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Bishops' bench, where he put on his cap, and bowed three times, raising it each time to the Chancellor, who, not to be outdone in politeness, raised his three-cornered liat three times, and then the thing was done. There still remained the Enthronement, which took place in York Minster on March 17th.

As the Archbishop died in the following May, very little is said of his brief archiepiscopal reign. After a month of it he wrote :

On the whole, so far, I really think I am making way, and have as yet made no mistakes. But it is very slippery walking on the steep housetop of the Church, and I'must hold on very cautiously, and not lose niy head. Alas! I must be always grave and dignitied. Truly dignity and dulness goes together, Samivel : as you gets grander you gets duller.

Apart from his own experiences, it is interesting to real what Dr. Magee wrote concerning the past Archbishops of Canterbury, and their qualifications for this post. In 1876 he wrote of the ecclesiastical outlook :

The weather just now looks squally for the Church. The Archbishop has cut the ground froin under our feet as regards the Burials Bill by his unfortunate and illtimed utterance at Canterbury. He só entirely believes in Parliament and so entirely ignores the clergy, that he is really becoming, with all his noble qualities and great practical sagacity, a great peril to the Church. He regards the clergy as a big Sixth Form, and the outer world as the parents and trustees of the big school, the Church, and acts accordingly. He and our dear brother of Lincoln, with his ultra-clerical sympathies on the other side, have between them pretty nearly carried the Burials Bill.

He wrote in 1883:--

I am amused to hear of my“ being thought of for Canterbury”; about as likely as my being thought of for Grand Mikado of Japan, and really I think I should prefer the latter appointment; I should, at least, know less of its anxieties and dangers beforehand than I do of the other.

When Bishop Tait died, he wrote, “He was a good man, and, in some respects, a great man, and yet just now we need a different stamp of man for our chief. One who will conciliate the clergy a; he did the laity, without alienating the latter.” The following passage may be read with interest as expressing the mind of a very shrewd observer within the Church as to the qualities most desirable in a new Primate :

It is, in leed, an anxious time, this, for those who care for Church and State, while we wait to see who is to be given us as our ruler in the Church and our leader and spokesman in our dealings with the State. I think there can be little doubt that our new Primate will be either Winchester, Durham, or Truro. The first would be eminently the fittest, and to the bishops as well as to the clergy the most generally acceptable. His only drawback is his age. The second would command at the moment of his appointment much popular acceptance, which I fear he would in some respects disappoint. The third would, perhaps, all things corsidered, age especially, prove the best for the Church. He would certainly unite and lead the episcopate better than the second. À fourth--not a bishop-has been named, Dean Church of St. Paul's; in many respects admirable; but to move him over the beads of all the bishops would be a rery strong step, though it has been taken before now, i.e., Tillotson. For myself, I feel the comfort and

ce of mind of a man who looks on a competition in which he can possibly have no share or personal interest whatover. As regards the future, I do not envy the man who will be Heated in the chair of Aug istine in these times. The winds blow keen around it, and the rains fall havy on it just now, and he may be a thankful man if, when his occupancy draws to a close, he can say, I have done nothing to hasten the fall thereof.

III.-MAGEEIANA. I have but little space left in which to quote some samples of the Archbishop's style, when writing freely with unreserve to an intimate friend. Canon MacDonnell has certainly produced an unique biography which, as he says, is almost an autobiography, from the fact that it is little more than one long compost of the Archbishop's own letters written without restraint to an intimate friend. Many of the letters are avowedly a blowing off of steam, and for many who are now living it would be as well that some of the Bishop's flouts and jeers had been omitted. For instance, it is piquant, no doubt, to read Bishop Magee speaking of the present Dean of St. Paul's as the “ Cleon of the Lower House," and sneering at Bishop (Piers) Claughton as one "who has poked his small person into a strife which he does not understand, and is not equal to." But it would have been a kinder thing if Canon MacDonnell had omitted both passages. Another: it is not pleasant to read that Archbishop Magee described Canon Liddon as “a monk in petticoats," with a “merely feminine mind." His phrases are brilliant enough, and many of them will sting and burn, as, for instance, the remark that the saintly Primate, whom he describes in another place as “Old Lincoln," was as usual "inopportune and mischievous in the most saintly way."

