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it is doing so this day. But after a time the scandals of District Schools became noised abroad.
It was said that the State was rearing its daughters for the streets and its sons for the gaol. Hideous stories were whispered as to little ones blinded for life by State-caused ophthalmia. And as these rumours spread from mouth to mouth, Parliament was at last induced to inquire into these matters, and the Local Government Board appointed an official departmental committee to look into these matters. The report of tbat committee, published this year, settles the controversy once for all. After all these years the State is compelled to admit that it was wrong-utterly, horribly, shamefully wrong-and that Dr. Barnardo was right, absolutely right, in his theory of the way in which the Children of the State should be treated. So now the District School is doomed, and in future the State, sitting at the feet of Dr. Barnardo, is to try to see whether by segregation instead of aggregation, by homes instead of barracks, by personal love and personal interest instead of official routine and official discipline, it may perhaps achieve with all its resources 50 per cent. of the good results of the Barnardo Homes. But what of the scores of thousands of Children of the State who have morally, socially, and often physically perished before the State could be induced to admit that it was mistaken ?
Another matter in which Dr. Barnardo has been the pioneer of a great social movement, certain to acquire much greater importance in the next century, is in the work of emigration. The prejudice against emigration is dying hard. But in emigration lies the key to the solution of the social problem. And Dr. Barnardo is the only man who has tackled this subject on a large scale
Dject on a large scale with conspicuous success. The results of his long experience-he has emigrated more than 8,000 boys and girls to the British Colonies, mostly to Canada-are embodied in the following rules :• (a) That only the flower of my flock shall be emigrated to Canada : those young people, namely, (1) who are in robust health, physical and mental; (2) who are thoroughly upright, honest and virtuous; and (3) who, being boys, have been industriously trained in our own workshops; or who, being girls, have had careful instruction in domestic pursuits.
(b) That continuous supervision shall be exercised over all these emigrants after they have been placed out in Canadian homesteads; first, by systematic visitation; second, by regular correspondence. Emigration without continuous supervision, particularly in the case of young children, is in my opinion presumptuous folly, and simply courts disaster. It may be added that for emigrants who retain their situations and do well for certain defined periods a system of prizes is in opera. tion, which has hitherto worked very successfully as an incentive and encouragement.
(c) That in the case of the total failure of any emigrants the colonies shall be safeguarded by their return at our expense, whenever possible, to England.
The result has been most satisfactory. In early years my emigrants were offered twice as many places as there were children to fill them, and I had to reject one-half the applications for their services. Now it is quite usual for one of my parties to be applied for by would-be employers five or six times over. The Dominion of Canada during 1894 has been passing through a period of severe industrial depression, which, it might have been imagined, would have operated to diminish the number of openings for our emigrants. As a matter of fact, however, there has come in from all parts of the country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific sea-board, from Halifax to Vancouver, a steady and increasing demand, far beyond my power to supply unless the means at my disposal for emigration purposes are largely extended.
Compared with the work he has done, our Representa
tive Boards have done next to nothing. But when they come to cope with the matter seriously, they will have to sit at the feet of Dr. Barnardo.
It is an interesting question whether a really intelligent and benevolent despot would not make over the whole of the Children of the State to Dr. Barnardo, allowing him the money now paid for dealing unsuccessfully with the little ones, in order that he might make a success of it. As there is no chance of the advent of such an entity, it may be well if all our Board of Guardians were to ask themselves whether in dealing with their destitute children it would not be well to take a leaf out of Barnardo's book. They have the official responsibility. They have the command of the rates, they have the children. Why not deal with them à la Barnardo?
