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EVENTS OF THE MONTH.
8. The Chilian Cabinet resigoed.
21. Several British officers sailed from Liverpool to Major Von Wissmann unanimonsly elected
join the Niger expedition. Nov. 2. The Rt. Rev. Dr. Creighton appointel President of the Berlin Geographical Society. 24. Motion to appoint Committee to inquire into Bishop of London. Serious Riots occurred in the Bombay Presidency.
Managemeut of Works Department made in Roral Institute of British Architects opened by 9. Lord Salisbury discussed the Venezuelan
London County Council by Lord Onslow, Professor Aitchison.
situation at the Lord Mayor's Banquet.
Estimated that 7,000 men were on strike at 3. Major William Mckinley elected President of Sir H. H. Kitchener arrived in London.
Hamburg. the United States.
Mayors for Boroughs were electod throughout 25. Publication of a Roman Catholic Appeal on The Rev. the Hon. Edward Carr Glyn appointed
England and Wales.
Education by Cardinal Vaughan and the Bishop of Peterborough. Reported Massacre of one hundred Armenians at
Bishop of Westminster, Large purchases of arms ordered by the Sultan.
Sick List in Havana exceeded 16.000 men. Chinese Government contractel for four German 10. The American Venezuelan Commission de- 23. The Rt. Rev. Dr. Temple, Bishop of London, torpedo-boats and two Armstrong cruisers. termined to make no decision touching affairs
elected Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate Japanese Ultim.tum regarding the conclusion
subject to its examination.
of All England. of the Treaty of Commerce reportel accepted The Gierman Reichstag resumel its sittings.
Deputation urging legislation for Tehnical and hy China, Commercial Treaty between Switzerland and
Secondary Education, waited on tbe Duke of Japau sigced in Perne.
Devonshire. At the Guildhall, Cambridge, a General Medical Council resumed its Session in resolution was passed to est.ib
London. lish a Mission House in South 26. Coventry Patmore, poet, died at Lymingtou. london.
Hungarian Reichsrath opeved. 13. Publication of Mgr. Macaire's l'resident Crespo of Venezuela telegraphed his Report to the Pope of his mis
satisfaction with the Settiement effe ted in sion to Abyssinia.
Washington. 14. Deputatiou from the Society of Thanksgiving Day celebrated at Hotel Ce il by Friends waited upon Mr. Curzon
the Americau Society in London. to urge the Abolition of Slavery 27. Ambassadors presented a Yote regar.ling trete to in Zanzibar.
the Sultan.. Lord Huutly elected Rector of Mr. Tom Mann arrested in Hamburg. Aberdeen University.
l'roclamation issuel for the re-assembling of Viceroy of India reported 120,100
Parliament on January 19th. persons on relief.
Resolutions approving of several l'niversity Basis of the settlement of the
Endowments in Memory of Sir John l'ender Mapitoba Schools Question pub
passed by the International Submarine Tele lished.
Car Club, travelled from Hôtel Sir Alexander Mackenzie laid the First Stope (
the Drainage Extension Works in Calcutta. 15. International Ship. Dock, and 28. Publication of Lord Grey's Letter on Rhodesia
River Workers held demon The Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha preside i at strations in Victoria and South
a Meeting of the Special Appeal Committee wark Parks.
of the Charing Cross Hospital, Treaty of Peace signed on Octo Lord Savile died at Rufford Abbey.
ber 26th by Italy and Abyssinia New Form of Electric Railway opeuel at reported at Rome.
Brighton. 16. Interpellation as to the “ Bis- 29. Mgr. Ormanian's election confirmel by the marckian Revelations" opened
Sultan. in the Reichstag.
30. Sir Joseph Lister presided at the Annual Meeting Electric power works set in motion
of the Royal Society at Burlingtou House. at Niagara Falls.
The Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants Public subscription to the New
made demands on behalf of the Dramen and Spanish Internal Load opened.
