter Scott's Lives. appetite for we should resolutely avoid. It is very true; and Poets : 1. Shakespeare (read every word more than once); flimsy, desultory readers, who fly from foolish book to foolish 2. Burns (read every word more than once). book, and get good of none, and mischief of all-are not these Penny Poets and Novels. as foolish, unhealthy eaters, who mistake their superficial false Various: Howell's History of Trade Congresses; Sidney desire after spiceries and confectionaries for their real appetite, Webb, History of Trade Unions; Beatrice Potter (Co-operation), of which even they are not destitute, though it lies far deeper, Labour Gazette. far quieter, after solid nutritive food ? With these illustra Reynolds's Newspaper; REVIEW OF REVIEWS; The Local tions, I will recommend Johnson's advice to you.
Papers ; Thompson's Democratic Readings. Another thing, and only one other, I will say. All books Join a Political Club; Visit Free Library for Graphic and are properly the record of the history of past men-what other Illustrated Papers. thoughts past men had in them—what actions past men did: Notes: 1. Read aloud as well as quietly; 2. Write your the summary of all books whatsoever lies there. It is on this thoughts (mark every point in the book which strikes you); ground that the class of books specifically named History can 3. Practise speaking in small circle and in the fields. be safely recommended as the basis of all study of books—the Annuals: National Reform Almanacks; Labour Annual; preliminary to all right and full understanding of anything Whitaker's Almanack. we can expect to find in books. Past history, and especially French Revolution : Carlyle's French Revolution ; Dickens's
and learn more of the details of Astronomy, Chemistry, Physiology or Political Economy, as the case may be, or to the general reader a cursory knowledge of all four, which is more the kind of information a working man would require, as it must be presumed this class of reader has not time for any special study. “The Story of Creation,” E. Clodd; "The Beauties of Nature," Sir J. Lubbock; " Myths and Dreams." E. Clodd; “ Science and Culture,” Huxley, are all rather more costly books, but perhaps there might be a village library where these may be obtained.
Tale of Two Cities; Dumas' Diary of a Physician; French Revolution (Annie Besant).
Charles Bradlaugh's (Lectures and Debates); Paley's Evidences; The Bible (Pilgrim's Progress); Nuttall's Standard Dictionary.
After our friend has read these, he will need no advice, although he will then believe with Emerson that the advancing man discovers how large a property he has in literature, and will not be content with this imperfect list.
III.—ADVICE FROM THE KITCHEN. A servant-girl, who does not give me her name, and dates from Kendal, in Westmorland, sends me a letter which, from the handwriting, appears to be obviously genuine, and is very much to the point:
As you asked your readers, simple as well as learned, to send you in notes of their experience re the above subject, I, as a simple one, will endeavour to do so (I am not a working man, but a girl). I had to leave school early to go to work. I did not mind much at first, but as I grew a year or two older I felt that I knew practically nothing beyond the three R's.
First, as regards Biblical study, I have found the Cambridge Bible, for schools and colleges, to be of very great help in the studying of the Word. Of course, I could never afford to buy the many different books there are of it. I got them out of a public library we have here; if a “ working man” could do the same, I think he woulil find them of real use to him. As regards dictionaries, I use Nuttall's, as I think the derivations, explanations, and also the pronunciations are really very good, and it is not very expensive.
Concerning the question of buying books in parts or ready bound, personally I prefer to get them ready bound, as I find that so much of a weekly wage is missed more than just paying the sum down and going hard up for a few weeks. I must add, though, tbat I buy very few books, because you see if they are only to be used as stepping-stones to something higher they will not be required when you have attained to that something. Of course, you must have the “stepping-stones,” but if you can borrow them from a library or from friends-well, so much the better for yourself, provided that you return them. There are some books which are useful all through life, but that of course is a question for each individual to decide for himself.
It is rather a pity “ A Working Man” does not care for novels, as they might help him in the giving expression to his ideas; at least, that is what they have done for me. It depends altogether, though, on what style of novel you read." The authors by whom I have been helped are-Victor Hugo, Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Edna Lyall, John Roskin, Hall Caine; Marie Corelli also has taught me something, but I owe most to Shakespeare, Dante, Milton, and Longfellow.