Dean Stanley he describes as a “strangely fascinating, queer, solitary, sad bit of Church history”; but for vivid portraiture what can excel this picture of Mark Pattison, Rector of Lincoln, as he appeared at a meeting of the Metaphysical Society ?

Mark Pattison, essayist and reviewer, read the paper for discussion. Imagine the mummy of an opium-eater restored to life and dressed in the dinner dress of the nineteenth century; that is M. Pattison, rector of Lincoln College, fren thinker and free writer, but certainly not free speaker. He · read in a dreary way a queer paper, the object of which was

to prove the impossibility of dogma from the indefiniteness of words. He listened in silence to our criticismis, uttered a few sepulchral words in reply, and then seemed to vanish like a sceptical ghost. It was really very strange, and savoured to me greatly of opium.

He did not by any means spare his own class with his caustic pen :: “Our clergy here,” he wrote in 1872, “are like an angry swarm of bees in defence of the damnatory clauses. Clerg in Convocation are like wet hay in a stack, the thicker you pack them the hotter they grow."

And another time, after sneering at the plea for promotion in clerical quart rs, he wrote:

I wonder, do the parasites on the hind legs of a bluebatt). make interest for promotion to the fore legs on a deatu vacancy?

Again he wrote:

I am beginning, almost to long, I have been for some time looking, for Disestablishment. It will very nearly drown us; but it will kill the fleas.

Nor did he hesitate to be sarcastic at his own expense, as, for instance, in 1890, he thus described his dealing with a Ritualistic thorn in his episcopal side :

I have a prospect of getting rid of the most extreme Ritualist in the diocese by offering him a small ertra diocesan living. I like throwing my Ritualistic nettles over my Ritualistic brother's wall. • Scattered: about the volumes there are a few good stories, chiefly Irish, as, for instance, the story for which 'Atkinson, one of the Times counsel, is the authority. An Irish country girl cim to a Q.C. for justice. When asked to explain what was her grievance, she replied: -

poor man

"The League promised £10 to the tenants in such a house for resisting eviction.

“ Now I was the girl that split the policeman's head with a spade handle and I got nothing, and Bridget Malony got a lot of the money, and she only threw a little boiling water on him. I only want justice ayin her!”

A sum of £30 was subscribed by a local league for the shooting of an obnoxious agent. The money was lodged with a trustee, who bolted witin it.

The man who had been told off for the job was hearil to complain loudly of the rogue who had cheated an * honest

out of his money, adding, “ I'd shoot the agent for £30 still, but bedad I'd shoot that trustee for nothing."

He tells again the excellent story of Father Healy, who, being asked by Mr. Gladstone upon what principle the Roman Church offered soul-indulgence, saying when he was in Rome he was offered the indulgence for fifty francs. Father Healy replied, as the Archbishop quotes it, "Well, Mr. Gladstone, I do not want to go into theology with you, but all I can say is that if my Church offered you an indulgence for fifty francs, she let you off very cheap."

On another occasion he repeats the gossip that, when Mr. Parnell was at Hawarden, he offended the Gladstone family by not coming to breakfast at all, and by being twenty-five minutes late for dinner.

individual character and from their bearing on the lives of others, which either from accident or the pressure of circumstances find noadequate record in the letters written at the time. Or it may be that the letters which would have given the whole story are far too sacredly intimate to be published even by a biographer with Canon MacDonnell's conception of what is permissible. Hence, we shall have biographies in which third-rate events will occupy firstrate places for no other reason than that the third-rate event was described in a publishable letter with much detail, while the first-rate event was either not described at all, or was treated in letters toɔ confidential to be made public. The second observation which these handsome volumes suggest to the reader is the extraordinary triviality of many of the questions which twenty years ago profoundly exercised clerical minds. In Magee's letters we sce a great deal more of the dust raised by the machine than we do of the real good work which it was accomplishing.

