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survey of 1896 properly comes to its close, is the con whether as a sign for good or evil, that neither Parliament clusion of a treaty with the United States for the nor Congress either promoted or retarded this rapprochearbitration of the Venezuelan dispute. The year opened ment of the peoples. The mobilisation of the peace gloomily indeed, and to none more gloomily than to forces of each country was effected by extra-parliathose of us who have always refused to consider the mentary action, but however they were put in motion, English-speaking race as other than a unit. To see this the mere appearance of these battalions was sufficient to English-speaking family suddenly threatened with civil convince the rulers that as the nations would not fight, war because of a ridiculous quarrel about some trumpery some settlement must be arrived at. That which has swamps in South America, the location of which was un been come to is a very satisfactory first step towards the known to nine hundred and ninety-nine English-speaking establishment of a permanent Court of Arbitration. The men out of a thousand, was one of those fantastic United States have been gratified by our unreserved nightmares of the devil which can only be conceived acceptance of arbitration, while we on our part have because they have actually existed. No mere artificer of obtained all that we needed and more than we ventured works of imagination could have conceived anything to expect. In the treaty we have succee led in saddling more criminal and insane than the war to which the two the United States with the logical corollary of the foremost nations of the world were even passionately Monroe doctrine, which has always been talked about in
invited by many men holding pens and having access to the States but seldom acted upon. Uncle Sam will settle public newspapers in the United States. The question his difficulties with John Bull, but John Bull will expect at issue was one that helped us, by its very insig Uncle Sam to foot the bill and collect any award that may nificance, to measure the danger which we incurred be given. This is very good news for John Bull, but by allowing the English-speaking race to continue Uncle Sam will probably find that the bargain of which any longer without a permanent apparatus, in the he is so proud may be very inconvenient. That is shape of a Court of Arbitration, for the purpose of the first gain. There is another almost as important. settling its disputes. But if this was one gain, The Americans have denounced the doctrine of what another which was hardly less important was the they call “squatter sovereignty,” by which it was demonstration which the year afforded us that the contended that it was possible to establish political forces making for peace are capable of mobilisation rights over any territory by the simple process of goin: almost as rapidly as those making for war. In both and living in it and recognising a different political countries, as soon as the peril was perceived, the sober control from that of the State within whose boundaries second thoughts of the peaceful, sensible, religious com you have established yourself. This doctrine has munity asserted themselves. Committees were formed in now found its way into international law, or at any both countries to which the representatives of all that is rate, Anglo-American law, for by the treaty which closes best and most influential in the social and religious life this controversy, fifty years of uninterrupted occupan(y of the land gave in their adherence. It is notable, gives a proscriptive right to the territory in the districts
in dispute. If British subjects have occupied the land for fifty years without recognising the Venezuelan Government, or being in any way molested by the actual exercise of its sovereignty, that territory upon which they live will not be submitted to arbitration, but will be regarded as part and parcel of the British Empire. The recognition of the principle of fifty years' prescription is a gain, the importance of which can only be appreciated, by those who have been familiar with the difficulties confronting those who have urged that all disputes should be referred to arbitration.
Thus 1896 has brought us good things. It has been a year that began with war and has seen much fighting; but, substantially, it has advanced us far on the road towards an Anglo-American Union and the proba
THE HISTORY OF THE VENEZUELAN DISPUTE.
bility of federated action, not only among Englishspeaking peoples, but even in the United States of Europe.
In literature, 1896 will not rank among the great years of history. In popular science it is chiefly famous 0:2 account of the discovery of the X rays. Professor Röntgen may or may not have laid the foundation for a revolution in surgical practice, but he has certainly rendered yeoman service in familiarising the public minil with the idea which all previous teaching had failed to do, that there is no reason in the nature of things why we should not be able to see through opaque substances. The X ray has not merely revealed the bones of the hand, it has rendered thinkable to many persons much that has hitherto been regarded as the wild fantasies of occultists.
In travel the honour of the year belongs to Dr. Nanse:1, who, with his little ship, the Fram, has come nearer reaching the North Pole than any person before him. But he failed in achieving his great quest, so that the Polo
still remains a magnet to lure the adventurous explorers of all nations into the jaws of death and into the mouth of a hell whose heat burns frore.