One of our helpers, at Maidenhead, writes briefly, as follows:--"If I might be permitted to advise your South
Vales footman, I should say, buy and study Ruskin's • Sesame and Lilies' before trying anything else, because in that book alone, so far as I know, can you learn how to read. I perused books, but did not know how to read them until that book taught me.”
A young lady sends me a sheet of suggestions, from which I extract the first bearing on the question of science:-
First, I would suggest his reading perfectly simple books, euch as the little book called “ The Childhood of the World," by E. Clodd. This book will give him a charming sketch of the early workings of creation, and interest him in his primitive progenitors, which subjects he could follow up as occasion offered. For the same purpose all Macmillan's little shilling Science Primers are excellent. They contain that which is calculated to give plenty of food for thought, and possess the gift of deeply interesting the reader, but their chief virtue is, they give a decided taste to pursue the subject under stully,
. IV.-SOME WORKING MEN'S COUNSELS.
Mr. Alfred Dixon, writing from 27, Aynam Roal, Kendal, says:
Being myself a working-man who has read and thought a deal, I shall be pleased, with your permission, to give him the results of my humble experience in the direction of selfculture. First of all, no better basis for self-education could, I think, be found than “ Chambers's Information for the People.” The work in its complete form is in two volumes and published at 16s., but the sections or papers of which it is made up can be had separately at about 21. each, and it economy be an object, our friend could select from them those which he considered would be most serviceable to him. He would probably omit those numbers dealing with more or less out-of-the-way subjects—such, probably, as those on Household Hints, Botany, Zoology, Indoor Recreations, and the like; also such as treat of subjects which are more fully dealt with in works which I now proceed to recommend.
The grammar of one's own tongue and the history of one's own country would seem to be two of the fundamental branches of any scheme of self-culture. Cobbett's “Grammar," which, in addition to being instructive, is amusing, by reason of its racy and plain-spoken style, would be as good as any; it can bu had for 1s. In history, one of the many excellent modern school histories would answer; for choice, Nelson's " Royal” History. This might be followed by Justin McCarthy's short “History of our own Times” (33. 6d.). Also Green's “Short History" (88. 6d.) is, I notice, muca recommended in the periodicals to those seeking for advice from the editors as to self-culture. Dictionary: Chambers's “Etymological Dictionary" (4s. 61.) would probably best met the requirements of our friend in Wales. Bible with Notes: The only one with which I am familiar is a large one published in two volumes by the Religious Tract Society. The critical notes are orthodox and couservative in tone. The New Testament could be obtained first (price, 9s, or 10s.), and the Old (more expensive) added afterwards at choice.
I have only room left to deal with two other subjects, both which have occupied much attention during recent years, viz. : Evolution and Economics. For a comprehensive view of the Evolutionary Theory, I would recommend Edw. Cloid's “ Story of Creation” (Zs. 6d., Macmillan), followed, as a corrective from the scriptural standpoint, by “The Day Dawn of the Past," a little paper-backed book published at ls. by Elliot Stock. In Economics, nothing better than Professor Marshall's “ Elements of Economics” (3s. 6d., Macmillan) and Mrs. Fawcett's “Political Economy for Beginners” (25. 6d., Macmillan)-both excellent reading.
Another correspondent sends me the following notes:
1. The Bible.--Study, not merely read. Avoid commentaries, as they help very little to understand the moral an! spiritual teaching of the Book, which is all any man needs > understand who desires to live a pure and useful, that is. helpful, life. The best commentary on the Bible is the Bible.
2. John Richard Green's “Short History of the English People.”
3. The poets, especially Shakespeare.
4. A good daily newspaper, accompanied by a good atlas and a good dictionary
These, with the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, well digested, and after that anything his stomach craves. But few people require more than four good meals a day.
V.-TIIE NATIONAL HOME READING UNION.