There are comparatively few sulijects which the average reader will regard as of abiding interest in the voluminous dissertations from the Archbishop's pen which are preserved by his biographer. There is, however, one very interesting paper upon Confession and Absolution in the Church of England. There is another, which is “rote sai kastic,'' which, to a great many persons, would seem to state with unanswerable force the arguments in favour of terminating painlessly apparently useless lives which are slowly ebbing out in torture.

On the whole, the book leaves a vivid impression of a strong man who signally failed to comprehend the signs of the times, and whose native humour and shrewd mother wit failed to dispel the gloomy forehoding of catastrophe which seems always to have darkened his horizon. It is only here and there that you get glimpses of his religious life. The biography gives the idea of a man who was very much more occupied in serving tables and attending to the machine than one whose mind was fixed upon the things not of this world, and who dwelt much on the spiritual forces which alone are eternal.

This, however, is probably due to the method by which the biography has been built up, and that constitutes one other point in the least of the general objections which might be taken to the adoption of the MacDonnell method in biography.

IV.-CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. There only remain to be added some general observations upon these two volumes. The book is in a measure unique, for it is almost the first time that an attempt has been made to reduce the narrative of the biographer in a biography to a vanishing point. No doubt the method has its advantages, but it can seldom be pursued owing to the fact that very few busy men have time or inclination to write so constantly to their friends concerning the events of every day.

It is to be feared also that if Canon MacDonnell's example were to become a precedent, a great deal of the freedom of private communication would be destroyed. If we were all to be perpetually asking ourselves how our correspondence would look in print, it would lose, of necessity, much of the natural freshness and charm which makes it valuable. Then again, the MacDonnell method renders it impossible to pose events with any regard to their true perspective. There are episo les in every life which are the most important, both from their influence on



To the Manager, “Review of Reviews,"

Mowbray House, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C.
Please send the Review of Reviewsfor Twelve Vonths, beginning with the
Number, to

For which I enclose Eight Shillings and Sixpence.

WEEK before the end of October packets of Christ. (Nutt, 6s.), made up of some four "Adventurous Voyages

mas cards and prospectuses of Christmas numbers on the Sea of Imagination," is his contribution this year:

appeared on the bookstalls. The producer of these and, as in the case of his “Fairy Tale” volumes, he has seasonable commodities

had the invaluable cois learning more and

operation of Mr. John more to take time by

D. Batten as illustrator. the forelock; and even

One of Mr. Batten's confectioners have their

pictures—“Chiron's advertisements of

Farewell to the “ Christmas puddings

Argonauts” — appears for the colonies "--as if

on the next page. Mr. a" boughten ” pudding

Jacobs has gone far could ever convey the

afield for the materials full atmosphere of

for this volume-Hellas “home!” Publishers, of

supplies “The Argocourse, begin even in

nauts" (reprinted here September to issue their

from Kingsley's special gift-books, and

“Heroes"), “The So it is that we have

Voyage of Maelduin " now most of the in

is .Celtic, “Hasan of teresting and attractive

Bassorah ” comes from volumes from which the

the East of the" Arabian purchaser, some time

Nights," while “The before the fourth week

Journeyings of Thorkill in December, will have

and Eric the Farto make a somewhat

Travelled ” is made up confused and dazzled

from two minor Norse choice. Of this mass of

sagas. The idea of the literature what follows

book was new, and will is a first brief review,

bear repetition: old printed thus early in

stories like these, legends order to convenience

of antiquity, all compact those of our readers for

of the finest part of ' whom the far colonial

ancient fancy, are just posts will wait no longer

the things on which to than the middle of

train children's imaginaNovember

tion. The poetry of the Mr. Andrew Lang, if

incidents will touch only because of the

them, if anything will. regularity with which

Certainly, as long as he has produced "a

Mr. Jacobs can invent book for Christmas,"

such gift-books as this, deserves first place.