Carmen. 17. National Union of Conservative Hamburg Strikers numbered 13.000 men.
Associations met at Rochdale. Privilege i Cab System condempel by a Meeting London County Council discussed
of London Cab Drivers' Trade Union. the accounts of the Works Department.
Resolution touching increased Nov. 10.--Bradford (East Division): THE REV. THE HON. E. CARR GLYN.
grants for elementary schools Capt. the Hon. R. H. F. Greville 4,921 Appointed Bishop of Peterborough. passed by the National Educa Mr. A. Billson (L)..........
4,526 tion Emergency Committee.
Mr. J. Keir Hardie (Ind. Lab...... 1.953 (Photograph by Elliott and Fry, Baker Street.)
Mr. Ritchie received a deputa-
Majority (C) 395 4. Mr. E. J. Poynter, Director of the National The bearing of the appeal against the decision
1895:Gallery, elected President of the Royal of the Mixed Tribunal at Cairo opened at
H. Byron-Reid (C)........ 5,843 Academy. Alexandria.
W. S. Caine (L).......... 5,139 A Deputation from the National Sea Fisheries' Duelling discussed in the Reichstag. Protection Association called upon Mr. Ritchie 18. Sir M. W. Ridley received a deputation support
Majority (C) 705 at the Board of Trade to urge the passing of
ing resolutions passed by the September Trades the Fisheries Acts Amendment Bill.
Armenian Assembly. 5. Relief for Voluntary Schools discussed by both Publication in Constantinople of subscriptions 3. Mr. Wolfe Barry, before the Institute of Civil Houses of Convocation at Westminster. towards military equipment.
Engineers, on Engineering Progress during The Technical School and Library presented by Ontario Law Society passed rules making women
the Present Reiga. Colonel Gamble to St. Heleu's opened by
eligible to the Bar.
M. Hapotaux, in the French Chamber, on the Lord Derby. 19. Inauguration of the University of Paris.
Concert of Europe and the Sultan. School of Arts and Crafts opened in Regeit Fatal colliery accident at Recklinghausen, West Cardinal Vaughan, at Westminster, ou Anglican Street by the London County Council phalia.
Orders. Marriage of the Duke of Orleans with the Debate in the Reichstag on duelling concluded. Mr. John Dillon, at Toomebridge, on the Report
Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria French torpedo boat sunk off Cape de la Chèvre. of the Recess Committee. took place in Vienna.
20. L'Ister Convention League assembled at Belfast. Lord George Hamilton, at Stepney Green, on The Greek Chamber opened in Athens. Edward Ivory, alias Bell, committed for trial in
the Schools and Rate Aid. Ex-Queen Liliuokalani completely pardoved by
connection with the alleged dynamite plot. 4. Mr. Walter Long, at Wantage, on the Agrizalthe Hawaiian Government. Twentieth Annual Stanley Cycle Show opened
tural Rating Bill. 6. Several Rebel Cuban bands defeated by General at the Royal Agricultural Hall.
Cardinal Vaughan, at the Hotel Cecil, on ComGonzales Munoz reported.
21. Yao Chief Katuri, north of Mangoche, British mercial Education. 7. Lord Balfour electe. Lord Rector of the Ceutral Africa, reported captured by Lieut. 5. The Archbishop-Designate, the Bishops of York, Edinburgh l'niversity. Alston.
Rochester, and Manchester, and others, in the Mr. Alderman Faudel-Phillips admitted to 2,500 Hamburg and Altona dock labourers went
Church House, on Further Relief for the Office at the Guildhall as Lord Mayor.
5. Prof. Herkomer, at Liverpool, on English Art. 6. John Moriey, M.P'., at Glisgow, o:) Home lule
and British Foreign l'oli y.
