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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 1. An Italian Squadron in South American
Waters, re-establishel by King Humbert
Kong for assistance.
sion to the Throne.
tute opened at Bilbao. Five thousand Armenians reported massacre !
the pre-eling week. The Conference of the Institute of Journalists
was convened at Belfast.
6 Chief Makoni was tried by Court Martial and 19. Mr. H. Howard, Secretary of Embassy at Paris, shot by order of Major Watts.
was appointed Minister at the Hague ; Mr. 8. The Clyde Engineering Dispute settled.
Le Marchant Gosselin, Secretary of Embassy Musical Festival of the Three Choirs opened at at Berlin, was made Secretary of Embassy at Worcester.
King decorated him with the Grand Cross of opposizion.
Troops occupied Kerman.
pool to ask him to convene a town meeting. Mr. Bryan accepted his nomivatiou as Presi- 20. Meeting held in Manchester in connection with dential Candidate of the National Silver
the Armenian agitation. Party.
Many public meetings touching the Armenians 10. Mr. T. S. Stick, manager of a colliery at Hanley,
held througbout the country. was suffocated by “Black Damp."
Miss Frances Willard exhorted Americans to
help the Armenians.
labour until 15 years of age, was passed at
Edinburgh by the Trade Union Congress.
the Governor-General of Cr. te.
General of Crete.
addressed to the Porte.
destroyed Simbapoatu's kraal.
Conference in Vienna.
Boulogne, and Glasgow.
methods of protecting Foreign Residents.
were allowed to retire from the Service.
the London County Council the Water Autho-
MR. ROBEI ANDERSON, LL.D., C B.
Director of the Criminal Investigation Department. of seamen and dock labourers.
(Photograph by W. G. Moore, Dublin.) 15. The State3-General of Holland opene i by the Queen-Regeut.
21. Three Thousand Striking Miners attacked two Several panics occurred in Constantinople.
Mines at Leadville. 16. Annual Meeting of the British Association con
A Decree confiscating the Property of Insurgents venel at Liverpool.
was issued by the G ,vernor of the Philippines. Port of London Docks, Wharves, Warehouses 22. The Emperor and Empress of Russia arrived at and Graparies Association declined to agree
Women's Congress ope:vel in Berlin.
London Cabmen passed Resolutions approving
strike against the Privilege System in force at the men.
most Railway Stations. Troops all concentrate i at Fereig.
23. To-day the Queen's Reigo is the longest in the Mr. Laurier announced that the Government
History of Great Britain. would soon endeavour to negotiate a Reci
Meetings denouncing the Armeniau Atrocities procity Treaty with the United States.
were held throughout Great Britain. Six hundred Armenians killed at Kharput.
Dongola taken by the Troops. 17. The Seventh Peace Congress opened
24. Mr. Gladstone appealed to the Country to Budapest.
MR. W. COXYXGHAM GREENE.
(Photograp'ı by Bassano).
2. Annual Congress of the Sanitary Institute
opened by the Duke of Cambriilge at New
castle-on-Tyne. Programme of Reforms agreed to by the
Sultan. 3. The Porte announce that persons connected with
the recent outbreaks in Constantinople will be
tried by an extraordinary Tribunal. Senator Palmer nominated for President of the
United States by the Sound Money Democrats. 4. The Annual Convention of the Irish National
League of Great Britain was held in Dublin. 5. Editors of two Cairo journals were imprisoned
and fined for gross attacks Queen
in the Thames.
deliver the Armenians. Letters declaring Ordinations according to the
Culonel Sir H. H. Kitchener, Sirdar of the Anglican Rite invalid issue 1 by the Pope.
Egyptian Army, was promoted to a MajorMatabele chiefs were warned to evacuate the
General. hills within ten days, or hostilities would be
26. The Peary Expedition returned to Sydney from resumed,
International Anti-Masonic Congress assembled
at Vienna. Umtigeza defeated at Fort Charter.
