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HOW IT WAS FOUGHT : FROM THE AMERICAN “REVIEW OF REVIEWS.” M AE Review of Reviews of New York converted its November number into what may be regarded as an almost T encyclopædic survey of the Presidential Campaign. Its articles, written from an independent standpoint, and
supplemented by contributions from leading representatives of both parties, give the reader the best account of the great electoral battle that has yet been published. It is refreshing, in the midst of the heated wranglings of angry disputants, to find one editor who can write as cheerily and as sensibly as Dr. Shaw discourses on the great struggle. I.-A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE ELECTION. large a proportion of the citizenship of the country been
bringing its best conscience and best intelligence to a study In his survey of the Progress of the World Dr, Albert of the affairs of the nation. A great political contest is not a Shaw administers a genial rebuke to the pessimists of drawing-room affair; and many impolite things are sure to be
“THE SILVER DOG WITH THE GOLDEN TAIL”—AND THE TAIL WAGGED THE DOG AFTER ALL.
(A campaign poster much used in the West. The numerals indicate the electoral vote of each state.)
both sides who have shouted themselves hoarse declaring that their opponents are thieves, whose success would mean the ruin of the country :
A CHEERY ESTIMATE. In justice to the most representative portion of the country, it should be said that the one set of pessimists will chiefly be found east of the Alleghany mountains, and the other set, almost to a man, west of the Missouri river. In the central section, extending from Pennsylvania to Nebraska, the political battle has been raging most lustily; but men are not pessimists in that region. In those splendid commonwealths of normal and wholesome development, of high average prosperity, and of comparative freedom from extreme contrasts of social con dition, the people are not given to supposing, even under the excitement of a presidential compaign, that their country is going to the dogs or that half their fellow-citizens are rascals.
If ever there was a period when political conditions in the United States did not justify pessimism on moral grounds, that time is this present year 1896. Never before has so
said. But the observer who is capable of a large view of the contest must have been struck with the fact that the fight this year has been a remarkably fair one.
AN ASTONISHING SPECTACLE. The National Campaign Committee has understood the situation with a very clear intelligence. That committee very wisely decided to make Chicago its headquarters, and also decided at the very outset that its campaign must be one of education rather than agitation, and of friendly persuasion rather than of accusation or calumny. The Republican campaign fund has been a large one this year, but it has been honourably as well as effectively expended. The vast bulk of it has been used for the printing and distribution of pamphlets and leaflets relating to the issues of the campaign,--principally to the money question. This reading matter for the most part has been ably prepared and edited, and its disTribution has been accomplished upon a scale unheard of heretofore in any. political campaign in the history of the world, and by methods the tactfulness and ingenuity
of which have never been equalled before. The spectacle of millions upon millions of citizens of a great nation debating the intricacies of the currency question certainly bas its curious aspects. Nothing like it was ever seen in any other great country before. Whatever questions may at one time or another disturb the minds of the mass of men who hold the franchise in England, France, Germany, or other European countries, the plain people have never for a moment believed it possible that they were competent to settle currency and banking questions on the plan of the popular referendum. These are matters involving scientific and expert knowledge. The intense discussion of 1896 in this country will not have resulted in making accomplished monetary scientists out of a majority of the population; nevertheless, the serious and honest effort of the voters to find out enough about these questions to act with reasonable intelligence and prudence, can only produce valuable results in the end. It is a part of our education as a democracy.
ever since July,-namely, in a group of States of which Illinois is at the centre. The Republicans now expect to carry that whole group by triumphant majorities.
THE ARGUMENT THAT TELLS. If free coinage should prevail, and silver should refusa to jump up a hundred per cent. in the open bullion markets of the world, we should simply have cut the value of our dollar in two. The free-silver men declare that such a result is quite out of the question. But an overwhelming majority of those people who in our judgment are most competent to form an opinion as to what would happen, believe that free coinage would actually result in taking nearly or quite half of the purchasing power out of the dollar, so that bank deposits—including savings-bank accounts, fixed obligations of all kinds, such as mortgage debts, life insurance policies and pensions, and all other sorts of agreements to pay sums of money, would shrink to nearly or quite half of their present
UNCERTAINTY AS TO THE RESULT. It is reported that a shrewd political observer came across the continent from San Francisco to New York some days ago, making careful inquiries in every State through which he passed. He is said to have reported at one of the political headquarters that he was convinced the election would go pretty much one way ;—which way, however, he had no idea ! The signs as we go to press seem to us to point inuch more strongly than a month ago toward the carrying of the great central West for McKinley and sound money. If the people of the region extending from Ohio to Nebraska and from Wisconsin to Missouri have been won over to the opinion that the maintenance of the present monetary standard is the right and honourable and safe policy for the country, it is likely that they will express that conclusion very strongly and emphatically. The fighting ground between the two parties remained, at the end of the campaign, just where it had been
value. Perhaps those who believe that free coinage would have such a result are quite mistaken; but do the people of the United States really intend deliberately to try such an experiment for the sake of seeing what will happen ? We must believe,—unless the actual result of the balloting on November 3rd reluctantly convinces us to the contrary,—that the people of the United States are too conservative to do any. thing of that kind.