The last letter I publish brings me round to where I becan, but it is an appropriate close of the article, inasmuch as it describes the way in which a branch of the National Home Reading Union actually operates in Rugby. Mr. J. L. Paton writes me as follows:
I was very interested to read the letter from a footman in Four last number of the Review. I think there are many working men who feel much as he does the need of a little guidance and association in their reading. They have lots of time on their hands, especially on winter evenings. They don't need physical exercise as a professional man does after his work is done. It is mind exercise they want. Now we have had in Rugby for the past six years a reading circle under the National Home Reading Union, which it seems to me could just meet the case of your correspondent. We started with four-two signalmen, å joiner, and myself. We now number thirty-four, of all shapes and sizes and persuasions. We have read this year half of F. Myers' lectures on great nen, Plato's “Crito and Phædo" (in Cassell's National Library), “Merrie England," and Shakespeare's “ Merchant of Venice.” The latter we have just finished. We read it in character. taking parts, and next time each member will give s brief sketch of the character he or she represented. In summer we take a natural history subject. Last year we read Kingsley's “ Town Geology," and went geological rambles on tue new cutting of the M. S. & L. We have outings also to such places of interest in the neighbourhood as Naseby, Stoneleigh, Coombe Abbey, Lutterworth (in connection with Hvers' lecture on Wycliffe). We meet every week and discuss the portion we have read ; if it's a stiff book, our leader goes through and analyses it paragraph by paragraph before wa discuss. Different views are ventilated, difficulties are solved, interest kept alive by contagion. We have our monthly magazines from headquarters giving us introductory articles for the various books and other help. Occasionally we have & paper like a mutual improvement society, or a magic-lantern lecture; or, again, we get the Art Master at the Big School to show us round the Museum and give us a talk when there is something special on view, or we pay a visit to the observatory and get the curator to explain the mysteries of the moon and such superlunar things as nebulæ.
Now, sir, your correspondent may not have an art museum and a good telescope within easy reach, but there will be something else as good. And if he can only get a few others like himself to band together for the definite purpose of sistematic reading they will soon find a leader and lots of educational opportunities, because you ask all sorts of liberties
Oulaskall sorts of liberties when you are begging in the name of a society or a reading circle, and lots of swells who have collections or hobbies would be only too glad, if asked, to impart their knowledge.
I received so many letters on this subject that it is impossible for me to do more than make a selection here and there from the cominunications of my correspondents. Mr. W. H. Taylor, of 9, Cedar Grove, Charlton, offers to lend the Welsh footman a book, the value of which he can vonch from his own experience, namely, Ruskin's “ The King's Treasures.” Another correspondent makes a somewhat shrewd observation. He says what many have felt without saying, that readers-especially solitary readers-stand more in need of congenial friends to talk about what they read than even to be guided as to the books which they should study. As friends cannot be laid on wherever wanted, our correspondent suggests that the difficulty might just be met by the establishment of a Corresponding Agency by which persons who are reading the same books, and interested in the same subjects, could be placed in communication with each other. This is a branch of work of the National Home Reading Union which is capable of very wide development.
HOW DID I COME TO LIKE READING ?
A PRIZE COMPETITION. It is evident from the way in which the subject rose to my hand that there is good ground for believing that a penny book on the Choice of Books – “How to Choose, and How to Read ”-would be very much in order. By way of making my selection of materials as comprehensive as possible, I would like to offer a series of small prizes, open to all competitors, in four different categories. The object that we are aiming at, is to know how to get people to read-how to instil a taste for reading in the minds of those who have at this moment no such taste. Now it seems to me my readers can help me in this matter more than I can help myself, and although I offer a prize, it is not because I think the intrinsic value of the prize will act as an incentive, but simply that the offer of any prize tends to call attention to the fact that contributions are wanted on that subject. The subject which I propound is the theme for a personal essay, not to exceed 1,000 words in length, describing their personal experiences in this matter of reading. I will put the question as to the title for the competing essays: “How I came to like Reading." Competitors I divide into four classes: 1. Men above eighteen; 2. Boys under eighteen; 3. Women over eighteen; 4. Girls under eighteen. The essay to be an exact account of the competitor's personal experience, describing exactly what it was that first opened their eyes to the perception of the fact that books were interesting. It will be hard if, from the essays of our competitors, I do not gain some useful hints for the carrying out of my scheme of literary revivalism. All essays must be sent in by October 15th, addressed “Reading Competition," REVIEW OF REVIEWS. No doubt this detail of personal experience savours somewhat of the Methodist Class meeting, but this is ontirely in keeping with my notion of the revival; and as I don't like asking people to do anything I don't like to do myself, I shall set about preparing a chapter of autobiography, telling as exactly as I can how it was I came to learn to love reading; but in that case I shall, by virtue of my dispensing power, absolve myself from the necessity of confining my confessions within the limit of 1,000 words.
