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“THE HISTORY OF THE MYSTERY.” MHE REVIEW OF REVIEWS ANNUAL is well advanced I and will be ready for publication at the begin
ning of December. The form of a fictitious narrative in which I have embodied the story of “The Skeleton in Blastus's Cupboard” facilitates the presentation of the stirring facts of the Conspiracy, Revolution and Invasion in South Africa in their true perspective. How faithfully the story is told, with what scrupulous adherence to the actual facts, will not appear until the evidence of the leading actors in this tragic drama, from Mr Chamberlain downwards, is taken by the Select Committee which he has appointed. If I cannot say that I have nothing extenuated, I can honestly affirm that I have nought set down in malice, and there is probably no reader who will be more surprised at the spirit and motif of this Christmas story than Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies. But the tale is true to its motto: “ Tout savoir c'est tout pardonner.”
“HYMNS THAT HAVE HELPED.” At last I have got out my “ Hymns that Have Helped ” in a double number of the “ Penny Poets." It is described in the titlepage as “a collection of those hymns, whether Jewish, Christian, or Pagan, which have been found most useful to the children of men in six languages, viz., English, Welsh, Latin, German, French, and Italian.” The collection is certainly Catholic in the widest sense, including as it does Garibaldi's Revolutionary Hymn, the “Marseillaise,” the “Te Deum," “Stabat Mater,'' down to “Dare to be a Daniel” and Carlyle's Morning Hymn. There are about one hundred and fifty hymns altogether. The Latin hymns are accompanied by an English translation, and in every case wherever possible an account is given as to where the hymn was written, and in what way experience had proved it helpful either to individuals or to communities. The Rev. Dr. George Matheson, writing from Edinburgh, says:
I thank you very much for having sent me this collection of hymns, and I feel myself honoured in having one of mine numbered amongst them. Keeping my own out of the question, it is a truly admirable selection-a volume which should go further to cement the bond of Christendom than all the creeds and confessions that ever were forinulated.
The collection is certainly unique, and although one hundred and fifty hymns may seem to be a very small sample of the half million nominally Christian hymns which are in existence in two hundred different languages, the compilation will be found to cover a very wide field. The only rule that has been observed is that no hynin shall be excluded for metrical deficiencies or theological heresies, so be it is known to have been helpful to men.
“WAKE UP, JOHN BULL." This pamphlet is the reprint of special articles which appeared in the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. The first is a summary and analysis of Mr. Williams' famous book "Made in Germany," which is now in its third edition, and which has directed so much attention to the menace of German competition. . The second part contains the summary of the Report of the Recess Committee in Ireland, which indicates the methods by which other nations have succeeded in reviving their rural districts and arresting the decay of the agricultural interest. There are also included letters and speeches of Lord
Salisbury, Lord Rosebery, Mr. Asquith, Lord Spencer, and many other statesmen and public men. This “ Wake Up, John Bull,” is No. 4 of * Papers for the People.” For those who take an intelligent interest in the maintenance of our industrial ascendency, or the arrest of the ruin which is threatening our country districts, this pamphlet, which contains the gist of two solid yolumes, wili be very acceptable. It will be found very useful for distribution as a local tract in districts where it is proposed to form associations for the furtherance of education and the development of local resources. RUSSIA AND ENGLAND: OR. PROPOSALS FOR
A NEW DEPARTURE This sixpenny pamphlet by Madame Novikoff contains the letters which she addressed to the Times, the Daily News, and the Daily Chronicle since the Armenian question came to the front, together with a chapter which contains an interview with Prince Lobanoff concerning the relations between Russia and England, and the effect of these relations on the Cyprus Convention. To these letters are added a reprint of three chapters which Madame Novikoff published in 1878, advocating the establishment of an Anglo-Russian Alliance on the basis of the pacific liquidation of the Ottoman Empire. The paraphlet, to which I have prefixed a preface, is invaluable to any one who wishes to understand the Russian point of view. It will be sent post free for 6d.
CHRISTMAS CAROLS. At the end of this month the new number of the Penny Poets" will be published, which will be devoted to Christmas Carols and the Christmas Masques or Mummers' plays that were performed of old time in north, south, and middle England. The one diffic has hitherto stood in the way of the revival of the excellent Christmas custom of the performance by companies of villagers of these Christmas plays, journeying from house to house, has been the difficulty of obtaining, in a cheap and handy form, the text of the plays. I do not know that any of those quoted can be used unaltered this year, but they may, and I hope will, serve as a suggestion of the lines on which some such acting pieces might be constructed, and will be available for general use another day.