Policy. 7. Mr. Cripps, QC., M.P., at Stroud, on the
Education Qnestion. Professor Courthope, at Oxford, on loetical
18. Chas. J. Wilmot, theatrical 19. Surgeon-Major-General Edwa
Prince Otto of Stolberg-Wernige 20. David Robertson, naturalist, 90.
Lieut. S. E. Shilling, Aid-de-C.
Rosmead, 27. 21. Sir Benjamin W. Richardson, pby
author, 68. 23. Sir C. W. D. Staveley, 79. 21. Rev. Dr. Wm. Fitzgerald, Bishop of Ross, 70.
Rev. Chas. A. Row, prebendary of St. Paul's, 80.
16. Professor Crookes, at the Imperial Institute, on
the Diamond Mives of Kimberley 17. Mr. Artbur Balfour, at Roch lale, on the Posi
tion of Political Parties. Lord George Hamilton, at Chiswick, oa the
Indian Famine. 19. Mr. Artbur Balfour, at Sheffield, on British
Manufactures ; and at Edinburgh, on Athletics
in Education. Loru Dudley, at Birmingham, on the Education
Bill. Mr. G. W. Russell, at Manchester, on Armenia. 20. Mr. Bayard, at Burnley, on the Boods of Union
between Great Britain and the United States. Lord Cranborne, before the United Club, on the
Education Question. 21. Lord Carrington, at Southport, on the Proceed
ings of the Welsh Land Commission. 23. The Archbishop-Desigrate of Canterbury, at
Bethnal Green, on Church Reforms.
Kettering, on Religious Instruction.
on Exploratious in Uganda and Unyoro.
Institute, ou Rubies in the British Empiie. 21. Mr. Asquitb, at Leicester, on the Liberal Pro.
Chamberlaiu's recent speech.
Settlement, and on the Education Question.
Military Forces of the British Colonies.
of his Position as to Exciseable Liquors. 25. Mr. Ritchie, at Croydon, on Our External Trade.
Mr. Alfred Austin, at Ashford, on Patriotism.
Work of the Government. 26. Lord Rosebery, at Edinburgh, on Parliamentary
Sir John Gorst, at Oxford, on the Unemployei. 27. Mr. Walter Long, at Chippenham, on the
Upward Tendency of Agriculture.
Claim. 30. Mr. Ritchie, at Croydon, on the Armenian and
Lord Rayleigh and others at the Royal Society
COMMANDER LIONEL WELLS, R.N. Chief Officer of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade.
(Photograph by lodge, Plymouth.)
Coventry l'atmore, poet and essayist, 73.
Tobago (in London), 54.
Prince Karl Egon of Fürstenburg, 44.
College, 83. 28. Count Moltke Hvitfeldt, Danish Minister in Paris,
8. Mr. Fre leric Harrison, at Newton Hall, Fetter
Lave, on Great Britain and the Armenians, 9. Lord. Salisbury on the Policy of the Present
Government, Lord Wolseley and Mr. Goschen on the Army and Navy, and Mr. Bayard 012 International Dependence, at the Guildhall
Banquet. 10. Mr. John Morley, at Montrose, on Domestic
Affairs and English Foreign Policy.
Geographical Society, on the Jackson-Harms
worth Expedition. Lord Spencer, at Gloucester, on the Governme:it
and the Armenians. Sir Josbua Fitch, at Hampstead, on the Eluca
tional Value of the National Portrait Gallery. Sir Charles Dilke, at Enfield Highway, on the
House" for South Londou. 11. Mr. E. H. Lecky, M.P., at Dublin, on President
ment during the last Session.
aud other Foreign Affairs.
Schools, on Science in the Universities.
Indian Famine. 12. Sir John Giorst, at the Constitutional Club, on
the Education Question. Mr. G. Dixon, at Birmingham, on the Proposals
of the recent Conference at the Church-house. Sir Joshua Fitch, at Skinners' Hall, on Univer
sity Extension Work in London. 13. Sir M. Hicks-Beach, at Bristol, on Parlia
mentary Reform. Mr. Chamberlain, at Birmingham, oa British
Foreign Trade. 14. Sir M. Hicks-Beach, at Bristol, on Ail for
on Military Discipline. 16. Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman, at Duafermline,
on British Publis Opinion and Armenia.
