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survey of 1896 properly comes to its close, is the con whether as a sign for good or evil, that neither Parliament clusion of a treaty with the United States for the nor Congress either promoted or retarded this rapprochearbitration of the Venezuelan dispute. The year opened ment of the peoples. The mobilisation of the peace gloomily indeed, and to none more gloomily than to forces of each country was effected by extra-parliathose of us who have always refused to consider the mentary action, but however they were put in motion, English-speaking race as other than a unit. To see this the mere appearance of these battalions was sufficient to English-speaking family suddenly threatened with civil convince the rulers that as the nations would not fight, war because of a ridiculous quarrel about some trumpery some settlement must be arrived at. That which has swamps in South America, the location of which was un been come to is a very satisfactory first step towards the known to nine hundred and ninety-nine English-speaking establishment of a permanent Court of Arbitration. The men out of a thousand, was one of those fantastic United States have been gratified by our unreserved nightmares of the devil which can only be conceived acceptance of arbitration, while we on our part have because they have actually existed. No mere artificer of obtained all that we needed and more than we ventured works of imagination could have conceived anything to expect. In the treaty we have succee led in saddling more criminal and insane than the war to which the two the United States with the logical corollary of the foremost nations of the world were even passionately Monroe doctrine, which has always been talked about in

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invited by many men holding pens and having access to the States but seldom acted upon. Uncle Sam will settle public newspapers in the United States. The question his difficulties with John Bull, but John Bull will expect at issue was one that helped us, by its very insig Uncle Sam to foot the bill and collect any award that may nificance, to measure the danger which we incurred be given. This is very good news for John Bull, but by allowing the English-speaking race to continue Uncle Sam will probably find that the bargain of which any longer without a permanent apparatus, in the he is so proud may be very inconvenient. That is shape of a Court of Arbitration, for the purpose of the first gain. There is another almost as important. settling its disputes. But if this was one gain, The Americans have denounced the doctrine of what another which was hardly less important was the they call “squatter sovereignty,” by which it was demonstration which the year afforded us that the contended that it was possible to establish political forces making for peace are capable of mobilisation rights over any territory by the simple process of goin: almost as rapidly as those making for war. In both and living in it and recognising a different political countries, as soon as the peril was perceived, the sober control from that of the State within whose boundaries second thoughts of the peaceful, sensible, religious com you have established yourself. This doctrine has munity asserted themselves. Committees were formed in now found its way into international law, or at any both countries to which the representatives of all that is rate, Anglo-American law, for by the treaty which closes best and most influential in the social and religious life this controversy, fifty years of uninterrupted occupan(y of the land gave in their adherence. It is notable, gives a proscriptive right to the territory in the districts

in dispute. If British subjects have occupied the land for fifty years without recognising the Venezuelan Government, or being in any way molested by the actual exercise of its sovereignty, that territory upon which they live will not be submitted to arbitration, but will be regarded as part and parcel of the British Empire. The recognition of the principle of fifty years' prescription is a gain, the importance of which can only be appreciated, by those who have been familiar with the difficulties confronting those who have urged that all disputes should be referred to arbitration.

Thus 1896 has brought us good things. It has been a year that began with war and has seen much fighting; but, substantially, it has advanced us far on the road towards an Anglo-American Union and the proba

still remains a magnet to lure the adventurous explorers of all nations into the jaws of death and into the mouth of a hell whose heat burns frore.

At home the removal of the legislative restrictions which have herotofore barred the introduction of motor carriages on public highways has encouraged expectations and stimulated invention, for the fruit of which we shall have to wait until 1897. The passage of the Light Railways Act, which was one of the legislative fruits of a somewhat barren session, also indicates a belief that the facilitation of intercourse will tend to the multiplication of business. Towards the close of the year the heart of the British farmer was cheered by the sudden rise in the price of wheat, though the increased charge this rise entailed in the bakers' bills of the nation far exceeded

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EDIFICATION From the Chicago Times-llerald.]



bility of federated action, not only among Englishspeaking peoples, but even in the United States of Europe.

In literature, 1896 will not rank among the great years of history. In popular science it is chiefly famous on account of the discovery of the X rays. essor Röntgen may or may not have laid the foundation for a revolution in surgical practice, but he has certainly rendered yeoman service in familiarising the public mind with the idea which all previous teaching had failed to do, that there is no reason in the nature of things why we should not be able to see through opaque substances. The X ray has not merely revealed the bones of the hand, it has rendered thinkable to many persons much that has hitherto been regarded as the wild fantasies of occultists.