“BOOKS FOR THE BAIRNS. Thic penny illustrated edition, abridged, of the first part of the “Pilgrim's Progress” has been very warmly received. Next year I hope to follow it up by a similar edition of the second part. As the Christmas number of the “ Books for the Bairns,” I am issuing Miss Wetherell's “ Christmas Stocking,” which was the book that first introduced the excellent practice of Christmas Stockings into our household when I was a child--over forty years ago--and I sincerely hope it may be the means of bringing that excellent institution into many other hoines this season. Parents who desire to obtain for their children the very cheapest Christmas present in the way of children's literature that is issued from the press, will find the sixpenny packet of the “ Books for the Bairns” quite unequalled. Each packet, which is done up in a printed cover, contains six different numbers of the “ Books for the Bairns," and contains nearly four hundred pages of reading matter, and between five and six hundred pictures. It can be ordered through any bookseller, or will be sent by post for 9d.
“LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE OF ARCHBISHOP MAGEE.”*
M IMOROUS Churchmen must surely have been re- altogether new. No doubt it has been a gradual growth: I assured by the impression produced on the nation but speaking as an outsider and Nonconformist, whó
by the sudden death of Archbishop Benson. No perhaps like other outsiders may see most of the game. doubt it owed a good deal to the extremely sensational it seems to me that Churchmen themselves very inadenature of his departure. For the Archbishop of Canter- quately realise the extent to which the Church of England bury to fall dead while kneeling in prayer in the parish as by law established has in these late years become. church of the statesman who made him Primate, is not merely the Church of England as by law established, sufficient to rivet the attention of even the most careless but the Church of England in whose welfare every and indifferent
Englishman feels observer of pub
he has a vested lic events. But
interest. Even apart from the
Nonconformists sensation of the
of the stricter death, the com
type have begun ments in the press
to feel that they and out of it,
must not let this which have been
vested interest evoked by the
lapse for lack of passing of the
assertion. The Archbishop, il
whole nation is lustrate more
influenced, for. forcibly than any
weal or for woe, thing else of re
by the character cent years the
of the man who immense change
becomes Primate that has taken
of all England. place in the atti
It is an object of tude of King De
national rejoicing mos to Mother
when he is thoChurch.
roughly capable When I was a
and up to his boy, and even
work. It is a when I first be
subject for nagan life as a jour
tional humilianalist, the atti
tion when he tude of the masses
fails to rise to of our people to
the level of his wards the Arch
high vocation. I bishop of Canter
cannot put this bury was any
more forcibly, or thing but sympa
more clearly than thetic. Church
by saying that men, of course,
there was last swore by their
month among ARCHBISHOP MAGEE. chief priest, but
Congregationalpronounced (Photograph by Elliott and Fry.)
ists much more Churchmen were
general curiosity in a decided minority, and, by an ordinary crowd, a gibe about the next Archbishop of Canterbury than as at the palaces and emoluments of His Grace of Canter- to the personality of the next Chairman of the Conbury was almost certain to be warmly received. Non- gregational Union. It may even be true that Wesleyan conformists, of course, regarded the Archbishopric, and Methodists were more interested in knowing the name all the appurtenances thereof, as contrary to the divine of the next Primate than in speculations as to the date order, and thanked God they had neither part nor lot in when the Rev. Hugh Price Hughes will succeed to the Archbishops.
Presidency of the Wesleyan Conference. But that is a Nothing could be further from this sentiment than the point on which I would not commit myself, the Wesleyans present mood of the English nation. For once, Whig being a very strict clan, and the Methodist mind being and Tory all agree, not merely in eulogising the personal much exercised on the subject of Hugh Price Hughes. qualities of him whom Her Majesty called “the dear, This is the more remarkable because, although Archgood, kind Archbishop,” but in showing a genuine interest bishop Benson was an amiable, excellent, pious, indusin the Archbishopric, which strikes me as something trious prelate, he did nothing during his primacy that
was specially calculated to interest those who are * “ Life and Correspondence of William Connor Magee. Archbishop of York, Bishop of Peterborough." By John Cotter MacDonnell, D.D. Isbister.
without. His one great achievement, the Lincoln judgTwo vols. 32s.
