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with Russia. The moment Mr. Gladstone's policy however, had not seen fit to avail themselves of it. tended to antagonise England and Russia it became His action in removing the matter from their control powerless for good, and Lord Rosebery performed a was due to many causes, of which the last was the public service by setting forth with unexampled position of the quasi-antagonism to Mr. Gladstone's. vigour and emphasis the perils to which Mr. Glad- policy which he felt himself bound to take up. His stone's policy would have exposed us. In a subse- decision was received by his colleagues with sincere quent speech at Colchester, Lord Rosebery added regret, and by the country with no small measure what ought to have been included in the Edinburgh of dismay. If the duty of a Liberal leader is to address, namely, that his objection to isolated action lead, it is not the duty of a Liberal leader to shrink against Turkey on the part of England was based from the responsibility of leadership merely because upon information which he had every reason to its exercise would involve him in opposition to the regard as authentic; but that if his information opinion of any individual Liberal, no matter how was wrong, and he was mistaken in believing our important that individual might be. There is no single-handed intervention would light up the flames doubt whatever that had Lord Rosebery made his. of a European war, then by all means, he would speech as Leader of the Liberal Party, the whole of say, act on Mr. Gladstone's advice and take single his followers, with very few exceptions, would have handed action against the Sultan.
claimed it as defining the only possible policy for The Policy
Immediately after Lord Rosebery's speech, the Party. If, on the other hand, there had been of the a great demonstration was held in St. any serious manifestations of dissent, he could have. Government. James's Hall, attended by some hundred resigned if need be. But to resign before you have mayors and addressed by various personages, all of ascertained whether your Party will follow you, whom spoke with eloquence and passionate indig- merely in order that you may speak your mind in. nation concerning the atrocities committed by a position of greater freedom and less responsibility, the Assassin. The note of the meeting was un is not a course which commends itself to the sober questionably in favour of war, and the roof would judgment of the English people. Lord Rosebery have gone off St. James's Hall with the roar of exul- has shown himself by his speech to be a greater tation which would have greeted an announcement man than he was believed to be even by his friends. by the Chairman that a declaration of war against He would have shown himself to be a greater man Turkey had been launched by Lord Salisbury. But still if he had made his speech while retaining the the Government, speaking through Sir Michael leadership of his Party. Hicks-Beach, made it abundantly clear that they the It is an open secret that the relations had no intention whatever of taking any such Liberal between Lord Rosebery and his political action. Their policy is to maintain the European Leadership. twin in the House of Commons for some Concert and, if possible, to make it effective. The time past have been considerably strained, if indeed chief thing that paralyses the European Concert is it may not be more truthful to say that they had distrust of English policy. It sounds too mad for ceased to exist. Sir William Harcourt's position as words, but unquestionably at this moment a very Leader in the House of Commons, in which the large proportion of the keenest political observers in brunt of the political combat is fought out when Europe, especially in Russia, are absolutely convinced the Liberal Party is in possession, naturally gave that the Armenian agitation in this country has been him an ascendency with the Party that hardly got up for no other reason than to enable John Bull harmonised with the titular position which Lord to grab Constantinople. It is very hideous, no Rosebery occupied. At the same time nothing, so doubt, and very terrible, but after all we are being far as the public are aware, had occurred to accenpaid out in our own coin. Twenty years ago the tuate the difference between them. So far as the English public, headed by the English Government, public could perceive, there has been no line of was under the sway of just the same mad delusion cleavage between the policy which they have about Russia.
recommended in their recent speeches. Even on. w Lord Rosebery prefaced his speech on the Eastern Question Sir William Harcourt's Rosebery's the Eastern Question by resigning his address to his constituents was by no means out. Resignation. post as Leader of the Liberal Party. He of accord with the speech which Lord Rosebery subsequently explained that his resignation had been delivered in Edinburgh. Lord Rosebery, howfor months past in the hands of his colleagues, who ever, probably does not feel strong enough to
play the role of a really independent force in the something to know that all the members of the late country unless freed from the shackles of govern- Administration were on speaking terms-an assurment by Cabinet. This kind of democratic Cæsarism ace which is sometimes lacking to their devoted may be better than government by committee ; but followers. it is our misfortune, or at least our fate, to live in It is obvious that the first question under a system of government by committee, ti Education Bill before the Cabinet will be what shall work which properly it is necessary for a leader to of 1897. be done about education. I quote possess both courage to assert his own views and elsewhere from Sir John Gorst's remarkable ta'se his individual initiative, at the same time that articles on this subject. They should be read in he recognises the right of his colleagues to be con- order to appreciate Sir Michael Hicks-Beach's not sulted before they are saddled with responsibility for less remarkable speech in opposition to the plan which policies from which they may wish to dissent. The the Minister of Education deems the best. Sir John question of loyalty, upon which a good deal has is in favour of Rate Aid, therein being in accord been said, not to much purpose, is quite as much with the North Country Churchmen. Sir Michael due by the head of a Cabinet to his colleagues as by Hicks-Beach will not hear of Rate Aid, which he his colleagues to the head of a Cabinet. Possibly, says would be irregular and uncertain, and would however, a sojourn in the invigorating atmosphere be extremely unpopular with the ratepayers. Last of absolute independence may enable Lord Rosebery season he consented to allow Voluntary Schools a to feel that, onerous as the shackles of cabinet grant of 4s. a head from the State by means of government may be, they are not so embarrassing as choking a deficit which Sir John Gorst estimates to be incompatible with the free expression of at from 15s. to 203. a head. Bishop Temple, and individual convictions.