OBITUARY 1. Professor George Lewin, dermatologist, 76. 2. The Rt. Rev. F. R. Wynne, Bishop of Killalue,
69; and also his wife. George Lane-Fox, 80.
Sir Charles Booth, 84. 3. The Ven. II. Maundrell, C.M.S., first Arch
deacon of Southern Japan, 57. 4. Lieut. E. D. Young, author of "Nyassa," 65. 5. Duke William of Wurtemburg, 68.
Rachel, Countess d'Avigdor, 80. 6. Mgr. d'Hulst, 55.
Mrs. William H. Vanderbilt. 7. Felix Delany. 8. Rev. Josiah Viney, 80.
Rer. Wm. Drake, 83.
The Very Rev. Alex. Orme, Dean of Ardagh, 83. 9. Dr. Emil Wilhelm Frommel, German Court
Lieut.-Colonel J. H. Freme, 65. 11. W. S. Mackie, editor of the Leeds Mercury, 54.
Brigade-Surgeon Valesius S. Gouldsbury, 59. 12. Surgeon-Maj r F. Foaker, 86. 13. Major-Gen. George Mein.
Richard Bearis, painter, 72. · Roger Eykyn, 68.
Admiral Sir G. H. Richards, 75.
Rev. W. H. Sewell, Vicar of Yapley. 15. John Noble, General Manager Midland Rail
way, 68. General Sir Robert 0. Bright, 73. 16.-General von Wyttenbach, defender of Palermo
against Garibaldi, 85.
General Percy F. Gardiner, 75. 17. Fredk. Hill, Ex-Assistant Secretary, P. O., 94.
Sir Eimund G. Hornby, 71.
Lord Savile, 78.
Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkius Univer
sity, U.S. A. Died Oct. 27. Major-General John L. Boltou, Royal Artillery,
Church Cathedral, Montreal, 62.
Art Manufactures Company, 80.
to the Sultan. Rev. Dr. William W. Gill, New Sonth Wales, 68.
ANNUS DOMINI 1896. TN the Gallery of Character Sketches, which have holder has been subjected to an impost considerably 1 from the first been one of the leading features of greater and more immediately felt than the taxation that
the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, I have for the most part would be imposed to meet the expenditure of a war. chosen individuals as my subjects. Of the series, of The Chancellor of the Exchequer deals chiefly with the which this is the eighty-fourth, at least eighty have rich; the baker has the poorest by the throat. The taxbeen personages of the day-most of them men. But gatherer levies on the principle that the poor because of there were one or two exceptions. There was a Character their poverty must be exempt... The increase in the Sketch of the Times, and another of the Pall Mall Gazette. price of bread hits the poorest more severely than an On another occasion the Liberal Cabinet formed the income tax of a shilling in the pound. Compared with subject of the Character Sketch. It is therefore no great this sudden rise in the price of the staff of life, all the departure from use and wont if I improve a little upon precedents, and take as my subject this month the Old Year, which will in a fortnight be with us no more.
It will be rather an interesting exercise to individualise the Old Year-to consider him as a person, and to judge him from the standpoint of charitable optimism. There is at least one advantage in such a subject. When William Morris's death was announced on the contents-bills of the evening papers, I overheard one small boy who was selling the papers ask in a tone of blank bewilderment of another of the craft, “ William Morris? Who is William Morris?" No one will need to ask who is the Old Year. He is the personal acquaintance of each of us—has been, indeed, in a very real fashion, a segment of each of our individual existences. He is not exactly an old acquaintance, but he has never left us since he met us, and he will remain with us till the end. We are therefore all in a position to criticise him, each from his own standpoint. To each one of us he has been something different; into that personal particularity, of course, I cannot enter. My task is to endeavour to form some judgment upon the Old Year, and the influence which he has exerted upon the progress of the world.