ment, which saved the Church from the danger of a
split, was a performance which Churchmen could adequately appreciate, but one in which non-Churchmen felt not a particle of interest.. As a national Archbishop or leader of the people, Dr. Benson was a conspicuous failure, if it is fair to use the word “fail” about a man who never made an attempt to succeed. As a leader and exponent of the conscience of the pation in relation to social and political reform, he was nowbere beside Cardinal Manning, who was Archbishop of all England in a sense that no Archbishop of Canterbury has even aspired to be, since the Reformation. But, notwithstanding that, Archbishop Benson, by his negative virtues, by the quiet, unostentatious manner in which he performed his duties, and perhaps, more than all, by the manner in which he passed away, has succeeded in enabling English people to realise, as they never did before, how strong a hold our national Church has on the national sentiment, and how much more closely we have attained to the Broad Church ideal of a national Church than most people twenty years ago would have believed to be possible.
This popular interest has shown itself in a multitude of curious ways, and no topic of discussion has been more general at dinner tables and in railway carriages, wherever people meet together, than the discussion pro and con as to the chances of various candidates who were supposed to be in the running. It sounds an awful thing to say, but it would want a very little stimulus for us to see the odds about the various candidates quoted regularly beside Tattersall's latest betting in all the morning and afternoon papers. From that development, however, it is to be hoped that we have been saved, if only by the prompt nomination of Archbishop Benson's successor,
The Life of Archbishop Magee appeared very opportunely just as the life of Archbishop Benson came to a close. In this book we are allowed to see something of the inside track of the making of bishops and archbishops.
Dr. Magre was a great wit and a great orator, although he may not have been a great statesman. He represents a type almost exactly the antithesis of that of Dr. Benson. Archbishop Benson was a meek man, full of unction and kindly piety, and of a disinclination to assert himself that led his many impatient critics to declare that he was no better than an old woman. Arche bishop Magee was exactly the contrary in all these respects. He was a man of strong opinions, which he expressed with a keenness that sometimes cut like a knife. He lives in popular memory as the bishop who declared, if the choice lay between England sober and enslaved, or England drunk and free, he would give his voice unhesitatingly for England drunk and free. It might have been thought it was somewhat difficult for a bishop to break this record; but Archbishop Mageo achieved this task by his formal and explicit declaration against regarding the Sermon on the Mount as of any practical use for the guidance and governance of statesmen.
1.—MAGEE AS FALSE PROPHET. His biographer, Canon MacDonnell, claims that Archbishop Magee was to his Church like the prophets of old were to Israel. This is high praise, which will not be endorsed by those who read the very entertaining collection of letters which Canon MacDonnell has published as the Life of Archbishop Mag e; at least, not if the prophet is supposed to have been anything of a predictor or seer. Nothing is more remarkable in these two volumes than the astounding inability of the Archbishop to read the signs of the times. A worse
prophet it would be difficult to find, even among the battalion of tipsters who serve as prophets to the racing community. The most extraordinary thing is that the Archbishop blundered most badly about the very matters on which he might have been expected to be more than ordinarily well informed. Dr. Magee as a bishop and an archbishop lived in the very heart and centre of English elericalism. He was devoted to his Church, and a firm believer in her divine mission. He might have been supposed, therefore, to have had natural bias in favour of believing she would be able to triumph over her enemies and fulfil her great ideal.
As the introductory remarks of this article suffice to show, the fact as to the drift of events is so plain that no one, even if prejudiced against the Church, can avoid recognising how enormously the Church has increased her hold upon the nation. But when we turn to Archbishop's Magee's letters, we find that he is not merely lugubrious, but absolutely quite certain that the Church, especially the Church as an Establishment, is on its last legs. Whether it was from dissensions within or from Radical attacks without, he was confident that the game was up. For instance, in a letter written just before his elevation to the Archbishopric, he refused to bestir himself in order to secure any improvement in such matters of importance as the granting of marriage licences for divorced persons. He wrote:
Rule of all kinds in our Church seems out of date, and the catastrophe which will substitute the will of the laity for the will of the bishops is so near at hand, that a little more or a little less of anarchy meanwhile is not of much consequence. We are now well over the edge of the Niagara, and I do not greatly care to strain my muscles in bailing or trimming the boat on its way down. ' Over and over again we find the same despairing diagnosis on the condition of the body to which he belonged. On January 27th, 1897, he sent to his friend Canon MacDonnell the following forecast:
I fear that anarchy and faction will triumph ere long. There is not patience enough in a Democracy to hold out and play the waiting game. They will have everything settled out of hand, and, consequently, they will speedily settle their onon hash, and stew in it afterwards--Irish Home Rule, purchased by Welsh and Scotch Radical and Nonconformist votes, and sold to Gladstone for Disestablishment and Revolution hereafter.