In travel the honour of the year belongs to Dr. Nansea, who, with his little ship, the Fram, has come nearer reaching the North Pole than any person before him. But he failed in achieving his great quest, so that the Polo

the benefit which accrued to the farmer, for only a fractional part of our daily bread is produced at home. The obituary of the year has contained some notable

The sudden demise of the Archbishop of Canterbury has removed one who has long been one of the most familiar figures, and generally one of the most respected Churchmen of our time. 1896 has been a sore year for the Academy, for it is without precedent that the same twelve months should see the death of two presidents in such quick succession. Lord Leighton was succeeded by Sir John Millais, who in his turn made way for Sir E. Poynter before he had even an opportunity of officiating at the annual function of the body over which he had been called to preside.

In literature we have lost two poets, Mr. William Morris and Mr. Coventry Patmore. In fiction Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, who had long since ceased to write, has gone, leaving her sister as the only survivor of a very celebrated family.

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A NEW BIBLE FOR THE PEOPLE; the “Polychrome Bible," a most interesting account of Or, THE HIGHER CRITICISM IN POLYCHROME.

which is published in the American Review of Reviews

for December. Fifty years ago the ordinary belief of the ordinary

PROFESSOR HAUPT AND HIS WORK. man in Christendom was that the world had been created

This article, written by Mr. Clifton Harby Leavy, in six days about six thousand years ago. Even to-day

entitled “Professor Haupt and the Polychrome Bible," there are millions of good people who regard any sug

describes an attempt, which will probably be a brilliantly gestion that the process of creation was a much more

successful attempt, to display the results of the Higher continuous, elaborate, and at once ancient and modern

Criticism of the Scripture texts by the aid of colour. affair than was implied by the legend in Genesis, as

Mr. Leavy says:savouring of infidelity.

Six years ago the plan of the “Polychrome” Bible was first

announced, although some years must have been consumed in THE SCIENTIFIC GENESIS OF THE WORLD

perfecting that plan. The originator of the idea, we might In face of the story of the rocks, and the evidence

call him the general of the scholarly forces, was Professor Paui afforded on every page of the book of Nature, there is no Haupt of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Professor room for doubt that the world is a much more composite Haupt was but thirty-two years of age then, but to the

scholarly world appeared to be much older, for he had already affair, and one infinitely more marvellous, or if you like

accomplished a very large amount of research covering a very miraculous, than the globe which was supposed to have broad field of endeavour. No matter when the thought took been turned out spick and span, finished in every detail shape and form, it was an answer to a crying necessity felt in as the result of six days' handiwork of the Divine Artificer. two quarters. The “ King James' Version " is three hundred

years old, filled with mistranslations, obsolete words and Between the publication of the “ Vestiges of Creation

incomprehensible Hebraisms. The “Revised Version " lately and the present day there lies a great battlefield covered

procluced, has not removed these obstacles, controlled as it was with indefensible positions once occupied by the retreat- by English conservatism. The cry has gone up from all sides ing force of the champions of verbal inspiration, out of for a Bible that we can understand” without dictionary and which they have been turned, not so much by any direct

glossary. The new version was designed, primarily, to meet

this reasonable demand. attack as by the gradual increase of our knowledge of the

There was another cry, equally insistent, if not so general, world. This increase, day by day, has rendered the

for an understanding of the critical theories about the Bible: stronghold, so passionately defended by good men and “What are the critics trying to do?" And the “ Polychrome better women in the last fifty years, as untenable as the

Bible” seeks to answer this question fully and fairly. tide renders the sand castles of our childhood. The

A NEW TRANSLATION OF A NEW TEXT. dismayed and discomfited defenders, driven back before Believing that the Bible is the greatest and grandest the flowing tide, find to their amazement that, after all, literature known to man, they feel that it should all the more their faith in the living God and in the divine mission of

be cleared of all stupid accretions and presented in its pristine Christ survives the loss of all the outworks which they

clearness and beauty. We have happily passed that age in at one time believed to be indispensable for the main

which it was believed that good will alone was sufficient for tenance of faith in the invisible and eternal.

interpreting the Bible.... The general editor wished to present this summary in such a shape that “ he who runs may read."