At home the removal of the legislative restrictions which have herotofore barred the introduction of motor carriages on public highways has encouraged expectations and stimulated invention, for the fruit of which we shall have to wait until 1897. The passage of the Light Railways Act, which was one of the legislative fruits of a somewhat barren session, also indicates a belief that the facilitation of intercourse will tend to the multiplication of business. Towards the close of the year the heart of the British farmer was cheered by the sudden rise in the price of wheat, though the increased charge this rise entailed in the bakers' bills of the nation far exceeded
the benefit which accrued to the farmer, for only a fractional part of our daily bread is produced at home. The obituary of the year has contained some notable
The sudden demise of the Archbishop of Canterbury has removed one who has long been one of the most familiar figures, and generally one of the most respectel Churchmen of our time. 1896 has been a sore year for the Academy, for it is without precedent that the same twelve months should see the death of two presidents in such quick succession, Lord Leighton was succeeded by Sir John Millais, who in his turn made way for Sir E. Poynter before he had even an opportunity of officiating at the annual function of the body over which he had been called to preside.
In literature we have lost two poets, Mr. William Morris and Mr. Coventry Patmore. In fiction Mrs Harriet Beecher Stowe, who had long since ceased to write, has gone, leaving her sister as the only survivor of a very celebrated family.
LEADING ARTICLES IN THE REVIEWS
A NEW BIBLE FOR THE PEOPLE;
OR, THE HIGHER CRITICISM IN POLYCHROME. Fifty years ago the ordinary belief of the ordinary man in Christendom was that the world had been created in six days about six thousand years ago. Even to-day there are millions of good people who regard any suggestion that the process of creation was a much more continuous, elaborate, and at once ancient and modern affair than was implied by the legend in Genesis, as savouring of infidelity.
THE SCIENTIFIC GENESIS OF THE WORLD In face of the story of the rocks, and the evidence afforded on every page of the book of Nature, there is no room for doubt that the world is a much more composite affair, and one infinitely more marvellous, or if you like miraculous, than the globe which was supposed to have been turned out spick and span, finished in every detail as the result of six days' handiwork of the Divine Artificer. Between the publication of the “ Vestiges of Creation" and the present day there lies a great battlefield covered with indefensible positions once occupied by the retreating force of the champions of verbal inspiration, out of which they have been turned, not so much by any direct attack as by the gradual increase of our knowledge of the world. This increase, day by day, has rendered the stronghold, so passionately defended by good men and better women in the last fifty years, as untenable as the tide renders the sand castles of our childhood. The dismayed and discomfited defenders, driven back before the flowing tide, find to their amazement that, after all, their faith in the living God and in the divine mission of Christ survives the loss of all the outworks which they at one time believed to be indispensable for the maintenance of faith in the invisible and eternal.
AND OF GENESIS ITSELF. For some time past, the educated world has been passing through a similar period of trial in relation to the Bible itself. That battle which is usually described as raging around the results of the Higher Criticism of the Biblical text is now pretty well fought out with the same result as that of its predecessor. The learned world has come to the same conclusion about the Bible as the geologist fifty years ago arrived at about the world. Instead of the Bible being divinely inspired in every detail and the finished work of Infinite Wisdom, as it has been held to be by many preceding generations, it is now declared that the Bible itself, as we have it, is as much a growth as the world which it interprets. As there is evidence of a long series of periods during which the world was slowly being fashioned into a place fit for the habitation of man, so the variety of texts in the Sacred Writings show a not less stratified formation which can be distinctly perceived by modern scholarship. Hitherto, however, the knowledge of this discovery has been confined to the cultured few. The great masses of the millions of mankind, who attend church on Sunday have never appreciated the extent, much less the significance, of this discovery. But that period of ignorance is about to pass, and the Book which will act as a revelation of the new basis on which the theory of inspiration must rest is
the “Polychrome Bible," a most interesting account of which is published in the American Review of Reviews for December.
PROFESSOR HAUPT AND HIS WORK. This article, written by Mr. Clifton Harby Leats, entitled “Professor Haupt and the Polychrome Bible, describes an attempt, which will probably be a brilliantly successful attempt, to display the results of the Hizter Criticism of the Scripture texts by the aid of colour. Mr. Leavy says:
Six years ago the plan of the “Polychrome" Bible was first announced, although some years must have been consumed in perfecting that plan. The originator of the idea, we might call him the general of the scholarly forces, was Professor Paul Haupt of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Professur Haupt was but thirty-two years of age then, but to the scholarly world appeared to be inuch older, for he had already accomplished a very large amount of research covering a very broad field of endeavour. No matter when the thought took shape and form, it was an answer to a crying necessity felt in two quarters. The “ King James' Version " is three hundred years old, filled with mistranslations, obsolete words an! incomprehensible Hebraisms. The “Revised Version" lately produced, has not removed these obstacles, controlled as it is by English conservatism. The cry has gone up from all sides for a “Bible that we can understand” without dictionary and glossary. The new version was designed, primarily, to mezi this reasonable demand.