It would be easy to construct a slashing review of the year which began with war and is ending in famine, and whose conspicuous achievement was at home to demonstrate the paralysis of Parliament, and abroad to prove the impotence of Europe to handcuff the Assassin. But From the Hindi Punch.)
[October 25, 1896. that would be false to the principles of this Gallery; and it would, moreover, be a shortsighted, superficial judg
THE TWO DESTROYING DEMONS OF INDIA. ment. We may not bow with such devotion as Rudyard Kipling before the God of the Things That Are, pre- changes of budgets are trifles, at any rate to the immense ferring to reserve our worship, not for the god of this majority of our people. But this burden, irksome though world, but the God of the world which is to come—a new it may be, is but as the mere shadow cast afar off by the heaven and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteous- famine which broods over unhappy India. ness. But as the two are one, and the Present is the For the third year in succession the crops have failed, antechamber of the Future, we may do well to make the and experienced observers declare that the dearth will be best of the worst of things, for the best that we can the worst India has suffered for fifty years. The Times imagine is not so good as the good of the Divine intent. correspondent gives the following account of the position Cromwell's great saying can never too often be in our in the North-West Provinces and Oudh :minds, especially at times of suffering and loss: “Call The first area, where the greatest failure of crops has not your burden sad or heavy, for if your Heavenly occurred, coverg 25,000 square miles, with a population of Father sent it, He intended it for neither.” And, how 13,000,000. Here the famine may be acute. The second area, ever painful may be the privation or the pressure of the where there has been severe failure, Covers 30,000 square miles, present, they are but as the frost of winter preparing the
with a population of 14,000,000. The third area, where there soil for the birth of spring and the harvest of autumn.
has been considerable failure, covers 25,000 square miles, with
a population of 12,500,000. The divisions worst off are We assuredly need all this philosophy in contemplating
Allahabad, Lucknow, and Faizabad, with the portion of Agra the great and marked mercies-if misfortunes may be so
which is not protected by irrigation. described, since devils are said to be angels with masks
As for the prospects, 14 inches of rain over the provinces which the world owes to the Old Year. In the sudden within the next fortnight would reduce the difficulties by a and rapid increase in the price of bread which has taken half to three-quarters. With no rain until Christmas, but a place all over the world this autumn, the English house- favourable fall at the usual period towards the end of the year,
it is calculated that relief would have been given to 8 or 10 per cent. of the population in the area worst affected, and to 3 or 4 per cent in the less-distressed area. In the event of the failure of the Christmas rains the percentage would be doubled, or even higher than this. Prices would in the event of drought up to the monsoon period in June, rule enormously high, but the Lieutenant-Governor does not apprehend a complete failure of supplies next suminer, as local stocks will be supplemented by importations. A significant sign that famine conditions are beginning to prevail in certain areas is that the prices of fine and coarse grains are closely approximating. At the present moment 250,000 persons are being employed on relief works. In the Punjaub, 9,200; North-West Provinces. 130 100: Central India, 17,300; Rajputana, 26,000; Bengal, 3,400; Burma, 16,600; Bombay, 11,600; Madras, 36,500.
If Asia has been scourged by the land refusing to yielita harvest owing to the heavens denying the fruitful showers, without which the most fertile loam is as barren as alkali, her sister continent has this year suffered from a disaster hardly less appalling. The rinderpest, said to have been introduced into Abyssinia by plague-smitten cattle sent to supply the Italian army with food, found Africa as virgin soil for its ravages. From the mountains of Rasselas it
They numbered their cattle at one million. When the rinderpest left them, 800,000 beasts lay dead on the veldt, and Khama rejoiced that the percentage of mortality was, comparatirely speaking, so low. From Bechuanaland the deadly scourge is travelling to Cape Rech Colony, where it is expected it will eat up the cattle down to the sea. So terrible a visitation, extending over so wide an area, is almost unknown in the annals of Africa. The grievous murrain that smote the herds of Pharaoh was but a parochial epidemic compared with this continental catastrophe.