he will remain a nursery This year he has made

benefactor. 2 new departure with

“Songs for Little “The Animal Story

People” (Constable, 6s.) Book” (Longmans, 6s.),

by Mr. Norman Gale is described by himself in

addressed to rather his preface as “more or

younger readers. Just less of a true story

now we spoke of books book," and the work

that children are "supalmost entirely of ladies.

posed to like.” Mr. E. It needs but little de(From the Animal Story Book.")

V. Lucas has pointed scription, for it is made

out that Stevenson's up entirely of stories about animals—some of them new, “Child's Garden," although it comes under that heading, others translations from Dumas, or even adaptations is not really fit for children. Mr. Gale's book, confrom Gauthier and (curious juxtaposition !) Pliny. sciously or unconsciously, is modelled on that gem of Anyhow, the result is eminently of the kind that literature, and comes near similar rejection as far as children are supposed to like, and its attractiveness is the nursery is concerned. Still it is a pleasant immensely enhanced by the crowd of illustrations--one volume, with some quite delightful verses in it, of of which, “ Androcles in the Lion's Cave,” we reproduce which “ His First Prayer" can stand as a somewhat arthere—by Mr. H. J. Ford.

less example:One rather wonders who is the greater favourite with

“ God bless Favver, children-Mr. Lang or Mr. Joseph Jacobs, who also has

God bless Muvver, for some time past been adding to nursery libraries with

God bless Sisser, yearly volumes. “The Book of Wonder Voyages ”

God bless Bruvver,

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God bless Unco
Out at sea,
God bless all,

An' God bless me!” Sometimes Mr. Gale is not happy-in the second stanza of “The Busy Father,” for instance, where the

"smiling and stilly” makes silly line. There are a number of illustrations to tbe poems by Miss Helen Stratton. One of the smallest, that of Bartholomew, wlio

"Is very sweet, From sandy hair

To rosy feet,"

we reproduce here. A (From Songs for Little People.") rather good addition

to the long list of books which have taken “ Alice in Wonderland ” as their model is “ To Tell the King the Sky is Falling (Blackie, 5s.), by an author new to us, Miss Sheila E. Braine. Half its charm it owes to its illustrations by Miss Alice B. Woodward, but it is a pretty story, with enough talking animals and accommodating fairies in it sto please the most exigent child. Last year one of the great successes was The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls." The ladies—Miss Florence K. Upton and Miss Bertha Upton—who wrote the verses and produced the illustrations for that volume have collaborated again this year on a similar work, "The Gollywogs' Bicycle Club”. (Longmans, 6s.), in which the Dutch dolls again figure, and are as amusing as ever. This is just the book for a very little child. Mrs. Hugh Bell's “Fairy Tales and How to Act Them” (Longmans, 6s.) is extremely practical, well illustrated, and lucid in its explanations.

Girls are always far less well catered for than their brothers in the matter of literature. Perhaps it is that they are supposed earlier to develop a taste for ordinary fiction. The one book for girls that stands out this year is Miss Frances Armstrong's "A Girl's Loyalty(Blackie, 5s.), well illustrated by Mr. John H. Bacon; but perhaps most girls will be more flattered if they are given

the new presentation edition of Sir Edwin Arnold's poem, “The Light of the World ; or, The Great Consummation" (Longmans, 6s.), illustrated very finely after designs by Mr. Holman Hunt.