IV. -WANTED, THE CHILDREN'S PENCE. This brings me to the last point. Is it right, is it wise, that Dr. Barnardo who can do such work, should be compelled to spend half his time in sending round the hat in order to find the wherewithal to feed and clothe his little ones? Why should there not be a division of labour ? Why should not the public find the money and collect it? No small part of the difficulty of carrying on this work is that of raising the £140,000 needed to finance it. Dr. Barnardo for the last thirty years has worked till midnight building up this gigantic work. He has sacrificed his family life ; for after family prayers, after breakfast in the morning, he sees neither wife nor child all day long; twelve to sixteen hours daily being spent in institutional work. And no small part of his energy and of his time is taken up in devising ways and means for raising money. That surely is not right. As the Twelve said of old time, “It is not reason that we should leave the Word of God and serve tables." No one else can do Dr. Barnardo's work for the children. But surely it ought to be possible to arrange some system of getting in the cash. Here is what the Prince of Wales said on this subject at the Albert Hall on the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Homes :
The Princess of Wales and myself experience great gratification in attending the celebration of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the National Institution for Waif Children. For many years we have both taken a deep interest in unceasing endeavours to solve the problems of poverty which must claim the attention of all thoughtful people. It is clear beyond all doubt that thousands yearly begin their early life with very remote prospects that they will be blessed with an education which will assist them in earning an honest livelihood. These Homes are, I believe, carrying out a work dear to all who wish well to their country, inasmuch as they have reclaimed thousands of children from the slums, and are still continuing their benevolent labours. We have seen something to-day of the healthy and homelike surroundings, and the excellent training which the Homes provide for the children they receive. It must be our great wish that continually increasing success may attend the operations of this beneficent and national work. I am sure we all regret that its progress should be jeopardised by the accumulation of liabilities such as those which have been described to us. The Committee and Trustees have, I think rightly, decided to make an effort, this thirtieth year of the foundation of the Homes, to remove this encumbrance. I trust they will be successful, and that the collection to-night will be sufficiently large to furnish you with the fullest encouragement to further perseverance. A substantial sum will, I am sure, be considered by Dr. Barnardo as a gratifying recognition of his great exertions in this good cause. As we all know, he has laboured indefatigably, and I am sure he deserves some mark of approval from the public for all that he has done in his important philanthropic work.
Here are 5,000 children fed and supported, and here is besides a vast auxiliary mission work carried on
at a total cost of £140,000 per annum. This sum is eontributed by some 80,000 persons scattered all over the world. In the United Kingdom there are nearly 40,000,000 persons. Of these fewer than 80,000 keep the whole of Barnardo's work going. 39,920,000 do not subscribe a red cent. Could the 39,000,000 not be tapped ? Dr. Barnardo is at present appealing for a special fund of £150,000 over and above the annual income for clearing off the mortgage debt on his many baildings. To raise this money he asks for—
1. Earnest united weekly prayer (each Monday afternoon or evening).
2. Special promises of an extra gift (in addition to usual donations) towards the Reserve and Foundation Fund.
3. Collecting boxes. Wanted, 20,000 olders !
5. A national bazaar held simultaneously everywhere in the month of July or August, or, if more convenient, later on this year. Wanted, offers!
6. Public meetings in aid, which I promise to attend where possible. Wanted, correspondents and organisers !
I cordially and emphatically support his appeal. But eould not something else be done?
Dr. Barnardo has attempted to form helpers into a League, cach member of which undertakes to spend five minutes daily in meditation and prayer for the children.* But so far the number enrolled is few. The five minutes' prayer idea is not bad, but it needs to be supplemented by two ideas which Dr. Barnardo need not scout because they come from Rome. What he needs is tirst a Rosary, and secondly an adaptation of the idea of Peter's pence.
If each of the subscribers to the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, for instance, were to come to the conclusion that Dr. Barnardo ought to be supported more adequately in the gigantic task which he has undertaken, what would be the best way in which they could do it? Suppose that each of them felt so much in carnest about it as to put aside one penny a day-one penny a day, no more and no less that would at once without anything else raise the whole £150,000 needed to carry on Dr. Barnardo's work.
But that, although magnificent, would not be the best way. For the good of the work it would be much better if each of our subscribers, instead of himself subscribing one penny a day, were to subscribe a penny a week and to secure six other persons who would do the same. By that means the same sum would be raised, but instead of 100,000 subscribers we should have 700,000 persons who every wiek testified to their interest in Dr. Barnardo's work by the subscription of one penny. Of course the principle could be extended ; some could secure twelve subscriptions, or a penny a month could be taken from
twenty subscribers, or a penny a year from three hundred and sixty; and if the idea once caught on, the whole financial difficulty would be solved. That is the idea of Peter's pence adapted to tie needs of our forlorn little ones.