But the most astonishingly bad forecast that a man ever mide is surely the following, which he wrote on December 1st, 1885, in the middle of the first General Election after Household Suffrage was extended to the counties. Dr. Magee wrote carefully, for he specially asks his correspondent to put the letter by in order that it may be read ten years later in the retreat wherever we shall have gone to spend our few remaining disestablishment years.
After pointing out, what was obvious enough to every one, that the election must result in making Parnell master of the situation, the Bishop wrote as follows:
This means Irish revolution first, and then an embittered struggle between the revolutionary and Conservative forees in England and Scotland, the revolution winning and being merciless after the bitterness of the fight.
I give the Church of England two Parliaments to live through.
This one now coming, in which she will be merely worried and humiliated.
The next, in which she will be assailed and discstablished in the Commons.
The thirl, in which the Peers will give way, and the thing is done.
The Parliaments, too, will be short-lived and stormy. Gladstone's retirement will bring this one to a close.
The second will dissolve on the Church question early.
The ten years have passed and gone, and, the Liberation Society itself being judge, the Church of England is much stronger to-day than it was then, and the prospect of disestablishment and disendowment has been indefinitely postponed. But Dr. Magee could see nothing to reassure him in the tendency of the times. The General Election of 1880 seems to have knocked the bottom out of all his faith in England. Beaconsfield had made him Bishop of Peterborough, and after the election was over, and Lord Beaconsfield defeated, he seemed to lose all faith in any possible redemption for England in the future.
When the Liberal Party became Radical, pure and simple, he declared it was inevitable they would win and should be headed by Gladstone. Then would come the last struggle between the Church and Democracy, and there is no doubt which would win--namely, Democracy. For, so far from thinking his Church was founded upon a rock and that the gates of hell would not prevail against it, the great prelate was quite certain it was founded upon saud, and it wauld inevitably be submerged by the waves of the rising Democratic tide. Whether he sat in Parliament or in Convocation, he was haunted by a dreadful foreboding of judgment to come. Writing, for instance, on April 15th, 1880, he $zys:
Truly the clergy, and Bishops too, of our Church ever since I have known them have made a wonderful pother and clatter about shutting the stable-vloor of the Establishment just after cach steed has been stolen or driven out of his stall.
The coming events are getting now nearly as clear as Mene and Tekel were once upon a time.
For myself, I have quietly said good-bye to Parliament and Convocation, where I only succeed in wasting three things, none of which I have too mach of -- viz, time, money, and temper. Convocation is too utterly ridiculous a farce for me to play in it any longer. For the last seven years we Bishops have been sitting in the back attic of the Church grandly dis. cussing the papering of it, with the house on fire in the kitchen, and burglars breaking in at the parlour windows. And for this and other matters verily we shall have our reward, and that speedily, unless there be no such thing as a Nemesis for timidity. There, now that is off my mind, and I
I feel rather better.
It is impossible not to feel a certain measure of compassionate sympathy for a man so vigorous, so energetic, so keen, and so full of life, who, nevertheless, seems to have spent his days under the oversha lowing gloom of an imaginary catastrophe. Of course, it is quite possible that Disestablishment may come, and that the Church may be the better for Disestablishment, but that was not his opinion. Six years before he was quite as certain that everything was going to the bad.
In 1874, when the Public Worship Regulation Bill was before Parliament, he summed up the situation as follows:
“ This P. W. Bill will try all our wisdom and courage in its working. I fear the result will be episcopal dissidence and practical indiscretions, or accusations of it, here and there, until at last the Puritanism and Erastianism of the House of Commons grows impatient, takes the reins in its own hands, and upsets the coach! The determined Erastianism of the Archbishop, the exasperation of the High Church clergy, the dishonesty of the Ritualists, the fanatical bitterness of the Evangelicals, and the sublime unprinciple of Dizzy, all point this way; the Bishops, too), are sore at the way the Archbishop has overridden them in the conduct of the Bill, and
sore at the false accusations of the clergy, and will form a very rebellious team for his Grace to drive in January next."
It is evident that he had arrived at a deliberate conclusion that nothing could save the National Church :
The history of National Churches seems to me to divide itself into three phases.
Ist.- That of conversion of the State by the Church. 2nd.--That of adoption of the Church by the State.