It would be invaluable to the scholar, but it must also be For some time past, the educated world has been

intelligible to the ordinary reader of but little culture. To passing through a similar period of trial in relation to

this end he devised a special plan of publication, remarkable

for simplicity and effectiveness. Since the time and copilitions the Bible itself. That battle which is usually described

of composition bear so important a relation to these writings. as raging around the results of the Higher Criticism of forming their actual background, he determined to indicate the Biblical text is now pretty well fought out with the the various periods and authors by printing the text and the same result as that of its predecessor. The learned translation upon backgrounds of different colours. Hence the world has come to the same conclusion about the Bible name Polychrome, many coloured. As his coadjutors, Professor as the geologist fifty years ago arrived at about the Haupt selected the leading scholars of the world, many of world. Instead of the Bible being divinely inspired in

whom had devoted their lives to the special study of certain every detail and the nished work of Infinite Wisdom,

books, which were, of course, assigned to them. as it has been held to be by many preceding generations,

DR. HAUPT'S COADJUTORS. it is now declared that the Bible itself, as we have it, is as

Among Professor Haupt's coadjutors in England are much a growth as the world which it interprets. As there Canon Driver, Dr. George A. Smith, Dr. Paterson, the is evidence of a long series of periods during which the Rev. C. J. Balí, Professor Cheyne, and others. Mr. Leary world was slowly being fashioned into a place fit for the

then gives the following account of the way in which the habitation of man, so the variety of texts in the Sacred Polychrome Bible will be printed :Writings show a not less stratified formation which can be distinctly perceived by modern scholarship. Hitherto,

The entire work will probably be completed within two at

three years, affording much food for thought and broadenin. however, the knowledge of this discovery has been our conception of the Bible not a little. Each book is separate confined to the cultured few. The great masses of the and distinct, accompanied by all needed explanations of colours millions of mankind, who attend church on Sunday have and text, so that each may be read leisurely as it is issned. never appreciated the extent, much less the significance, of The historical and literary introductions prefaced to cach buuk this discovery. But that period of ignorance is about to form a most valuable aid to its comprehension. pass, and the Book which will act as a revelation of the new basis on which the theory of inspiration must rest is A cursory glance at the parts issued will afford us some idea




of the mole of presentation. The dates are, of course, before scholarly, throwing new light upon much that was hitherto the present era, and the colours in brackets indicate the colour obscure. Each speech or poem has an appropriate healing of the background, as explained : In Genesis the most ancient and the date of its composition, as nearly as can be deterdocument is the “ Prophetic Narrative" (purple, 610), made up of mined. It is indeed a masterpiece. the Judaic document composed (850) iu tlie Southern Kingdom, and the Ephraimitic [650] composed in the Northern Kingdom. The older strata of the Judaic [dark red], the later strata (light

WHY FRANCE DWINDLES. red), and the Ephraimitic [blue] form the greater part of the PERHAPS the most valuable paper in the Westminster text. These are supplemented by the expansions of the writer Review, for December, is Mr. Stoddard Dewey's on the of Deuteronomy (green, 560-540), with the Priestly Code [plain, depopulation of France. He reviews M. Edmond 500], its later additions (brown) and extracts from a still later Deschaumes' “ Bankruptcy of Love.” M. Yves Guyot Midrash, or popular expansion (orange). So, seven different

“estimates roughly that one-fifth of the families of France clements are found in the first book of the Bible, not to mention

have no children, and that this state of things is regularly glosses (relegated to the foot-notes) and editorial additions. In Leriticus we find only the Priestly Code [plain) as the

against the will of the parties concerned”; but the basis, with some later strata (brown) and the Book of Holiness

writer approves M. Deschaumes' conviction that the (yellow, 570), so called from its care for ceremonialism.

gradual depopulation of their country is due to the Joshua is considered as belonging to the Pentateuch, thus

deliberate refusal of French men and women to become giving us a Hexateuch, or six books compiled from the samo parents. Among causez leading to this unwillingness are documents. The same colours appear as in Genesis.

mentioned (1.) the legal difficulties in the way of marIn Samuel the primary document is the old Judaic (plain). riage which are so numerous in France; (2.) the social with later additions (light red), as well as the old Ephrai- tradition which makes a dowry necessary to a daughter's mitic (dark blue, 750) and its later accretions (light blue). marriage, and gives preference to a son's career These were combined by some editor [650], who made certain

a daughter's dowry; (3.) the barrack lise, during the additions (light purple). There are also traces of the Deuteronomist [light green], and still later additions by a second

natural pairing-time, which teaches the soldier to do editor (414, yellow). Extracts from a late Midrash (orange]

without a wife, and to practise nameless vices, whence and the songs (light orange] complete its various elements.