There was another cry, equally insistent, if not so general, for an understanding of the critical theories about the Bible : "What are the critics trying to do?” And the “Polychrome Bible" seeks to answer this question fully and fairly.
A NEW TRANSLATION OF A NEW TEXT.
Believing that the Bible is the greatest and grandest literature known to man, they feel that it should all the meat be cleared of all stupid accretions and presented in its pristine clearness and beauty. We have happily passed that age in which it was believed that good will alone was sufficient for interpreting the Bible.... The general editor wished to present this summary in such a shape that "he who runs may read." It would be invaluable to the scholar, but it must also be intelligible to the ordinary reader of but little culture. To this end he devised a special plan of publication, remarkable for simplicity and effectiveness. Since the time and con liticos of composition bear so important a relation to these writings, forming their actual background, he determined to indicate the various periods and authors by printing the test and the translation upon backgrounds of different colours. Hence the name Polychrome, many coloured. As his coadjutors, Professor Haupt selected the leading scholars of the world, many
ai whom had devoted their lives to the special study of certain books, which were, of course, assigned to them.
DR. HAUPT'S COADJUTORS. Among Professor Haupt’s coadjutors in England are Canon Driver, Dr. George A. Smith, Dr. Paterson, the Rev. C. J. Ball, Professor Cheyne, and others. Mr. Leart then gives the following account of the way in which the Polychrome Bible will be printed :
The entire work will probably be completed within two ct three years, affording much food for thought and broadenn. our conception of the Bible not a little. Each book is separate and distinct, accompanied by all needed explanations of culver and text, so that each may be read leisurely as it is issued. The historical and literary introductions prefaced to cach book form a most valuable aid to its comprehension.
HOW THE COLORS ARE USED.
A cursory glance at the parts issued will afford us some ides
of the mole of presentation. The dates are, of course, before scholarly, throwing new light upon much that was hitherto the present era, and the colours in bra kets indicate the colour obscure. Each speech or poem has an appropriate heading of the background, as explained : In Genesis the most ancient and the date of its composition, as nearly as can be deterdocument is the “ Prophetic Narrative” (purple, 610), made up of wined. It is indeed a masterpiece. the Judaic document composed (850) in the Southern Kingdom, nnd the Ephraimitic (650) composed in the Northern Kingdom.
WHY FRANCE DWINDLES. The older strata of the Judaic [dark red], the later strata (light red], and the Ephraimitic (blue) form the greater part of the PERHAPS the most valuable paper in the Westminster text. These are supplemented by the expansions of the writer Review, for December, is Mr. Stoddard Dewey's on the of Deuteronomy (green, 560-510], with the Priestly Code (plain, depopulation of France. He reviews M. Edmond 500], its later additions [brown] and extracts from a still later Deschaumes' “ Bankruptcy of Love." M. Yves Guyot Midrash, or popular expansion (orange). So, seven different
"estimates roughly that one-fifth of the families of France elements are found in the first book of the Bible, not to mention
have no children, and that this state of things is regularly glosses (relegated to the foot-notes) and editorial additions. In Leviticus we find only the Priestly Code [plain] as the
against the will of the parties concerned ”; but the basis, with some later strata (brown) and the Book of Holiness
writer approves M. Deschaumes' conviction that the (yellow, 570), so called from its care for ceremonialism.
gradual depopulation of their country is due to the Joshua is considered as belonging to the Pentateuch, thus
deliberate refusal of French men and women to become giving us a Hexateuch, or six books compiled from the same parents. Among causes leading to this unwillingness are documents. The same colours appear as in Genesis.
mentioned (1.) the legal difficulties in the way of marIn Samuel the primary document is the old Judaic [plaiv). riage which are so numerous in France; (2.) the social with later additions (light red), as well as the old Ephrai tradition which makes a dowry necessary to a daughter's mitic [ilərk blue, 750) and its later accretions (light blue). marriage, and gives preference to a son's career These were combined by some editor , who made certain
a daughter's dowry; (3.) the barrack life, during the additions (light purple). There are also traces of the Deuterononist (light green], and still later additions by a second
natural pairing-time, which teaches the soldier to do editor (414, yellow). Extracts from a late Midrash (orange]
without a wife, and to practise nameless vices, whence and the songs (light orange] complete its various elements.