27. Navigable Channel through the Iron Gates at International Agricultural Congres convened
Orsova ou the Danube declared open by the in Budapest.
Question which satisfies tbe Dominion
satisfaction with the reformis suggested by the
Sanitorium on Long Island.
28. Serions Fighting for three days reported from 21. Earl Spencer, at Rugby, on the Armenian 22. Katharina Klafsky, singer, 31. Fort Salisbury.
23. Sir John Erichsen, surgeon, 78. 29. Mr. Alderma. Faudel Pbillips was ele:ted Lor] Mr. Bryce, at Vava heter, on tbe Armenia a Gilbert L. Duprez, siuger, 90. Mayor of London.
21. Baron Louis de Geer, ex-Premier of Sweden, 78. The Congregational Union at Lei ester passej 23. The Bishop of Carlisle, at Carlisle, on the l'ope's Sir Geo. Henry Humphry, Professor of Surgery
Resolutions congratulating the Queen on ber J.etter denying the Validi:y of Ang icau at Cambridge, 76. long reign.
26. Elward Lavington Oxenham, British Consul in 30. Resolutions deploring the Armenian Massacres Mr. Bayar), at Liverpo. 1, oa the Presi Icut of China. were passed by the Worcester aud l'eter
tbe Unite 1 States,
Frederick Holmwood, Consul-General at Smyrra. borough Diocesan Conferen: es
21. Mr. Gladstone, at Liverpol, on the Delivera:ce 27. Sir George Morrison, 45. Commercial Treaty between France and Italy of the Armenians.
Frel Barnard, book illustrator, 50. formally s goed ia l'aris.
The Bishop of Oxfor.l, at Oxfur.l, on Some Bills 3. Rev. Jobn Gibson Cazenore, Stib-Dean and The Mazoe District pronounced free from Rebels.
of the Last Sess on.
Chancellor of St. Mary's, Elipbargh.
28. Cardin... Vaughin, at Ila ley, on the l'ope's Rev. Joba Fitzgeral), 65. Sept. 2. Mr. Gladstone, at Hawarden, on the Faculty
Letter on aug‘ican Orders.
I'r fessor J. R. I.. Delbænf, bypnotist, 58. of Musi.
30. Sir Edward Clarke, at Mymouth, on ibo Mme. Else Schmieden (E. Juncker), novelist. 4. Sir W. Maxwell, at Vay he:ter, on Asha'.ti.
the Revision of the Educati val System.
during Her Majesty's leigir.
Attaché for Europe, 71.
of London Missionary Suiety.
John A. Boase, 95.
lev. llenry R. Reynol ls, l'rc.ieat of Cheslut
Gilbert R. Betjeniann, violinist, 31.
W. M. Makepeace, chori-ter, 76
l'rofessor J. E.C. Vuuro, 47.
12. Olaf Larsson, ex-lea ler of the Swedib (Photograph by Russell and Suns, B.ker St. cet) Agrarian Party. 58.
13. Sir George F. V'er.lon, 62. 5. Lor.l Londonderry, at Stockton-on-Teez, on the
Major-General Fran: is J. T. Ross, 63. Release of the Dynamiters.
14. Chas. C. Earle, journalix, 31. 8. Mr. Jobn Reimond, at Dublin, on the Leaders
Elmund H. W. Beilairs, Vi.e-cousul at of the Anti-Parnellite Party.
Biar. itz, 13 13. M. Bfirnson, at Christiania, on the Influence of 15. Mrs. Thurston, Xurse and Housekeeper to the Dr. Navsen's Exploits.
Queen, 86. 16. Sir Joseph Lister, at Liverpool, o:) the Inter
l'rofessor Pbister, actor, 87 dependence of Science and the Healing Art.
Miss Eleanor E. Smith, lingni:t 74. Mr. Brodrick, at Shere, 0:1 the Tlou:e of 16 Arthur J. Woo 1, barrister-at-aw, 75. Commons and Army Legislatio.l.