sterility ensues; (4.) corsets and want of exercise which The work of the “ Chronicler" appears uncoloured in

make maternity fearfully dangerous; and (5.) the senso Chronicles, but he utilises some ancient sources not extant in of duty which makes provision for a child for life an the Old Testament (dark red], together with parts of the Old obligation. Where this is not seen to be possible, Testament (light red]. Later additions appear (dark blue], children are not born. Increase of taxation has made together with the latest sections [light blue].

this possibility more remote. What is wanted is a The “ Chronicler,” too, has given us much of Ezra-Vehemiah change in the laws, fiscal, military, and civil, which will [plain, 300], to which earlier (dark green] and later [light check the voluntary diminution of the number of births. green) additions have been made. The bases of the book are

The spectacle of an entire nation, by collective legislathe “ Memoirs of Ezra" [dark blue, 425) with some modifica

tion and individual volition, deliberately resolving to tions (light blue], and the “ Memoirs of Nehemiah " (dark red, 425) with certain modifications (light red). Other documents

dwindle away is one of the tragic paradoxes of modern

times. of their time (dark purple, 130-410] have also been utilized,

Yet if the decay be still under control of the together with some later additions, as well as an Aramaic

individual and collective will, there is hope of a change; document (yellow, 450].

and Mr. Dewey concludes with a strange speculation as In Daniel the background is left plain, the Hebrew portions to the salvation which the working classes may yet bring being printed in black ink, the Aramaic in red.

to France : In Psalms the leadings are in red ink, and the text in Much that has been said applies only to the middle classes. black.

The census already shows that it is mainly the working men In Job the device of coloured backgrounds is again necessary. -the labourers for days' wages-who are propagating the The genuine utterances of Job form the greater part of the French race. Here is a new problem in Democracy. The text, but parallel compositions [blue] are found, besides some French working man is least affected by bourgeois traditions ; polemical interpolations (green) directed against the tendency yet, as by sheer force of multiplication he pushes his way up, of the poem, and other interpolations [red] conforming Job's he becomes middle-class himself-il s'embourgeoise. Will doctrines to the orthodox idea of retribution. The speeches of

Democracy, then, by breaking down the traditions which aro Elihu (Ch. 32-37) appear as an appendix to the book.

striking at the race's life, bring a remedy to this curious Jeremiah realizes in its arrangement, the dream of many national disease ? . If the working classes, as the fittest to Bible students who have hoped for a proper arrangement of survive, finally transform France, it is possible that the that Prophet's discourses in chronological order.

For no

natural struggle for national existence has still undreamed-of greater havoc has ever been made of sense and consistency solutions to our political problems. than the jumble of the prophetic speeches as set down in the nccepted versions. The book is divided into three sections,

It may be added, that when vice and selfishness and the first containing Jeremiah's discourses delivered during a

artificial life refuse to propagate their species, and ministry of twenty-three years. The second comprises a

parentage is only assumed by the morally fit, the perfectcollection of the biographical chapters concerning Jeremiah's

ibility of the race will soon pass out of the region of life. Finally, some sections written by neither Jeremiah nor conjecture into that of ascertained fact. his biographer. Read in this order the personality and power of the Prophet come to us almost like a new revelation.

“SOME Natural Artillery” is the title of a pleasant But it is in the Book of Isaiah (advance sheets of which little study by Rev. Theo. Wood in the Sunday Magazine. have been kindly submitted) that we appreciate fully the

The Japanese fish known as the beaked Chaetodon shoots importance and utility of this critical edition. It may be said to be the crowning work of Professor Cheyne's life-long

drops of water on insects out of reach, and so brings them devotion to the study of this single great book. For the last

into the water, where they form an easy prey. The thirty years he has been udying Isaiah, and has published

Archer-fish similarly projects its watery missile at an three exhaustive books upon the subject. It may be stated,

object three or four feet distant. The bombardier beetle without exaggeration, that it would be impossible to find any discharges from the rear a puff of bluish-white smoke, other man so vell titted as he for this task, and the result a spray of pungent and acrid liquiil, accompanied with proves it.

For it is discriininating, careful, exact anil a detonation.

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