There is the usual crowd of volumes addressed specially to boys, and it is no easy matter to make a selection. Certainly the boys who last year had given them the first volume of “The Story of the Sea” ought this year to have the second and completing volume (Cassell, 9s.). “ Q.," beloved of boys since his “Splendid Spur," has edited the work, and has been assisted by Professor Laughton, Mr. Laird Clowes, Mr. Arnold-Forster, M.P., and Mr. H. W. Wilson. The illustrations are admirable, and certainly no better

present for a boy who cares for the sea or for true stories of adventure, could be devised. M. Jules Verne is, of course, up to time with a new romance—“Floating Island or, The Pearl of the Pacific” (Low, 6s.) is its title this year, and if one can judge from its exciting illustrations, it is likely to equal all its predecessors in popularity. Mr. Henty has his usual budget, and of these, “ With Cochrane the Dauntless : a Tale of the Exploits of Lord Cochrane in South American Waters" (Blackie, 6s.), illustrated by Mr. W. H. Margetson, is perhaps the best. Mr. Ascott R. Hope is another old favourite, and his long schoolboy story," Black and Blue” (Black, 5s.), shows he has lost no whit of his cunning. A new writer is Mr. Frank Aubrey, whose“ The Devil-Tree of El Dorado: a Romance of British Guiana” (Hutchinson, 6s.) is a romance indeed, with weird imaginings worthy of Mr. Haggard at his best. And finally comes The Sunny Days of Youth : a Book for Boys and Young Men” (Unwin, 3s. 60.), a collection of chapters addressed to intelligent and aspiring youth.

The most popular gift-book for “grown-ups" this year is likely to be * The Art Bible, comprising the Old and New Testaments, with Numerous Illustrations” (Newnes, 12s.), a large volume profusely illustrated from photographs, with maps, and with drawings by various artists, many of them of world-wide celebrity. A beautiful book is Mr. Edward Gilbert's "Christ the Redeemer: being Extracts from the Works of Three Seventeenth Century Writers—Robert Herrick, George Herbert, and Bishop Ken” (Hardy and Page, 5s. 6d. net). It is charmingly illustrated with six plates, after pictures by the Italian school of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, “A Book of Old English Ballads, with an Accompaniment of Decorative Drawings" (Macmillan, 6s.), is the work of Mr. George Wharton Edwards, and comes to us from New York. It is a beautiful example of American book-production,

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(From " The Book of Wonder Voyages.")


N EAR MR. SMURTHWAYT, --Selecting for your

parcel is no easy matter at this time of veir,

when every day brings its own volumes of interest. I bave had, unwillingly, to omit orer a score of books which, at any other season, I should have been glad of the opportunity of sending you. But I go on the principle that it is no use sending you more than you can read yourself, or than your household can read. Also I send nothing of a distinctly " gift-book " character: volumes of that kind you must choose for yourself. Here is my list of what has been selling best in October :

London Pride. By the author of “ Lady Audley's Secret.” 6s.

The Grey Man. By S. R. Crockett. 6s.
Kate Carnegie and Those Ministers. By Ian Maclaren. 6s.
The Wheels of Chance. By H. G. Wells. 5s. net.

The Life and Correspondence of Archbishop Magee. By John Cotter Macdonnell, D.D. Two volumes. 32s.

Gaston de Latour: an Unfinished Romance. By Walter Pater. 7s, 6d.

The surprise in this list of what is popular is to find on it the name of the late Walter Pater, the one man surely whose talent one might have said would never have gained him the applause of the multitude. And yet there it is: “Gaston de Latour: an Unfinished Romance(Macmillan, 7s. 6d.). I think possibly that one word “romance" explains this sudden development of public taste. His essays alone would never have won Stevenson popularity; his “ romances” were what made his name familiar in every English home. If the reason is not there, I can only say that the success of “Gaston de Latour” is very much a tribute to the power of criticism in forcing a man down the public throat--for if there has been one writer whom all critics have united in praising it was Walter Pater. But, anyhow, on any grounds, the “ unfinished romance” deserves its place. It is one of those beautiful stories, beautiful alike in feeling and in style, which, once read, one feels again and again. the temptation to return to. That Pater was an exquisite literary artist we all have known-now we know, even more fully than before, how much English literature has lost by the early death of a writer who was always an artist, whose one fault was perhaps that he was too continually conscious of his art.