3rd.—That of contest between Church and State for supremacy, in which the Church in the end is always worsted, and must separate to save her life, generally with the loss of her goods.
(1) Courtship; (2) marriage; and (3) divorce without alimony, sum up all Church and State relations.
In the first stage the State is heathen and hostile.
In the second, Christian and friendly, often subservient and lavish, like an uxorious bridegroom.
In the third stage the State is non-Christian, latitudinarian, stingy, and tyrannical; like the same bridegroom grown old and hard, cutting down the pin money, quibbling about the settlements, and impatient for a releuse ; unfaithful, too, now and then, and generally disposed to set up a harem of all sorts.
Now I believe we have come to this third stage in our history; and our wisdom will be to look out for an amicable separation, and try to secure as much of the dowry as possible. Any clerical share in the representation of the nation, if it ever comes, should come after and not before such separation. Now, it would weaken our position, as we should seem through. our representatives to have been parties to measures we could not prevent, to say nothing of the ill-effects on the clerical spiritual mind of electioneering and all its belongings.
He even imagined he could foresee the exact point at which the yoke of the State would become intolerable to the Church. Speaking of Mr. Voysey's proposal to reform the Church, so as to readmit him, and the like of him, as à desirable alternative to Disestablishment, Dr. Magee wrote:-
Truly it may come to that yet, but not just at present. But mark my words: reform of that kind, and not Disestablishment, will be the game of the Church's enemies in Parliament. They will strive to fix on us such an Egyptian bondage of Erastianism and Latitudinarianism as shall force us to cry out for separation, and then, as in like cases matrimonial, the husband will keep the dowry. See if what I am saying will not come true, and see too if the really dangerous symptom of its coming true be not relaxation of the marriage laws. This is the point on which Church and State can be most rapidly brought into serious collision. Whenever the State treats, and requires the Church to treat, as married, those whom the Church declares to be not married or marriageable, then will come a strain that will snap, or go near snapping, the links that bind Church and State.
If a man who is in the central swim of things in the Church should blunder so utterly about matters with which he is familiar, what possible respect can be paid to his judgment on those secular politics about which he is much less competent to speak ? Here, for instance, is another of his forecasts:
Surely of all governments that by hysterics is the worst, and England is being more and more governed by the hysteria of half-educated men and women. The aristocratic oligarchy of the last century was selfish and short-sighted as regards domestic policy ; but it was cool, far-seeing, and prompt as regards foreign policy. The boorish yoter who sustained that aristocracy and squircarchy was dull and impassive, and open to bribery and beer; but he was stolid and bovine, and never got into a fury except against the Pope. But your modern, half-tauglit, newspaper-reading, platform-haunting, discussionclub frequenter, conceited, excitable, nervous product of modern town artisan life, is a most dangerous animal. He loves rant and cant and fustian, and loves too the power for the masses that all this rant and cant is aimning at, and he seems to be rapidly becoming the great ruling power in England. Well, you and I are in our fifty-seventh years. Let our children look to it. But the England of thirty years hence, if Dr. Cummings will let the world last so long, will surely be the nastiest residence conceivable for any one, save infidel prigs and unsexed women.
And then again in the same strain we read :
Politics in England mean, more and more, liberty and intimidation, Bribery of whole classes instead of, as of old, individual voters, and intimidation of classes likewise by larger classes, and both of these in the interest of ambitious and unprincipled demagogues. For this reason I dread and detest this idea of handing over social power, i.e., power over the liberties and happiness of individuals, to boards of every sort, from parish vestries up to—or down to-that most blatant und factious of all vestries, the House of Commons.
He speaks on another occasion savagely about the blatant and mischievous nonsense that our platform spouters are uttering upon a question on which they know absolutely nothing but this supplies these spouters with an opportunity for a very crushing rejoinder. The subject upon which he spoke so bitterly, namely, the attack on the policy of Lord Beaconsfield in 1876, supplies the most brilliant vindication of the wisdom of the political spouter at the expense of the Bishop himself, for if ever there was a policy which has been weighed in the balance and found wanting, it was the policy to attack which in the Bishop's eyes was the very acme of passionate injustice and ignorant presumption.
Truce, however, to the evidence which these volumes afford of what the American newspapers would call the monumental ignorance of one of the cleverest Bishops that ever wore lawn.
II.-ON THE MAKING OF AN ARCHBISHOP.