sterility ensues; (4.) corsets and want of exercise which The work of the Chronicler" appears uncoloured in
make maternity fearfully dangerous; and (5.) the sense Chronicles, but he utilises some ancient sources not extant in of duty which makes provision for a child for life an the Old Testament [dark red], together with parts of the Old obligation. Where this is not seen to be possible, Testament (light red). Later additions appear (dark blue}, children are not born. Increase of taxation has made together with the latest sections (light blue].
this possibility more remote. What is wanted is a The “ Chronicler,” too, has given us much of Ezra Nehemiah change in the laws, fiscal, military, and civil, which will [plain, 300), to which earlier (Dark green) and later [liglit check the voluntary diminution of the number of births. green] additions have been made. The bases of the book are
The spectacle of an entire nation, by collective legislathe “ Memoirs of Ezra" (dark blue, 425) with some modifica
tion and individual volition, deliberately resolving to tions (light blue], and the “Memoirs of Nehemiah ” [dark red, 425) with certain modifications (light red]. Other documents
dwindle away is one of the tragic paradoxes of modern of their time [dark purple, 4311-410] have also been utilized,
times. Yet if the decay be still under control of the together with some later additions, as well as an Aramaic
individual and collective will, there is hope of a change; document (yellow, 450].
and Mr. Dewey concludes with a strange speculation as In Daniel the background is left plain, the Hebrew portions to the salvation which the working classes may yet bring being printed in black ink, the Aramaic in red.
to France : In Psalms the headings are in red ink, and the text in Much that has been said applies only to the midille classes. black.
The census already shows that it is mainly the working men In Joy the device of coloured backgrounds is again necessary. -the labourers for days' wages-who are propagating the The genuine utterances of Job form the greater part of the French race. Here is a new problem in Democracy. The text, but parallel compositions (blue) are found, besides some French working man is least affected by bourgeois traditions ; polemical interpolations (green) directed against the tendency yet, as by sheer force of multiplication he pushes his way up; of the poem, and other interpolations (red) conforming Job's he becomes middle-class himself-il s'embourgeoise. Will doctrines to the orthodox idea of retribution. The speeches of
Democracy, then, by breaking down the traditions which aro Elihu (Ch. 32-37) appear as an appendix to the book.
striking at the race's life, bring a remedy to this curious Jeremiah realizes in its arrangement, the dream of many national disease ? · If the working classes, as the fittest to Bible students who have hoped for a proper arrangement of survive, finally transform France, it is possible that the that Prophet's discourses in chronological order.
natural struggle for national existence has still undreamed-of greater havoc has ever been made of sense and consistency solutions to our political problems. than the jumble of the prophetic speeches as set down in the accepted versions. The book is divided into three sections,
It may be added, that when vice and selfishness and the first containing Jeremiah's discourses delivered during a
artificial life refuse to propagate their species, and ministry of twenty-three years. The second comprises a
parentage is only assumed by the morally fit, the perfectcollection of the biographical chapters concerning Jeremiah's ibility of the race will soon pass out of the region of life. Finally, some sections written by neither Jeremiah nor conjecture into that of ascertained fact. his biographer. Read in this order the personality and power of the Prophet come tv us almost like a new revelation.
“SOME Natural Artillery” is the title of a pleasant But it is in the Book of Isaiah (advance sheets of which little study by Rev. Theo. Wood in the Sunday Magazine, have been kindly submitted) that we appreciate fully the
The Japanese fish known as the beaked Chaetodon shoots importance and utility of this critical edition. It may be said to be the crowning work of Professor Cheyne's life-long
drops of water on insects out of reach, and so brings them devotion to the study of this single great book. For the last
into the water, where they form an easy prey. The thirty years he has been studying Isaiab, and has published
Archer-fish similarly projects its watery missile at an three exhaustive books upon the subject. It may be stated,
object three or four feet distant. The bombardier beetle without exaggeration, that it would be impossible to find any
discharges from the rear a puff of bluish-white smoke, other man so vell fitted as he for this task, and the result a spray of pungent and acrid liquiil, accompanied with proves it. For it is discriminating, careful, exact and a detonation.