The year of the Famine in India and Rinderpest in Africa is thus a year of very masked mercy for a very large section of the human race,
But now, turning from these inmense disasters which appal the imagination of man, it will be a pleasanter spectacle to contemplate that which has been accomplished by the Old Year in spheres more directly amenable to the action of men.
I.—THE SOUTH AFRICA TOCSIN. 1895 has in many respects been a good friend to the world and to the men who live therein. If he has played havoc with rinderpest and smitten us with famine, he has afforded more than one signal illustration of the way in which apparent evils can be overruled for good, and that now, as of old, He maketh even the wrath of man to praise Hini.
When 1896 began to live, bis advent was hailed with a salvo of rifle, Maxim, and artillery, which heralded the outbreak of the fighting between Dr. Jameson and the Boers. It was but a few hours before midnight that the first shot of the Raid was fired and the rifles went sputtering their leaden death for several hours into the New Year's morn, nor did they cease firing until the New Ycar was two days old. 1896 might indeed be saluted in Walt Whitman's familiar verse, which he originally addressed to the year 1861: --Year that suddenly sang by the mouths of the round-lipp'J
cannon I repeat you, hurrying, crashing, sad, distracted year.”
Yet the Jameson Raid was but as the percussion cap to the cartridge which it exploded. Intrinsically nothing could be less important than the ride of a handful of men across the undefended border of a sparsely peopled territory such as the Transvaal. It was a mistake, no doubt, but it was only one of a long series of similar mistakes which make up most of the history of the Transvaal. The only difference between it and its predecessors was the fact that in all previous cases the Boers had been the raiders, whereas, on this occasion only, the familiar rôle of Paul Kruger and his men was taken by Dr. Jameson. But the Boers did not like to be fed with the same sauce they had so often served to their neighbours, and as very many of our people persisted in applying to the judgment of frontier raids in South Africa the standard governing long settled countries in Europe, an altogether exaggerated degree of importance has been attached to Dr. Jameson's exploit. It was well meant, and if it had succeeded it would have been condoned even by these who are now loudest in its condemnation; but in itself it would never have received attention or deserred prominent mention in a survey of the Year's history but for its effect on forces lying beyond South Africa. Yet of all the New Year's gifts which 1896 brought in its band, there is probably none for which we have so much cause to be grateful as this same Jameson Raid. In making it,
KILLING INFECTED CATTLE.
began its march southward, eating up as it went ninetenths of the hoofed beasts, wild and tame, of the African Continent. The herds upon which the natives of the interior depend so largely for their sustenance were mown down as the meadow-grass falls before the scythe, only the fringes being spared. Nor does the rinderpest discriminate between the domesticated and the wild cattle. The savage buffalo wallowing in the marsh found no method of escape from the invisible Death Nor were swift-footed antelope able to elude the swifter darts of the deadly archer. Three out of five species of antelope died like rotten sheep. The others, for some cause not yet discovered, seem to be immune. For some time it was hoped that the broad waters of the Zambesi would offer an insuperable barrier to the southerly-marching rinderpest. But the subtle contagion lcapt the mighty river and began its ravages in Rhodesia. It is the fasbion to speak of war as the sum of all evils. The war in Matabeleland was a picnic to the horror of the cattle plague. It is computed that out of 200,000 cattle in Rhodesia it has not left 15,000 alive. The milk, the beef, the leather, and the transport of the country were all destroyed. Faring southward, the rinderpest struck Khama's country, a land which is far richer in beeves than Rhodesia. The Bechuanas and Bimangwato were mighty herd men