the Churchmen who act with him, put forward The November Cabinets will have begua aš ili alternative a grant of 6s. a head all round - The
v before these pages reach the eye of the for Board Schools and Church Schools alike. In Policy of the reader, and Ministers will have com- deciding this momentous question as to subsidy,
hon. menced to discuss the legislation they it is to be feared that Ministers may drop the only intend to propose next Session. This, of course, is fit two items in last year's Education Bill which were and proper, but it unfortunately does not as yet seem to of really national importance, viz., the raising of the be regarded equally as a matter of course that the age of compulsion by one year, and the provision Liberal leaders shall also meet in private Cabinet to made for improving and extending our system of <lecide what line of policy they will pursue. In secondary education. It would be well if Liberal the present breakdown of Parliamentary machinery leaders could make it clearly understood that on the Opposition has acquired a voice almost equal in these two points they would facilitate the passage authority to that of the Administration, nor is the of any Education Bill, while reserving for thempotency of that voice in the least affected by the fact selves the utmost liberty to oppose the clauses that the majority against them may be 10, 50, 100, which provide for increasing the grants of public or 150. Both leaders of the House, Mr. Balfour money to schools which are outside of public and Sir William Harcourt, have come to the con control. clusion that it will be henceforth impossible to pass
The mention of Bishop Temple brings us any important measure of any length or complexity
of by a natural association of ideas to without the assent of the Opposition. A fiercely the speak of the changes that have taken opposed measure can only be carried by the guillotine hbishop, placa in high places in the Church which terminates all parliamentary discussion. Minis- of England. Dr. Benson, the late Archbishop ters, therefore, will be more and more compellel to of Canterbury, died suddenly when at prayer in consult the Opposition as to what measures they the church at Hawarden, where he was on a should put on their programme of legislation. But passing visit to Mr. “Gladstone, on his return that implies that the Liberals themselves should have from Ireland. Dr. Benson had suffered from seaa coherent policy which the leaders should formulate. sickness, which had affected his heart, occasioning him The habit of each Opposition chief playing his own so much suffering that nothing but the necessity of game off his own bat without any consultation of his returning home would have induced him to face the colleagues should be abandoned as an anachronism. Irish Channel. He was in excellent spirits, however, If the other plan were adopted, it would at least be and spent the Sunday morning, after partaking of
the Sacrament, in revising the draft of a declara- the articles in the book known as “Essays tion referring to the Pope's Bull on Anglican and Reviews.” Liddon, however, insisted that he Orders. He then went to church, and while kneel- was of all others the man for London, and as ing in prayer, fell senseless. He was at once the Canon kept my conscience on ecclesiastical removed, but expired almost immediately. It was
matters in those days, I wrote strongly in the Pall a beautiful death, although Her Majesty described
Mall Gazette advocating Dr. Temple's nomination. it as “awful,” which, no doubt, in a sense it was,
A day or two afterwards I received an intimation for it is always awful to be reminded that in the midst of life we are in death ; still, as we all must
that the nomination was excellent, but that in all die, it would be very difficult indeed to find a more
probability I had destroyed Temple's chances. It ideal method of quitting the world than that which was, therefore, with some relief that I heard was graciously accorded to Archbishop Benson. shortly afterwards that he was after all to be the His death threw upon Lord Salisbury and the new Bishop. I never met him until just before the Queen the duty of providing for his successor, and this they did with commendable promptitude and despatch, by selecting as the new Primate Dr. Temple, the Bishop of London. The Archbishopdesignate is a man of seventyfive years of age, who has administered for more than a dozen years one of the most difficult dioceses in the kingdom. He has worn out his eyes in doing so, but otherwise his physical powers are unimpaired. The new Primate is a very demon for work, and with a great capacity for ignoring everything that is not concerned with his work. It is said that he follows Mr. Balfour's example, HAWARDEN CHURCH, THE SCENE OF THE LATE ARCHBISHOP'S FATAL SEIZURE. in never reading the papers, and he immerses himself in the labours of his diocese publication of “ The Maiden Tribute.” I wrote and to an extent which causes him to be almost a waste asked for his assistance in the work I was underforce for all causes that lie outside Church and taking, as I had previously written to Cardinal Temperance work.