THE STUMP ORATOR OF THE CENTURY. However strongly one may be convinced of the inherent feebleness of Mr. Bryan's cause, it would be a great pity to do injustice to the marvellously plucky and brilliant campaign he has made. We are nothing if not a record-breaking country; and whereas the Republican National Committee has broken all conceivable records for a campaign resting on the basis of educational literature, so Mr. William Jennings Bryan has immeasurably surpassed everything in the history of oratorical political canvasses by his stumping tour of the United States. He has shown himself a man of magnificent endowments of physical strength and indomitable pluck. We publish a map on the preceding page showing the route followed by Mr. Bryan in his speech-making, from the opening of his campaign to the conclusion of it.
In the course of fourteen weeks Mr. Bryan has made four hundred speeches in twenty-nine States, and has travelled 13,046 miles. The average number of speeches has been about five per day. The New York World's estimate of the probable number of words is in excess of 600,000. All of these speeches have been reported and published in the newspapers. Some of them have been very long and elaborate, others have consisted of only a few sentences made from the rear platform of a train to a crowd gathered at some local station. In passing through some States, West Virginia for example, it is estiinated that Mr. Bryan actually drew within the sound of
visiting Canton in great deputations—these bodies representing a locality or else belonging to some one craft or calling or interest-has held its own to the very end of the campaign period. The arrival of from ten thousand to twenty-five thousand strangers a day has been no uncommon experience for the town of Canton during the past twelve weeks. These classified audiences have given Mr. McKinley a great opportunity. Mr. Bryan's speaking has of necessity been done to general audiences, except upon a few occasions. Mr. McKinley, on the other hand, thanks to the marvellous methods of the modern newspaper, has, in speaking to a deputation of iron workers, for example, been able to address men of that class everywhere; while in speaking to a group of wool-growers le has had a chance to address the nation on the question of the wool tariff and the woollen industry. His speeches have been prepared in advance, and have been punctuated with statistics and precise statements of fact which à " whirlwind canpaign"
bis voice half of the electors. In the aggregate le has addressed several million voters. So great a test of endurance as Mr. Bryan has undergone would be extremely hard to match in any field of human endeavour. It must be remembered that he has had to discuss before vast audiencesin such a way as to hold their attention and win their applause-a class of subjects which lead themselves with the greatest difficulty to popular oratory. If Mr. Bryan had been making this marvellous speaking tour in favour of American intervention to help the Cuban patriots or save the doomed Armenians, or even if he had been making a campaign for free trade on broad principles, his subjects would have been far better adapted to his oratorical abilities. The speeches of Mr. Bryan as the campaign has progressed have seemed to grow more bitter, and to appeal more openly to class prejudice.
A CAMPAIGN FROM THE DOORSTEP. Mr. McKinley, meanwhile, has been carrying on an oratorical campaign from his front doorstep which in its own kind has, as far as we are aware, never been paralleled. The fashion of
from a train platform would not allow. Mr. McKinley has always been fortunate in avoiding personal ill will.
II.--HOW THE BATTLE HAS BEEN FOUGHT.
Mr. W. B. Shaw describes in the same number of the Review how the campaign has been conducted :
A CAMPAIGN OF EDUCATION. The best bit of strategy on the Republican side in the whole campaign was the assumption that the voters in the great states of the middle West needed first of all clear and definite information on the questions at issue, and that this information must come to them in some way or another before any effort could be made to secure their votes for the gold standard in November. Accordingly, all the leaflets and pamphlets which were sent out from the Chicago headquarters were brief and clear expositions of the currency question phrased in direct and simple language, and remarkably free from the ordinary "bluff and bluster” of the traditional campaign
document, as well as from every form of appeal to prejudice special classes of country weekly and daily papers were and passion. The arguments in these documents were supplied with statements aggregating about 3,000,000 copies addressed to the sober thought of sensible men, and were put every week, and lastly, a special class of country newspapers in a form which
received "ready sensible men would
prints" -- the enbe likely to read
tire weekly circu'We are all ready . and consider.