I offer another set of prizes (for the same four categories of competitors) for the best paper answering the questionWhat can be done in my district to increase the
sale of the Penny Classics of the Masterpiece Library?
The first monthly number of the “ Penny Poets” has been issued this month. It has been specially compiled by an elementary school teacher for the use of teachers, and to supply the need of a cheap poetical reader for schools which has long been felt. Many others have been made to meet the want, but nothing, I am assured, so cheap and so complete as the September number of the “ Penny Pocts” has been produced for the use of our scholars. Readers of this article will greatly assist me if they will inquire of every bookseller and newsagent in the locality if he keeps a stock of “ Poems for the Schoolroom and the Scholar”-No. 49 of the Penny Poets-and, in the event of a negative answer, by suggesting that it would be good business to order a stock without delay. I shall be glad to have any suggestions from teachers, after they have seen the number, as to its possible improvement in future editions.
THE ANGLO-AMERICAN ARBITRATION MOYEMENT.
HOW MATTERS STAND NOW: LORD SALISBURY AND THE MEMORIAL. THEN Lord Salisbury laid the Arbitration This, of course, settled the question of the deputation.
despatches before the House of Lords, all the But the mystery remains why Lord Salisbury should
world understood him to mean that he wished have appealed to public opinion when he published the for expressions of public opinion on the subject-matter despatches if he did not desire to receive a deputation, in dispute. Mr. Balfour, when approached by Sir W.
A SUGGESTED COMPROMISE. Harcourt, said he could not spare time for a debate in
The Daily News of August 20th published an article which the House of Commons might have discussed the which summarised the points on which an agreement has matter. Parliamentary debate being impossible, it was already been arrived at, and made a sugestion as to the thought there would be less difficulty in the way of an mode in which the present hitch might be got over. As influential deputation charged with the presentation of
I wrote the article, and it embodies the result of a good the memorial promoted early in the year by the Sion deal of discussion with good authorities, I reproduce the College Committee.
suggestion here. After describing the area of agreement, A communication was accordingly addressed to the I dealt as follows with the points of difference: Prime Minister, asking him if he would receive a deputa- The two points of difference which alone remain outstanding tion headed by Sir James Stansfeld, the Duke of
are as follow:Westminster, Sir Albert Rollit, Mr. Bryce, Sir Walter (1) Whether the Executive or the Legislature shall ba Besant, Mr. Burt, and Lady Henry Somerset, bearing vested with the right to declare that any particular conthe following memorial :
troversy involves honour and integrity. “We, the undersigned, desire to express our deep conviction
(2) What shall be the constitution and functions of the that, whatever may be the differences between the Govern
Court of Review.
As to the first point enough has already been said. The ments in the present or the future, all English-speaking peoples united by race, language, and religion, should regard
right can be vested in Congress in the United States. It war as the one absolutely intolerable mode of settling the
cannot be more absolutely vested in the House of Commons domestic differences of the Anglo-American family.
than it is now. It would, however-but for one consideration “ As any appeal to the arbitrament of the sword in disputes
-be a very simple matter to provide that whenever any subbetween the English-speaking nations is abhorrent to the
ject is withdrawn from the cognisance of the Tribunal, the conscience of the race, we would respectfully suggest to our
conduct of the Executive Government shall be expressly Government that the present is a 'fit occasion' for giving
approved by actual vote of the Legislature instead of being, as effect to the resolutions in favour of Arbitration passed by
at present, naturally implied by the fact that it comman is a both Houses of Congress in 1892, by the House of Commons in
working majority of the House of Commons. The only objec1893, and expressing the earnest desire of the nations that
tion to this is that it would admit the House of Lords to a any differences or disputes arising between the two Govern
share in the control of the Executive, which at present is ments, which cannot be adjusted by diplomatic agencies, may
vested solely in the House of Commons. It would be odd if be referred to arbitration and peaceably adjusted by such
the Americans were to be the agents in the re-establishment means.
of the authority of the British aristocracy. The second point • Without expressing any opinion upon pending controver
of difference is narrowed down to this. The Governments sies, we would earnestly press the advisability of promptly
agree that there shall be a Court of Review, they agree that concluding some treaty arrangement by which all disputes
it shall be constituted of three Judges of the Supreme Court between Great Britain and the United States could be referred
of each country. They agree that only in territorial questions for adjudication to some permanent tribunal representing both
and money clauses of over £100,000 shall there be a right of nations, and uniting them in the common interest of justice
appeal, and that no appeal shall be taken unless within three and peace.”