Let us turn then to the account which he gives of the making of an Archbishop. First of all, he must be made a Bishop; for, although Mr. Gladstone wished to make Dean Church Primate, the rule is almost invariable that the Archbishop must be chosen from the ranks of the Bishops. Dr. Magee was made Bishop by Disraeli at the time when Dean Church was promoted to the Deanery of St. Paul's. Mr. MacDonnell tells us that Dr. Magee, being then Dean of Cork in the not yet disestablished Church of Ireland, wrote to Disraeli that he might do worse than remember Dr. Magee in any distribution of ecclesiastical patronage that might fall to his share in consequence of the changes made by the promotion of Dean Church. At that time the Government was sadly in need of reinforcing its debaters in
in need of reinforcing its debaters in the House of Lords, in view of Mr. Gladstone's Irish Church resolutions. Therefore, Disraeli decided to give him the Bishopric, and communicated the fact to the applicant at Cork in a letter which was written with a pleasant spice of a joke, for it began, as if the request was refused, with the following lines :
Very Reverend Sir,--I regret that I cannot comply with your request
Then turning over the leaf, the disappointed Doctor read : --for I felt it ny duty to recommend Her Majesty to nominate you, if agreeable to yourself, to the vacant See of Peterborough.
Dr. Magee being thus duly installed as a Bishop, he continued to exercise episcopal functions for the next twenty-four years in the diocese of Peterborough. He was rather painfully conscious of the fact that, despite his pre-eminent abilities, he was, to use his own phrase,
given a back seat by his episcopal brethren. The following passago expresses his thought on this subject:
I am only a poor wild Irishman, and they learned and wise and thoughtful Englishmen, who look down with all the fine contempt of an English university man upon the man whose degree is not of Oxford or Cambridge. Truly, your true Oxford or Cambridge Don seems to regard his university even as a heavenly city of the Revelations. “Without are dogs!” I might have had some influence if I had only been an English university man, with a stutter! I have all through my episcopate felt this keenly, perhaps too keenly. But the thing reached its height at the Lambeth Conference when, out of all the English diocesan bishops, I was almost the only one to whom was given no part in the opening discussion of their fifteen subjects, and when I had to fight for five minutes', time in which to speak on one of them.
But that was in 1890. Twelve inonths had not passed before on the morning of January 6th, 1891 :
I received this morning a letter from Salisbury's secretary, Schomberg McDonnell, telling ine that. Lord Salisbury had submitted my name to the Queen, “ who received it very graciously," but adding that there was some doubt as to whether I would accept, and that, as it was “very undesirable” that there should be a refusal, Lord S. wished to be assured on this point before making the offer. He also wished for the “ earliest possible" answer, and McDonnell begged for a telegraphic “Yes” or “No” addressed to Hatfield, where he went last night.
You may imagine how dazed I felt by such an offer, acconpanied by a request for a “ Yes” or “No” by telegram. I quite understood Lord Si's desire to be freed from importunities by my answer, but it was a tremendous decision to make at a few hours' notice. I could not consult yon or any one save my wife, in whose judgment, you know, I justly repose the greatest confidence. After such thought and prayer and consultations as I could give, I telegraphed “ Yes.”
Four days later Lord Salisbury's letter offering the Bishop an Archbishopric, with the Queen's permission, arrived at the Palace. His reasons for accepting are duly set forth under seven heads, the fourth of which is thus stated: “I was judged the fittest man. I had no right to decline the office which, by God's help and grace, I might be able to discharge for the good of the Church.” The offer came to him, he writes, with an almost sudden surprise. He had not even once thought of the possibility of its being made to him, but when he decided, he had no doubt as to the rightness of his decision. “If a clear conscience, a great sense of relief, and a fresh spring of energy and hopeful purpose are signs of a right decision, I have them all. I feel a strangely new man for my new place.”
It was on January 11th he received the offer of the Archbishopric. It was not until February 20th that he was divested of Peterborough and invested of York. He describes in his letters to his correspondents the various stages of the making of an Archbishop. The investiture was a quaint and interesting ceremony, lasting nearly an hour and a half, including Evensong, of which it made part. Four Bishops besides Canterbury were required to make him into an Archbishop. On Monday he went to Windsor to do homage and be sworn into the Privy Council. On March 5th, a further step was taken in what he called the making of an Archbishop by instalments, for he became the Archbishop of York' in the House of Lords. The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London introduced him to the Lord Chancellor, to whom kneeling he tendered his writ of summous. Then he returned to the table, took the oath of allegiance, signed the Peers roll, was marched by Canterbury all round the House to the front