Now for the idea of the Rosary. A Rosary is simply a Reminder. A kuot put in a handkerchief to remind us of something we have to do is an incipient rosary. The one difficulty in collecting the children's pence would be to remember when they were due. Hence the need for a Rosary, which should be constructed so as to serve both as a reminder of when the money is due and also as to the need which the money goes to supply. Of course, if Dr. Barnardo had his five minutes' prayer-league properly established, such a Rosary with a string of suggestive thoughts on each phase of his work would be invaluable. We are so crowded with claims, we forget things so soon. The mere periodicity of the collecting of the penny would be one of the chief advantages. The Rosary might remind us, for instance, of the following facts:£140 is required to feed the whole of our large family, number
ing nearly 5,000 individuals, for it SINGLE DAY; £980 will do the same for one week; £16 will support one healthy child for a whole year in any of
our LONDON HOMES; £15 will keep a sick boy or girl in our CHILDREN'S INFIRMARY
or at our CONVALESCENT Hove for six months; £10 will pay for the complete outfit and pas:age money of any
little one EMIGRATED, for prudential reasons, to our BRANCH Homes in the Colonies ; £60 will do the same for six chil
drep, or £120 for twelve children ; £10 will maintain a child for a whole year in our LITTLE
Boys' HOME, Jersey; £5 will APPRENTICE a child (disqualified perhaps by physical
infirmity for ordinary pursuits) to some us:ful trade; $1 10s, will provide the means by which one hundred home.
less children can be gathered froin the lodging-houses and the streets to a scrPER, at which the most needy may be selected for the permanent benefits of the
Institution; I do not know if the idea of a Rosary will commend itself to Dr. Barnardo. Perhaps an almanac with collecting cards for stamps, like those which the Post Office Savings Banks issue, might be more Protestant. They could be daily, weekly, monthly and yearly cards. Each when filled in with penny stamps could be sent up. I am afraid that the subscribers to the REVIEW OF REVIEWS cannot be relied upon in their totality to undertake the regular collection of the children's pence. But I do hope and believe that many of thein will help to remove the disgrace from our people of allowing a national work like this to be supported by 80,000 persons, while 39,920,000 do not contribute a farthing. The time has come for tapping these millions who, if they contributed just one penny each per annum, would supply all the funds which Dr. Barnardo nee is.
* "I will endeavour, by God's help, wherever I may be, to abstract my houghts from other things for at least five minutes daily, and to give them during that time to silent or unitei praver for a blessing upou all Rescue
em Work among Orphaus aud Destitute Chil!ren."
MR. BRYCE ON SOUTH AFRICA.
Its Two CHIEF PROBLEMS. The Right Hon. James Bryce, M.P., contributes to the July number of the Century his third paper of “ Impressions of South Africa." He describes the resources and industries of the country, and then passes on to deal with the central problems of the situation. The two principal are, according to him, race-problems.
THE GRAVEST PROBLEM OF ALL. The question of black labour versus white labour is decided by the climate, and decided in favour of the coloured races. These latter include negroes, Hottentots, Malays, East Indians, and Kaffirs. Mr. Bryce concludes ibat " as the bulk of the population is now black, so it will remain. The substratum of society, which is larger than the strata it supports, sems likely to be, probably for ever, composed of coloured persons."
"AN IMPASSABLE GULF." The question is next raised, What will be the relation of the coloured people to the whites ? Mr. Bryce's out look is not too sanguine :
The grades of advancement among these patives from pure barbarism to civilisation are almost infinite. Scarcely less varied are the intellectual capacities of the different elements in this mixed multitude of coloured people. All, however, the educated and the savage, the Christian and the heathen, the African and the Indian,-are alike treated by the whites as divided from themselves by a wide and impassable gulf. No one can imagine a social separation more complete than this is; nor is there any feature of South African life which strikes the visitor with a more painful surprise than the sentiment, I will not say of hatred, yet certainly of repulsion, which he finds so generally entertained by the higher toward the less advanced races.
THE INTOLERANT WHITE. It rarely if ever happens that a pative, whatever his rank, is received on any social occasion inside a white house; indeed, he would seldom be permitted, except as a domestic servant, to enter a private house at all. When Khama, the famous chief of the Ba-Mapgwato, a Christian, and a man of admittedly high character, who has ruled his people with singular wisdom and ability, was in England last autumn, and was there entertained at lunch by the Duke of Westminster and other persons of social eminence, the news excited general andoyance and disgust among the whites in South Africa. A story was told me of a garden-party given by the wife of a leading white ecclesiastic, the appearance at which of a native clergyman led many of the white guests to withdraw in dudgeon. Once, when I was a guest at a mission station in Ba-utoland, I was asked by niy host whether I had any olojection to his bringing in to the family meal the native pastor, who had been preaching to the native congregation...I was told of a white who condescended to be hired to work by a Kafir, but stipulated that the Kafir should address him as “boss.” Of intermarriage there is, of course no question. This situation is likely to grow rather worse than better as time goes on; because the more educated and capable the natives become, the more will their industrial competition press upon the whites, and the less inclined will the natives be to acquicsce, as they now do, in the social disparagement and inferiority to which the contempt and arersion of the whites condemn them.