Manning and Archbishop Benson. His letter I well remember when Dr. Temple was was characteristic, and his interview was still A Personal first nominated for the See of London. more so. He marched upstairs with his walkingReminiscence. The Bishop had just died, and I was stick, and dropped somewhat heavily into an taking Canon Liddon out for his usual Monday's easy-chair. “Well,” said he, bluntly, “what do constitutional along the Embankment. We were you want me to do?” I explained. He listened discussing the question of who should be the new attentively. “Is that all ?” said he. “Yes,” I said. Bishop. Canon Liddon very strongly advocated the "All right,” said he, “I can do that; I will help appointment of Dr. Temple, who was then Bishop you.” And off he went downstairs again. The of Exeter. This rather surprised me, because there interview was brief enough in all conscience, but we had been a great outcry on the part of High had both said all we wanted to say, and the Bishop saw Churchmen against his appointment to Exeter, me through that business right well. He served on owing to the fact that he had written one of the Mansion House Committee with the Archbishop,
the Cardinal, Samuel Morley, and Sir R. T. Reid, and journalists of London have been without a bishop throughout the whole of the subsequent agitation, or any cleric who cared for their souls. although we never met again, he was very staunch
The stock illustration which always and true. That brusque manner of his stands in Famine occurs to the mind when speaking of the way of popularity, which a more suave demeanour in the extraordinary solidarity of mankind, might command, but every one respects him. By alde is Gibbon's remark about the action of universal consent, the verdict of the schoolboy at a Tartar Khan in the heart of Asia raising the price Rugby who wrote to his father that “ Temple was a of herrings in the London market; but it would seem beast, but a just beast,” has been accepted as true of as if we are now face to face with quite as extrathe new Primate of the Church of England. It will ordinary an illustration of the unity of the race. be his duty to preside as Primate over the celebration The threatened famine in India has sent up the price of the thirteen-hundredth anniversary of the landing of bread in London, and appreciably affected the of St. Augustine, and he will have an onerous and chances of the Presidential candidates of the United responsible position to discharge when he presides States of America. The discovery that India, over the Bishops of the Pan-Anglican Synod. In instead of exporting food, would require to import his administration there will be plenty of the fortiter it in order to stave off famine for her own populain re, but the suaviter in modo will probably be tion, has sent up the price of wheat at New York to seek.
to such an extent as to make all the difference Dr. Temple's successor to the diocese of between prosperity and penury on the part of many The New
“ London is Dr. Creighton, the Bishop of a Western farmer. As silver has fallen at the of Peterborough. Dr. Creighton is a his- same time that wheat has gone up, it would seem as
me torian, a courtier, and a man of the if the stars in their courses, or at any rate the rainworld, who has a good record, a good constitution, fall and sunshine of India, have combined to explode and has now got a splendid chance of making his one of the favourite doctrines of the Free Silver men mark in the Church. A year or two ago a well-known The famine in India is quite serious enough, however, leader of the Fabians said to me,“ When the Socialist to command attention on its own ground quite millennium dawns in England, we shall make Bishop apart from the effect it will have on the price of Creighton the Archbishop of Canterbury.” He has wheat in London or votes in America. not had to wait so long as the Socialist millennium mano News from South Africa continues to be for the promotion to the See which has often served in distinctly good. The Matabele war is as a stepping-stone to the throne of Augustine. The his Shirt. sputtering itself out, and President new Bishop was sent to Moscow to represent the Kruger and his Boers are proving to all the world English Church at the Coronation of the Tsar. Last by their reactionary legislation that their ideas are
visit, from which it is evident that he was immensely impressed by Moscow, and he came home, like almost every other Englishman who has been to Russia, filled with considerable disgust at the idiotic presumption with which many speakers on English platforms arrogate to themselves the right to interfere with the internal government of Russia. “Russia," said Bishop Creighton, “ did not appreciate having her business managed by public meetings in England." He was delighted with Russia, and immensely impressed with the enthusiasm and the fervent piety of the people. It will be interesting to see whether Dr. Creighton will attempt to establish any friendly relations between himself and the lay bishops of his diocese--the editors of the great daily papers. Bishop Temple left them severely alone, as indeed is too much the habit of ecclesiastics generally. Since Cardinal Manning died the
who refuse to sign a petition, ostracizing themselves from political action for life in the Transvaal, are still left in gaol. They have now been twenty weeks in prison, and may have to stay there until the necessary revolution is effected which will bring the government of the Transvaal into accord with the principles of civilised governments elsewhere. The dispute about railways has been settled by the intervention of Mr. Rhodes, who, although neither Managing Director nor Prime Minister, is regarded throughout the whole of South Africa as being more than ever the typical representative of England. At the beginning of the year I ventured to say that, if you put Cecil Rhodes down in South Africa, stripped of all his honours and dignities, without a penny in his pocket, Rhodes in his shirt would very soon wield all the power and influence which Rhodes the millionaire Minister had exercised so long.