BUSINESS FAILURES IN lation being about and anxious to get TWO HUNDRED
1892-flodstrreli) 4,000,000 copies. back to the period y MILLIONS OF CAM
ONE HUNDREDS FOURTEEN MILLION'S Hundreds of other of 1892, when this
or DOLLARS !! PAIGN DOCUMENTS.
newspapers decountry was enjoying
pended in a large Since the beginning of the cam
ed IN 1892:
measure for their
ONE THOUSAND, TWO HUNDREDS 1 political matter paign the Repub
NINETY [1GHT -15: Camel wrights lican National Com
during the cam
LOCK OUTS-(same authority) mittee has issued
paign upon the 59716c
Publication and the astounding
Printing Bureau, total of over two
and were hundred millions of
lated under the copies of documents.
direction of this There were also
bureau. It is a issued, under the
safe estimate that direction of the
every week samo committee,
5,000,000 families about fifty million
received newscopies of documents from the head
papers of various of quarters the
kinds containing Republican Con
political matter fur
vished by this bugressional Cam paign Committee at
reau, — probably Washington. This
three times the ag. year's literary out
gregate in volume
and influence of put far exceeds
any newspaper any record pre MCKINLEYS FIRST SPEECH OF THE CAMPAIGN AND THE SILVER KNIGHTS ANSWER.
work ever before viously made by the Republican Na
conducted by a naFrom Sound Money, the Organ of Coxey's Commonweal (Massillon, Ohio).] [Drawn by Carl Browne. tional Committee.
tional polical zomThere have been prepared more than two hundred and
THE USE OF POSTERS.
mittee. seventy-five pamphlets and leaflets, besides scores of posters,
The Republican Committee also made large use of political sheets of cartoons, inscriptions and other matter touching on
posters, probably five hundred being circulated under the the various phases of the campaign issues. This number, it direction of the Publication and Printing Bureau. The most is said, exceeds by more than half the number of documents
popular poster sent out from Chicago was the five-coloured, heretofore prepared and issued under the direction of that single-sheet lithograph, so widely circulated at the St. Louis committee since the foundation of the party. The distribu- convention, bearing a portrait of Mr. McKinley with the intion of these documents was generally made through the state scription underneath, “ The Advance Agent of Prosperity." central committees. About twenty thousan l express packages The number of copies of this poster circulated is said to have of documents were shipped,
been almost beyond computanearly five thousand freight
tion or comprehension. Another packages, and probably half a
poster which had an immense million packages by mail.
A CHEAP GOLDSIF MEN
run was in plain black and bore These documents were printed .
SCOME DEAR IDLE
the title, “The Real Issue.” in German, French, Spanish,
It represented McKinley addresItalian, Swedish, Norwegian,
sing a multitude of labourers in Finnish, Dutch and Hebrew, as
front of factories, declaring that well as in English.
it was better to open the mills TUNING THE PRESS.
C FORE V
of the United States than the
mints, while Mr. Bryan, on the The duties of the editorial
other side in front of the United department of the Republican
States mint, was welcoming the Literary Bureau at Chicago did
people of all races with their not end with the preparation of
silver bullion for free coinage. the many documents to which
The great volumes of factory allusion has been made, but some
smoke and the throng of eager notion of the extent of those
workmen on McKinley's side duties may be had when the fact is stated that a preferred list of
were in strong contrast with the M RAHA
group of foreigners dumping country newspapers, with an
their silver in front of the aggregate weekly circulation of
Bryan mints. Another popular 1,650,000, received three and a
poster in the same style was that half columns of specially prepared matter every week; another
entitled “ Poverty or Prosperity." list of country newspapers,
In the centre, on the Republican with an aggregate weekly
platform, stand McKinley and circulation of about 1,000,000,
"TUE WHEEL OF INDUSTRY."
Hobart. Mr. McKinley has received plate matter; three Emblem extensively circulated by the American Protective Tariff League. in his hand an unfurled sheet