The other race-problem seen in the jealousy and rivalry of the Dutch and the English, though now most observed, does not cause Mr. Bryce any serious fore
bodings. For in this case fusion is possible. Speaking of the peculiarities of the Boer, he tells how a Transvaal president lost hold of his constituents because in his preaching days he had declared the devil to possess no tail,
MR. BRYCE'S VIEW OF MR. RHODES. Mr. Bryce recognises that the avoidance of collision between the Dutch and English halves of the Cape Colony is due to Mr. Hofmeyr and Mr. Cecil Rhodes. Than the latter
No man in South Africa has been more steadily attached to the British connection, or has done half so much to secure for Britain those vast territories to the west and to the the Transvaal, which were coveted by both the Transvaal Republic and by the German Empire. But in his political career in Cape Colony, of which he was prime minister from July, 1890, till January, 1896, Mr. Rhodes succeeded in obtaining the support of the Dutch party, and laboured assi luously to bring about a unity of sentiment and aim between the Dutch and the British clements in the population. The energy and firmness of his character, and the grasp of political and economic questions which he has evincel, make him th, most striking figure among the colonial statesmen of Britain in this generation. He has been deemed by some e less adroit parliamentarian than was the late Sir John Macdonald in Canada, but he is possessed of a wider outlook and far more conspicuous executive capacity.
THE OUTLANDER PROBLEM. Of the recent raid Mr. Bryce declines to speak as being a matter still sub judice. But of the Outlanders he says:
It is clear that something must be done to give a more or less complete satisfaction to their claims, and to prevent a recurrence of the troubles of last December and January. It is impossible, in our times, for a minority to continue to rule over a large and increasing unenfranchised mjority of people superior in intelligence and wealth, however strony the original position of the minority may have been, and whatever synpathy their attachment to their own simple and primitive life may evoke.
THE DESIRED ASSIMILATION. The Boer civilisation, like the Mormons, can only maintain itself in isolation, and cannot resist the sapping influences which the strenuous industrial current of the modern world is now exerting on it:
The Transvaal, therefore, and all South Africa with the Transvaal, seems destined in the future to belong to the English type of civilisation, and to speak the English tongue. But the Dutch tongue also will hold its ground for many years to come, and Boer traits will no doubt powerfully affect the South African character as it acquires, after a generation or two, a settled and distinctive quality. The wish and hope of every one who knows the country must be that the fusion, which will (almost certainly) come at last, may come peaceably, and come not by a victory of the one element which could leave resentment in the breasts of the other, but by a process of gradual assimilation similar to that which turucil Englishmen and Scotchinen from enemies into friends.
PROSPECTS OF FEDERATION. Mr. Bryce considers it highly probable that Souil Africa will ultimately be united into one political body, probably in a federative form :-
Federative union would not only increase its political strength, but would also accelerate its material development. Its growth in wcalth and population will, however, depend chietly on its natural resources. The white pepulation, whicke is now much less than one million, probably about 750,000, in all South Africa, may, twenty-five or thirty years hence, scarcely exceed two millions. For it must be remembered that the labouring population is coloured and will remain coloured. Speaking broadly, the country will be a black man's, and not a white man's, country ... The future peace and prosperity of the country will largely depend upon the wisdom and temper with which the higher race treats the backward one, and leads it onward and upward.
THE NATIVE RACES OF SOUTH AFRICA.
BY OLIVE SCHREINER. In the Fortnightly Review for July we have another instalment of Olive Schreiner's South African articles, which opens with a sketch of the natives with whom the Dutch first came into contact when they colonised the Cape. These races are three: the Hottentot, the Bushman and the Bantu. The two former are almost extinct; the latter increases and multiplies in the presence of the white men.
THE HOTTENTOTS. When the Dutch landed at the Cape two centuries ago, the most important in number and the most widely spread of the natives were the Hottentots, a small wiry folk, with yellow faces, black wool in little hard knobs on the head, protruding jaws, low foreheails, and small eyes. Their condition of civilisation was not high compared with that of many other African peoples; they had large flocks and herds on whose flesh and milk they lived, but they had little agriculture. Their round houses, made of slight wooden frames, with mats fastened over them, could at any moment be taken up and removed ; and the uttle clothing they wore was of skins. But they were a versatile, excitable, lively little folk, as their few remaining descendants are to-day; rather gentle than ficrce, and very emotional; and loving dancing and song.