Henry T. Rivaz, Julge of the Chief Court, 17. Sir John Gurst, at Colchester, on the I'reserva
Labore. tion of the Voluntary Schools.
20. Tather Dufferley, S.J. 19. The Ar. hbishop of Canterbury, at Dublin, on 21. Hugot ! 10:1. George Teoman, 76 the Irish Church.
Tu Vese...ble Ar ble...03 Farell.
Russian Minister for Fore:go Affairs.
James Da e, organist, 75.
of Fine Arts, 71.
MRS. JOSEPHINE E. BUTLER.*
Eyes rekindling, and prayers,
Ye fill up the gaps in our files,
Strengthen the warering line, Beacons of hope, ye appear!
The stragglers, refresh the outworn, Stablish, continue our march,
On, to the bound of the waste,
On, to the City of God!”
Matthew Arnold. 1.—THE DISCOVERER OF A LOST ATLANTIS. path, was asserted unhesitatingly in relation to all T is one of the traditions of the human race that women who, whether driven to it by sheer starvation or
there was once a great continent named Atlantis, the impossibility of regaining a foothold among the which stood somewhere
respectable, had made between the Old World and
living out of their frailty. the New. Long æons ago it
The women of the town, it was overwhelmed by some
was declared, were outcast, cataclysm, and all trace of
disinherited, excommunicate Atlantis utterly perished
--things rather than women. from the world. To this
And as a proof that this is day, however, it is said there
no exaggeration, the Ademerge from time to time
ministration, in some cases adventurous explorers who,
acting through its executive, penetrating almost web
in others through the legisfooted through the floating
lature, doomed them to lifevegetation of the Sargasso
long slavery, and destroyed Sea, claim to have come upon
by law or by ordinance their more or less distinct traces
claim to the most sacred of the continent that was
and inalienable of all human destroyed for the sins of its
rights-the right to their people. Vague, contradictory
own persons and their own as these rumours are, they
liberty. encourage a hope that one
Then Josephine Butler day, some hero, combining
arose, and of her own knowin his own person the gifts of
ledge, born of much painful a Livingstone and a Layard,
and terrible exploration of may rediscover the lost
the Sargasso Sea of this Atlantis, and restore the
Under World, bore testimony vanished continent to man
to all men that human hearts kind.
still were to be found even in It is the peculiar glory of
this lost Atlantis of StateMrs. Butler that to her was
regulated vice, and that reserved, in this century,
woman did not lose the the task of rediscovering a
indestructible divinity of her segment of humanity which,
sex even when she had•made until she arose, had been
of it merchandise in order almost as completely sub
to procure her daily bread. merged from human ken as
It was an achievement the the continent of Atlantis. No
full significance of which few Sargasso Sea of drifting mo
adequately appreciate. But rass and floating forest could
it is one for which all those conceal behind a more im
who realise, however dimly, penetrable barrier the sur
the indescribable horrors viving peaks of the sunken
that ensue whenever the continent than the sus
coors of justice and liberty picion, the prejudice, and the
are barred against any selfishness by which fallen women were fenced off from section of the race, must for ever hold her blessed. their kind. It was assumed tacitly by most good people, This volume of “ Personal Keminiscences” reminds us and openly asserted by most of those who were not good, of much more than what Mrs. Butler recalls. The Great that women who, from whatever cause. had failed to Crusade of which she speaks was primarily a crusade preserve their chastity, thereupon sank for ever into the against the State patronage of prostitution. But it had its abyss. This doctrine, which may perhaps be somewhat roots in the discovery which Mrs. Butler had made of the extreme in the case of a single lapse from the straight essential and indestructible womanhood of the prostitute. *" Personal Reminiscences of a Great Crusade." By Josephine E. Butler.