Everything that has happened of late tends to theme of the Solidarity of the Individual. "Is justify our confidence in the shirted Rhodes. His the unity of human personality like the unity return to the Cape Colony is likely to be very much defined in the Athanasian Creed ?”—that is to say, is that of a triumphal procession, and any one who man one and indivisible, or can he be split into two calculates upon obtaining prestige for himself by or more separate and independent personalities, each scoring off Rhodes will probably find he has reckoned with its own set of responsibilities and obligations ? without his host.
Mr. Chamberlain could illustrate this somewhat ... At Cape Town a vigorous agitation is on abstruse theme with copious references to recent The New Cape Tariff.
e foot against the taxes on food. The new events in South Africa and London, which would no
tariff, which has been drawn up as the doubt make his Rectorial Address extremely valuable, result of the Customs Union between the Colony and not merely to students but to statesmen, and especially the Free State, has created considerable dissatisfac-. to the members of the Select Committee. tion, inasmuch as while the general reduction of the The East By the sudden death of Mr. Byron Reed ad valorem rate is from twelve to nine per cent., the Bradford a vacancy has been created in East Bradduties on meat, grain, and flour remain untouched. Blection. ford, the Unionist seat being exposed to a This, of course, is due to the power of the Dutch Liberal attack. After much hesitation, the Liberals farmers, who are Protectionists to a man, not even selected Mr. Billson as their candidate. Mr. Keir the terrible devastation caused by the rinderpest Hardie is standing on his own account in the name being sufficient to open their eyes to the need of free of the Independent Labour Party, while Mr. Greimports of meat.
ville is in the field on behalf of the Unionists. There is a great dealof what might be called Owing to the fact that there has been no bye-election The Select
mittee sub-surface agitation in London concern- for many months, and that this is the first appeal on, ing the approaching inquiry into the origin to a constituency since the retirement of Lord Rose
nadde and antecedents of the Jameson raid. It bery, exceptional interest attaches to the struggle. is a thousand pities that there should be any such the The German Emperor has once more been public inquiry into the ramifications of what was in Kaiser's demonstrating his skill with the pencil, reality a patriotic conspiracy intended to prevent a Cartoon. and I reproduce on the next page his great Imperial danger. Imagine what a position we latest attempt to portray, in pictorial fashion, the shall be in if, when Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Chamber- present position of European civilisation. The fiends lain are put on their defence for having connived, from the nether pit are writhing in fiery slime below to put it mildly, at preparations to over the steps leading to the Temple of Peace, where the throw the corrupt and tyrannical Government at Kaiser, I presume, stands sword in hand, keeping Pretoria, they were to produce the evidence, of guard over the peace of the world. It is an excellent which there is no lack, as to the intrigues which have thing that the Kaiser should thus portray himself, been going on between President Kruger and the not so much as the war lord, but as the sentinel of Germans. If such evidence is not produced, then peace. It is to be hoped that the rival claims of the Select Committee will have to pronounce judgment the Tsar and the Kaiser to the proud position when imperfectly acquainted with the dominant of the peace-keeper of Europe may not lead to facts of the situation. If, on the other hand, it is trouble. The Kaiser is disposed to play the part of produced, it is easy to see what trouble may be the patronising uncle to the Tsar, and that is one of brewing for us in Europe. From an Imperial point those things which he ought to know, from his own of view it would be much better for both Mr. experience, a young man most resents. It would, Chamberlain and Mr. Rhodes to go to Holloway however, be an immense blessing if the Kaiser could along with “Dr. Jim," rather than have the whole satisfy his ambitions by pictorial representations of of this dangerous and combustible matter exposed to his exploits. He has long been recognised as a born the rough handling of the Select Committee on which editor, and now it is evident that he could not only Mr. Labouchere is one of the leading members. edit but illustrate his own journal. His Imperial
Chamhen_Meantime Mr. Chamberlain has been Majesty has also one great qualification for such a post: lain as Lord elected Lord Rector of Glasgow Univer- he can unite the functions of a lightning artist with
ector. sity, and as he will have to prepare a that of a first - class propounder of conundrums. Rectorial Address he might do worse than select as Every one who looks at this picture will explain it his subject the extremely practical and interesting in a different way.