At the head of the list stands Miss Braddon's “ London Pride" (Simpkin, 65.), a good story in her usual vein, readable always, not a little clever in the observation it displays, and full of ingenuity. “The Grey Man” (Unwin, 6s.) has helped to enhance that growing reputation of Mr. Crockett's. It is all very well for the other Scotch school to belittle him, but there can be no doubt, with this book and “The Raiders” before us, that he can write a romance with the best of his rivals. Ho writes well and he writes with spirit. “Tan Maclaren,” too, is on the list again-this time with a volume which, although it is called “Kate Carnegie and Those Ministers” (Hodder, 6s.), is much more a repetition of the manner of the “ Brier Bush" series than a complete story. And by the way, Dr. Robertson Nicoll, who · discovered” both Mr. Crockett and Mr. Watson, has discovered another "kail-yard" storyteller in the person of Mr. David Lyall, whose “ The Land o' the Leal ” (Hodder, 6s.) is put foith in the dress that one associates with half the successes of these topographical story.

tellers. Mr. Lyall is certainly worthy to sit on the same bench with Mr. Barrie, Mr. Crockett, and Mr. Watson, he has many of the same qualities, and his material is of a similar kind; but I cannot help remembering those lines of Tennyson's:

"Most can raise the flowers now,

For all have got the seed." Mr. Barrie first sowed; these others, however admir: able, have but followed in his path. But if one wants originality one is pretty safe in looking to Mr. H. G. Wells for it. Certainly his “ The Wheels of Chance" (Dent, 5s. net) is not so startlingly original as “ Tho Time Machine," or its gruesome successor, but it is not hackneyed-the very fact that it is a cycling romance shows how up-to-date it is. Most people who have learned to ride will recognise the truth of the description of Hoopdriver's initiation into the difficulties of hill-climbing, back-pedalling, and the proper management of the brake. The idea of the story ? A draper's assistant saves his money and starts on a bicycling tour round the South Coast. He has adventures, humorous and otherwise, and all worth reading about. Still, I don't know that it is in this kind of story that Mr. Wells's talent has its best opportunity. Mr. Ayton Symington's illustrations are all clever in their way. “ The Life and Correspondence of Archbishop Magee” (Isbister, two vols., 32s.) you will read all about long before you come to these notes. Writing of “ Ian Maclaren” reminds me that in your parcel, among the theological books, is another volume from his pen, but signed by his real name and titles - John Watson, M.A., D.D. “The Cure of Souls: Yale Lectures on Practical Theology" (Hodder, 6s.) it is called, and it is addressed particularly to those younger students to whom their theological course offers obstacles over which their masters have not at present seen fit to assist them.

A continuation of the Rev. John Hunt's “Religious Thought in England from the Reformation to the end of the Last Century," under the title of “ Religious Thought in England in the Nineteenth Century" (Gibbings, 10s. 6d.), is perhaps the most valuable historical work I have to send, although possibly you will take a more actual interest in Mr. H. de B. Gibbins's “ Industry in England: Historical Outlines" (Methuen, 10s. 60.), in some sense an 'expansion of the same author's “ Industrial History of England," a little handbook which has had a deserved success. Mr. Gibbins has not been content in stating the dry facts of industrial progress, he has treated his subject philosophically, has made it dovetail with the civil, religious, and military history of the kingdom, and has altogether produced a very creditable and very useful work. The maps enhance its value considerably. Then you will find Major Glyn Leonard's “ How we Made Rhodesia” (Paul, Os.), made up of letters and diaries written by the author “ during the years 1890-93, when Rhodesia was in the first stages of its existence," and, a volume of very much lighter appeal, Mr. Albert D. Vandam's “ Undercurrents of the Second Empire: Notes and Recollections ” (Heinemann, 7s.6d, net), a gossipy collection of anecdotes and memories whose character you can at once guess when I tell you it is by the author of “ An Englishman in Paris.”

The important historical biography of the month is,

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