M. Vigliani, an Italian who a quarter of a century since London: Horace Marshall and Son. 7s. 6.1. Pp. 409.
held high office in Rome, said to Mrs. Butler, “ A woman
who has once lost chastity has lost every good quality. recounting some reminiscences of Mrs. Butler, and so I She has from that moment all the vices. Once unchaste throw the notice of her latest book into the shape of she has all the vices." M. Vigliani therein merely a Character Sketch rather than of a Review. But a expressed the doctrine which is the antithesis of Mrs. Character Sketch is not a biography, and I shall try to Butler's discovery. In Geneva a pious Pharisee called keep within the narrow limits within which the on her, who argued strenuously in favour of the doctrine chroniclers of her work are compelled to walk, owing to that prostitutes cannot be regarded any longer as women. Mrs. Butler's extreme dislike to personal articles about “ When I pleaded for pity," writes Mrs. Butler, “M— herself. said, Bah! what does it matter. A few women, so very
II.—REMINISCENCES OF THE BEGINNING. The whole essence of the C. D. Acts and of the State “It is thus that God works," said an Italian lady after regulation of prostitution is based upon the belief that meeting Mrs. Butler. “When He designs some great womanhood perishes with virginity, unless the marriage reform, He plants a deep conviction in the soul of one of ceremony has been duly performed. To enslave human His servants, who appears to the world as a fanatic." A beings having at last become repugnant to the conscience fanatic, if you please, but also a woman of exquisite of Christendom, it was necessary as a preliminary to womanliness, the secret of whose success was the intenenslaving any class first to read it out of the pale of sity of her sympathy; & prophetess with a burning humanity with bell, book and candle. Once deny the message to the men and women of this generation. Such human nature of any section of the community and the a personality is too rare and too valuable to be permitted door is opened to every excess of cruelty. If they are the luxury of concealment. not human we can crimp them as cod, boil them as lobsters, bleed them slowly to death like calves, vivisect
THE CAUSE INCARNATED. them as guine apigs, or, worse still, we can place them
Nor indeed is it possible to write of the Crusade withunder the control of the police surgeons of prison houses out reference to its Peter the Hermit, without whom it of ill-fame licensed and patronised by the State. And no becomes, indeed, unintelligible and comparatively unone shall say us nay. They have ceased to be human. interesting. It is the personality of Mrs. Butler which
Vice is bad enough even when it is the free choice of gives the key to the whole movement and differentiates free men. It is infinitely more odious when it is enforced it from all other movements of the kind. Speaking of by law and made the livelihood of slaves. Prostitution the Crusade in her“ Reminiscences,” Mrs. Butler says:in England is purgatory, on the Continent it is hell It is generally allowed that this has been one of the most with the doctor and the policeman sitting at its gates, vital movements of Christian times, affecting, in its inner much as Milton pictured Sin and Death at the entrancé meaning and influence, the sources of all that is wholesome, of the Pit. That the servitude of the regulated. police just, and good in human life; and destined in the shock of its licensed, doctor-inspected institution is not exaggerated,
encounter with some of the worst evils of society, to become a
purifying and ultimately victorious power. Our long years of may be seen from the following passage from a book
labour and conflict ought, indeed, not to be forgotten. A written by an enthusiastic French doctor, who, in his
knowledge of, and a reverence for, the principles for which we zeal for his craft, proposed that all fallen women should
have striven ought to be kept alive, for these principles are be examined surgically every morning, as a kind of very far from being even yet so clearly recognised as that our family worship to the goddess Hygeia. It is true, says children and our children's children may not be called upon to this authority, that women detest this degrading ord al rise again and again in their defence. But what does that matter?:
THE'ROOT OF THE CRUSADE. Their will is annihilated bofore the will of the Administration. Their rôle, their part in life, becomes absolutely passive
That is true, and very true. But “the principles for from the hour that they cross the threshold of the maison tolerée.
which we have striven " can be in no way so efficiently kept They have renounced all free will, and there is nothing left
alive as by an understanding of the root from which they for them but to obey. ... They no longer belong to them sprang. That root was the passionate revolt-in no selves, but become merely the chattels of the Administration person incarnate so completely as in Mrs. Butler-against They are cut off not from society only, but from heaven, from the dehumanising of any class. There are those who hope, and from the power to repent.