THE BUSHMEN. Side by side with the Hottentots lived a still more
have a proud reserve, and an intensely self-conscious and reflective mental attitude. The language they speak is of a perfect construction, lending itself largely to figurative and poetical forms, yet capable of giving great precision to exact thonght. The two great branches into which they are divided are about as distinct from one another as are the Celtic and Teutonic branches of our own Indo-European family; the language of one half being as intelligible to the other as French is to the German.
IN PRAISE OF THE BANTU WOMEN. Olive Schreiner speaks very highly as to the virtues of the Bantu women. She says:
In her native state the Bantu woman is in many respects in a higher sexual position than large numbers of civilised females. Of the price paid for her she receives nothing, it passes to her family. She not only supports herself by her own labour, but is the mainstay of the society in which she exists, largely feeding and clothing it by her exertions. Her position is probably much farther from that of the female who lives idly and parasitically on society through the sale of her sex functions, than is that of most European women, married or single. We have it on the most irrefragable evidence, that when, after war, a few years back, a regiment of English soldiers was stationed for many months in the heart of a subdued Bantu tribe, not only was the result of the contact between the soldiers and the native women nil as regarding illegitimate births, but it had been practically impossible for the soldiers to purchase women for purposes of degradation throughout the whole time.
App :nded to this paragraph, there is the following ominous foot-note :
Added in 1896 : We are not referring to that which takes place when Englishmen, untrammelled by any public cpinion or by British rule, are absolutely dominant over a crushed native race, as in the territories north of the Limpopo to-day. We shall deal with this, to an Englishman most sorrowful matter, at some future date.
Great are the misfortunes of Rhodesia at the present moment, but if what Olive Schreiner implies be true, then for the first time there would seem to be some reason for the afflictions of the Rhodesians.
the astonishing little people known as the South African Bushmen. Akin in race and speech to the dwarf races found in Central Africa, they are lighter in colour, being a dirty yellow, perhaps owing to the cooler climate of the south, which they have probably inhabited for countless ages, and in which they may have originally developed. So small in size are they that an adult Busliman is not larger than an ordinary European child of eleven; they have tiny wizened faces, the wool on their heads growing in little balls, with naked spaces between.
In many respects they seem to be the link between humanity and the brute creation. It was as if the brute had been arrested at the moment when he was about to evolve into a man. They have a language, but it is sy elemental that the clear expression of even the very simplest ideas is difficult:
They have no word for wife, for marriage, for nation; and their minds appear to be in the same simple condition as their language. The complex mental operations necessary for the maintenance of life under civilised conditions they have no power of performing; no member of the race has in any known instance been taught to read or write, nor to grasp religious conceptions clearly, though great efforts have been made to instruct them. At the same time they possess a curious imitative skill, and under shelving rocks and in caves all over South Africa their rude etchings and paintings of men and animals are found, animated by a crude life and vigour. Their powers of mimicry are enormous.
THE BANTUS. Very different from the guy little Hottentots and the dog-like Bushmen are the third race, the Bantus. The Katfirs, whether they be Zulus, Bechuanas, or any other varieties of the parent stem
Von Seyffort's Crane. In the Cornhill Magazine for July, Mr. Cornish revives the memory of Von Seyffert's tame crane, the bird which, nearer than any other feathered bip d, seems to have approached the intelligence of mankind. Von S:yffert lived in a German agricultural village; he had two cranes which he had tamed:
When the female died the survivor at once took as a new friend a bull. He would stand by the bull in the stall and keep the flies off him, scream when he roared, dance before him, and follow him out with the herd. In this association the crane saw and remarked the duties of the cowherd, and one evening he brought home the whole of the village herd of heifers unaided, and drove them into the stable. From that time the crane undertook so many duties that it was busy from dawn till night. He acted as policeman among the poultry, stopping all fights and disorder. He would stand by a horse when left in a cart, and prevent it from moving by pecking its nose and screaming. A turkey and a gamecock were found fighting, whereon the crane first fought the turkey, and then sought out and thrashed the cock. Meantime it always “herded” the cattle, not always with complete success. These were collected in the morning by the sound of a horn, and some would lag behind. On one occasion the crane went back, drove up some lagging heifors through the street, and then frightened them so much that they broko away and ran two miles in the wrong direction. The bird could not bring them back, but drove them into a field, where it guarded them till they were fetched. It would drive out trespassing cattle as courageously as a dog, and, unlike most busy bodies, was a universal favourite, and the pride of the village.