months after an award. But there the agreement ceases. Lord This memorial, Lord Salisbury was informed, had been
Salisbury proposed that the award should be set aside unless
it is confirmed by a majority of five to one. Mr. Olney sug. signed by more than fifty thousand persons, including
gested, on the other hand, that the award should stand, unless nearly a score peers, a dozen bishops, the heads of all the
set aside by the appellate tribunal by a majority of fire to free churches, two hundred members of Parliament, one one. Mr. Olney and Lord Salisbury both made alternative hundred mayors, eighty chairmen of school boards, and proposals, but this is the nearest approximation to an agreetwelve chairmen of county councils. There had been no ment that they arrived at. disposition to press him to receive this influential expres
HOW TO RECONCILE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE. sion of public opinion while negotiations were pending, The demand made by Lord Salisbury that the award of the but now that he had appealed for expressions of opinion, Arbitral Tribunal shall be set aside if only two members of a the memorialists hoped that it might be convenient for
joint court of six judges object to it, will hardly be approved him to receive the deputation.
by public opinion in this country. Mr. Olney's counterTo this Lord Salisbury replied as follows:
proposal is certainly much more respectful to the Arbitral
Tribunal. What is wanted, therefore, is some method of Hatfield House, Hertford,
meeting Lord Salisbury's difficulty in some other way. There August 8, 1896.
would be probably no difficulty in admitting Mr. Olney's Dear Sir,-I regret that the pressure of other engagements suggestion in all cases of money claims. Territorial claims has prevented me from answering you before. As the negotia would alone remain to be dealt with. Here, howerer, there tion on the subject of arbitration is still proceeding I do not seems to be a way out. Lord Salisbury, in his speech in the think that the deputation, however numerous and however
House of Lords, explained that what lay in the back of his influentially conducted, would be of any assistance to the
mind was not the dread of any territorial difficulty with the Government at the present moment. I am afraid, therefore, I
United States, but the possibility that the United States
might hereafter adopt as its own the territorial difficulties of am with great reluctance obliged to say that I cannot comply
other Powers. But surely Mr. Olney, who in his despatch with the proposition in your letter.-Yours faithfully,
declares that the only thing now contemplated is a treaty of SALISBURY. arbitration between Great Britain and the t'pited States would
endeavour to minimise the difference as to the inclusion of settled districts within the scope of arbitration. They
not object to relegate all territorial questions, other than those directiv arising between the two Powers, to the category of disputes which could only be referred by special agreement. This is indeed already secured. For either Power could declare, and in such declaration be supported by Congress and Parliament, that it injuriously affected its honour to permit the intervention of the other Power in a dispute which it was conducting with a third State. At the same time it might be more safe to make express provision in the Treaty to guard against the danger Lord Salisbury foresees.
THE DOCTRINE OF UTI POSSIDETIS. Mr. Olney asks with somewhat indignant rhetoric “ from what quarter may these numerous and speculative claims to territory be expected to come?” and he repudiates the notion that either Government would be guilty of preferring such claims against the other. But would it not be better to borrow a hint from the familiar doctrine of Uti Possidetis, which forms the basis of so many treaties of peace? This doctrine, according to Wheaton, maintains “the existing state of possession, except so far as altered by the terms of the treaty. If nothing be said about the conquered country or places, they remain with the conqueror and his title cannot afterwards be called in question. During the continuance of the war the conqueror in possession has only a usufructuary right, and the latent title of the former sovereign continues until the treaty of peace by its silent operation, or express provisions, extinguishes his title for ever.” Now, why should not this treaty of arbitration extinguish for ever any right or title, real or imaginary, which either Power could claim to any territory now actually possessed by the other? It ought not to tax the ingenuity of two Governments to devise a form of sound words by which they should each bind themselves not to raise any question of territorial rights, boundaries, sovereignty, or jurisdiction in any of the area at present mutually recognised as belonging to Britain on the one side or the United States on the other. Official maps on the largest scale, duly defining the present existing possessions of the British
Britisk Crown and of the American Republic, could be exchanged between the signatories and appended as annexes to the Treaty of Arbitration. If this were done, the difficulty of sending to arbitration questions involving territorial rights would be reduced to a vanishing point. Whatever remnant of territorial questions that might remain over might safely be left to the tender mercies of the Arbitral Tribunal, checked by a Court of Review empowered to quash the award if no more than one member of a bench of six could be found to maintain it was just. Or the decision might be left to a bare majority of the Appellate Tribunal. This detail matters little when all risk of arbitrating away the Empire has been estopped in advance by a clause in the treaty which would operate as a mutual guarantee of the integrity of each other's dominions.