imagine that the Crusade was in its essence an aspiraIt was because Mrs. Butler, from her own personal tion after greater purity of life. They are mistaken. knowledge of the class thus exiled from the pale of That, no doubt, was one of the tributary rills which fed humanity, knew that even in their shame they retained the parent stream. But the Crusade from first to last the imperishable divinity of womanhood, that she flung was not a struggle for ideal purity. It was a campaign herself with all the passion of her nature into the for justice-a resolute revolt against the doctrine that crusade against the system, over the shattered ruins the moral shortcomings of the individual justified the of which some Anglo-Indians do not cease to shed State in denying to him or to her the inalienable rights unavailing tears.
of a human being. A parallel instance will explain and It is well that this volume of “Reminiscences " should illustrate this. The Northern armies who crushed the appear at the moment when the often-defeated enemy Confederacy in America were not primarily fighting for appears to be considering whether or not he should the abolition of slavery. The Abolitionist sentiment make a desperate rally to regain the position from which swelled their ranks and contributed to their success, he was dispossessed after nearly thirty years' hard but their one object was the maintenance of the Union fighting. And it is always well to be reminded of the and the denial of any right in any authority whatever continued existence amongst us of one who has done as to separate any of the federated States from the Union. much as any other living person to revive that faith So Mrs. Butler fought for Humanity one and indissoluble, in humanity which lies at the basis of all confidence waging war not primarily against incontinence and vice, in God.
but against the attempt to deny to the victims of these Hence in reviewing the book of Mrs. Butler's “Remini. vices their privileges as citizens, their rights as human scences of the Crusade," I shall fall naturally into beings.
A CAMPAIGN FOR JUSTICE.
suffer and die. I contrast that loyalty and that love with the Mrs. Butler says quite truly, “ It may surprise some of
present prevailing loose notions concerning the worth of the
individual, the sacredness of the human person, and of liberty. my readers to learn that the first great uprising against
As I do so it seems to me that I am standing by the side of a legalised vice had much less of the character of the
bier, and looking on the face of a dead friend. revolt of a sex' than has been often supposed.” It was as a citizen of a free country first, and as a woman
This is perhaps too mournful a view to take of the
present passion for protective legislation. Mrs. Butler secondly, that I felt compelled to come forward in the defence of the right.” The Crusade was essentially a cry
would be the first to deny that in relation to the great for "equal justice.” “The very idea of justice, justice
question, the equality of justice for men and women
before the law, there has been any retrogression. On in the abstract,” she wrote in 1883, " appears to be a thing past the comprehension of many persons. England
the contrary, there is no party or school of politics at
home or abroad that so consistently and so persistently has forgotten, to some extent, the sound traditions by
demands equality of justice and equality of rights for which we are taught to apply to all alike the great principles of justice and of the common law. Stronger
both sexes as the Socialists, whose devotion to their
fetish fills Mrs. Butler with misgivings. than all bodily needs, deeper even than love of kindred and country and of freedom itself, lies buried in the
HER SYMPATHY WITH THE DISINHERITED. heart of man the desire for justice.” But there is hardly To understand Mrs. Butler, however, it is necessary a principle of justice that was not outraged by the
to grasp the point that it was a mere accident-if we Regulation System. If it was not the sum of all villanies,
may so speak—that her movement tended in favour of it was the climax of all injustice, and the public pro
women and of purity. Women happened to be the clamation of outlawry against a class, arbitrarily selected
victims, and they were being enslaved in the interest of for excommunication, not because of their own guilt, but
vice. Hence the direction of Mrs. Butler's crusade. But for the sake of the convenience of their more guilty
she was almost as keen in her advocacy of revolt whenaccomplices.
ever she saw, or thought she saw, liberty and justice in THE BENEDICTION OF THE APOSTLES OF LIBERTY. danger. Her utterances in favour of the Irish, of the Mrs. Butler was not alone in regarding the C. D. Acts Soudanese, of the victims of Trafalgar Square, and of the as the defiant challenge by the forces of evil of all that Hindoos were almost as emphatic as those on behalf of was most sacred in the English Constitution. In her
the white slaves of the Police des Meurs. It was this new book she publishes letters from Mazzini, Victor element in her which led her to exercise such an inexHugo, and others, which show that the vital significance haustible patience on my behalf, for she was good enough of the protest against the creation of a slave class was to regard me from of old as not so much a person as a plainly perceived by the leaders of the people in every kind of journalistic speaking-trumpet for the oppressed. land. Mazzini from the first gave the cause his warmest · She wrote to me once :support. To him the legislation was a fatal retrocession I don't care myself what occasional errors you may lean in English justice, introducing the worst feature of towards; you are on the side of the people—the poor, the American slavery into England, and sanctioning the misunderstood, and those who have no helpers. The respectimmoral doctrine of the natural subjection of one-half able, and even the Christian folks seem to me to be so much the human race as corpora vilia who may be sacrificed for eaten up by their own privileges and self-interest that they the benefit, real or imaginary, of the other half. He have little or no compassion for the disinherited of earth. I regarded this question as “inseparably linked with the
thank you, and bless you from my heart of hearts for the gravest problems which weigh upon society at the
stand you take, and because you care for the disinherited. present day." John Stuart Mill shared the views of
HER DISTRUST OF CENTRALISATIONVictor Hugo and Mazzini; and William Lloyd
Garrison, That was the note of all Mrs. Butler's work. She was the pioneer of slave emancipation in America, hailed the
on the side of the disinherited, and that she is not a movement as “one of the most remarkable uprisings Socialist is due solely to her bitter experience of the against unjust, criminal, and immoral legislation ever way in which the tyranny of an omnipotent State weighs witnessed."
on the poor. Writing to me once when the question of a LIBERTY—A LAMENT
London municipality was under discussion, she said :Yet Mrs. Butler feels compelled in her“ Reminiscences” I should fear to see one huge municipality for four to five to utter a pathetic lament over the extent to which the millions of people. I hate big bodies; when they become ancient constitutional principles of English liberty have corrupt their stench is intolerable, and they are always been obscured by the fetish of Socialistic State worship.
unelastic. I should much prefer to see London divided into She says :
several municipalities, with some sort of central committee for
the management of affairs which cannot be subdivided. I It is to those principles, and to the successive noble struggles
believe though elected yearly, it would, in its turn, become an for their preservation, that England owes, in a large measure,
instance of the evils of centralisation, evils which Socialists her greatuess; if indeed we may venture to use that word.
are apparently not at all alive to. Their State would soon Those principles I have ever believed, and continue to believe,
become as great a tyrant as other States. have their foundation in the Ethics of Christ; and therefore it is that they have endured so long, and prevailed against
-AND OF ALL GOVERNMENTS. repeated and violent attacks. But they are being lost to us
Yet notwithstanding this she was ever on terms of now. Slowly, gradually, they have ceased to be respected. They do not readily flow on alongside of all the Democratic
sympathy with Socialists, and sometimes expressed her tendencies of our times. All political parties alike, it seems
distrust of all governments in terms which logically to me, now more or less regard those principles as out of date,
arrayed her with the Anarchists. For instance, on one old-fashioned, impossible as a basis of action. My heart is occasion she wrote, speaking of a mutual friend :sorrowful as I record this conviction. I recall the past of our I am anxious that he should never take office; men are lost country's history, with its loyalty and love for those great when they do so. I can echo the words of a French Reformer : constitutional principles for which patriots have suffered and “I never see my friends the moment they take office”; i.e., died, and for which we, in our struggle, were also ready to I am blind to their existence, and they to mine. X. hopes