AN AMERICAN PRECEDENT. In the tenth article of the Plan of a Permanent Tribunal of Arbitration, adopted by the International American Conference, April 18th, 1890, it is provided that:
No question shall be revived by virtue of this Treaty concerning which a definite agreement shall alrea ly have been reachel. In such cases arbitration shall be resorted to only for the settlement of questions concerning the validity, interpretation, or enforcement of such agreements.
This article, with which Mr. Olney must be familiar, needs but a little modification to serve as a precedent for the suggested compromise by which Lord Salisbury might consent to accept Mr. Olney's suggestion as to the powers of the Court of Review, if a clause were added to the Treaty precluding all possibility of raising “ these numerous and speculative clauses to territory” which Lord Salisbury regards with what Mr. Olney considers a “highly fanciful" dread.
Certain it is that no two great States which have so nearly arrived at absolute accord on all questions of principle ought to allow so small a difference on a point of detail to stand in the way of a final settlement.
THE VENEZUELAN CRUX.—THE SETTLED DISTRICTS.
The International Arbitration and Peace Association have addressed a letter to Lord Salisbury, in which they
If it were the case that any appreciable number of British citizens had been in settled occupation of, and carrying on profitable industries in, the dense forests and river valleys of that region, the equitable claims of such fellow-subjects of ours would be acknowledged to the full by our Association as much as by other Englishmen, whatever decision any arbitrator might arrive at regarding political or historical rights over such territory.
Hence our Committee has made such endeavours as were open to it in order to ascertain what are the facts as to this alleged prolonged occupation by British subjects of towns, villages, factories, or mines, in that debatable region. So far as we lcarn, any such occupation is not only of very limited extent as to numbers, but most casual and intermittent in character. If this be really the case, it is manifest that the difficulties of the present situation would be greatly modified by such frank avowal of the facts as would tend to dissipate the popular misconception which seems to us to be general.
No such “ frank avowal” has been officially made, but the facts are beyond dispute.
THE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE ON ARBITRATION. The Lord Chief Justice, who is now on a visit to the United States, delivered an elaborate address on International Arbitration to the American Bar Association at Saratoga. He dealt however more with the general question than with the proposed Anglo-American tribunal. He rather deprecated the appointment of permanent arbitrators, suggesting a preference for arbitrators appointed ad hoc. But the two Governments have already agreed on a proposal which unites the advantages of both methods. By the draft treaty proposed by Lord Salisbury and agreed to by Mr. Olney, so far as that clause was concerned, each Power must nominate two or more persons as permanent arbitrators, from whose number one must be selected on each side when a dispute arises, and these two shall then select an umpire ad hoc. This combines the permanence of the tribunal with the advantage of selecting an arbitrator specially competent for the particular question under review.
ARBITRATION IN AUSTRALIA, The following resolution which was moved by Dr. Bevan was carried by the unanimous vote of the Council of the Congregational Union of Victoria, and shows that Australians take a keen and intelligent interest in the Arbitration movement :
That the Congregational Union and Mission of Victoria desires hereby to place on record its deep thankfulness that the danger of war between the British nation and the United States has passed away, and that in view of the terrible results which would accrue from hostilities between these nations who ought to be ever united in all forms of human activity, and especially in the spread of civilisation and Christianity throughout the world, it is of opinion that an International Tribunal of a permanent character should at once be created, to which all questions wherein the interests of these nations may seem to be opposed to one another may be immediately referred, and by the decisions of which authority duly constituted and recognised by both nations the conditions of peace and war would be entirely removed, both from the possibility of the sudden and intelligent passions of the people, and from the peril of the individual or party designs of politicians.
The Council would further express its satisfaction at the endeavours which are being made, both in the British Islands and in America, for the furtherance of such International Tribunal, and trusts that the public opinion of Australasia may be led to express itself in sympathy with this endeavour to promote the peace and brotherhood of the nations of the world.