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STORIES ABOUT PAUL KRUGER. Mr. Bigelow contributes to Ilarper's Jagazine for December an extremely interesting although somewhat fanciful picture of President Kruger. He tells us that Oom Paul resembles a cow when in repose, but a lion when he is roused. If you wish to know what he is like we have to make a composite portrait of Abraham Lincoln and Oliver Cromwell with a fragment of John Bright about the eyes, and Benjamin Franklin's mouth. Then Mr. Bigelow proceeds to spin many interesting yarns concerning the prowess of Paul Kruger in his early days. He says he has received them pirtly from Paul Kruger himself, partly from Dr. Leyds, and very largely from intimates who were authorised to tell what they knew. Kruger, it seems, has rather a small head and high shoulders, but he stands six foot high, and has remarkably long legs, which he used to be able to use better than any other man of his time.

HOW KRUGER RACED HORSES AND KAFFIRS. For instance, here is the story I have from an eye-witness, just as he told it: “It is also a fact that the President could run as fast as a horse. I remember once that he haci a dispute with his friend Jacobs, owing to the President stating that he could run as fast as a horse. The result was that the President ran against a horse, with a rider on it, for a length of seven or cight hundred yarıls, and actually outran the horse.” This would seem incredible had I not heard the tale confirmed by Kruger himself, who is most reluctant to speak of his own doings. He must have been about eighteen years old at that time.

On another occasion he ran a foot-race against the pick of the Kaffir chiefs. There were large prizes of good cattle. It was a long whole day's run across country, past certain wellknown landmarks-amongst others his own father's house. Young Kruger scon distinced all his pursuers, and when he reached his father's house he was so far ahead that he went in and had some coffee. His father, however, was so angry at him for running across country without his ritle that he very nearly gave his son a flogging. But he made the_boy take a light rifle with him when he left to finish lis race.

On sped young Kruger, the Kaffir braves toiling after him as well as they could. They threw away their impediments as their muscles weakened; their path became strewn with shields, spears, clubs, and even the bangles they wore on their legs and arms. But, in spite of it all, Paul Kruger kept far ahead of them; and as the day waned he found himself so completely master of the situation that he commenced to look about for an antelope which he might bring into camp by way of replenishing the larder.

He raised his gun to deal the animal a blow, but at this the lion retreatedl, glancing sullenly over his shoulder, until he was about fifty yards away; then, as though by a sudden impulse, the beast broke into a furious gallop and disappeared over the next hill.

Kruger joyfully resumed his race, and, in spite of all that happened, easily carried off the prize from the Kaffir chiefs.

--AND DROWNED A BUFFALO. Kruger was also famous for his skill with the rifle. Indeed, he would have challenged the best of Buffalo Bill's outfit and given a good account of himself. An old friend of Kruger told me, of his own knowledge, that Kruger was once on horseback and chased by an infuriated buffalo. His horse was a good one, but on this occasion had become rather fatiguel, and the buffalo commenced to gain. The unequal chase promised to end disastrously for the horse and its rider, for the buffalo kept gaining, and would soon have his horns in action. Then Kruger performed a feat which his old friend recalled to me with great pride. He turned in his saddle, raised bis rifle, took deliberate aim while his own horse was in full gallop, fired, and the buffalo fell, shot straight through the forehead.

But Kruger himself never lets one suspect that he has done these things; and to look at him in church one would think that he had been trained for the post of deacon or church warden.

Another story equally strange was told me by the same friend. It happened on the same day on which the previous adventure occurred. He had been chasing another buffalo, and his horse had brought him close up to his victim. Suddenly the huge beast put his foot into a hole, and fell head over heels into a wallow. Kruger was on top of it in a moment, horse and rider and buffalo rolling pell-mell in the same big puddle. But Kruger was the first to collect his wits. He sprang at the head of the buffalo, seized both its hords in his hands, and while the beast lay upon its side, twisted its neck so as to force its nose under water; and thus, after a struggle of sheer strength, Kruger killed the buffalo by drowning it. I had heard this story already in Cape Town, but would not believe it until I had the President's corroboration of this extraordinary feat.

Kruger, it seems, was also a famous elephant hunter in those early days, and his' exploits, according to Jr. Bigelow, would have made him worthy to be ranked with the heroes of Fenimore Cooper.

THE DUKE AND THE CATTLE HERDER. The following story, if not true, is at least well invented :-

Sir James Sivewright, the Minister of Public Works in the Cape Colony, told me that he once called upon Kruger with a certain duke, who was by no means conceited, but was somewhat deficient iu diplomatic address. The conversation, as I recall it, ran about as follows. Of course it was conducted by means of an interpreter.

Duke: “Tell the President that I am the Duke of and have come to pay my respects upon him.”

Kruger gives a grunt, signifying welcome.

Duke, after a long pause : "Ah! tell him that I am a member of the English Parliament."

Kruger gives another grunt, and puff's his pipe.

Duke, after a still longer pause: " And-you might tell him that I am-er-a member of the House of Lords-a Lord -you know.”

Kruger puffs as before, and nods liis head, with another grunt.

Duke, after a still more awkward pause, during which his Grace appears to have entertained doubts as to whether he had as yet been sufficiently identitiedl: “Er- it might interest the President to know that I was a Viceroy."

Kruger: "Eh! what's that-a Viceroy ? "

Duke: “Oh, a Viceroy--that is a sort of a King, you kuow.”

Kruger continued puffing in silence for some moments, obviously weary of this form of conversation. Then, turning

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He saw through the tall grass a patch of colour, which male him think that it belonged to a buck taking his ease. He aimed and pulled the trigger; but the gun missed fire : and instead of an antelope, there bounded up a huge lion, who had been disturbed by the sound. The two faced each other, the lion glaring at Kruger, and he returning that glare by the steady gaze of his fearless eyes. The lion retreated a few steps, and Kruger made as many steps forward; then Kruger commenced slowly taking one step backward, followed by a second, and then a third. But the lion followed every move. ment of Kruger, keeping always the same distance. This work was getting to be very wearing, not to say dangerous, particularly so as night was coming on and no sign of relief. Slowly and cautiously Kruger prepared his musket for a second shot. He raised, aimed, and pulled the trigger, but again there was only the snap of the cap, and Kruger saw himself face to face with a lion, and no weapon but the stock of a useless rifle. The last snap of the lock had su infuriated the wild beast that he made a spring into the air and landed close to Kruger's feet--so close, indeed, that the earth was thrown up into his face, and he expected to be in the animal's grasp.

to the interpreter, he said gruffly, “Tell the Englishman that I was a cattle-herder."

This closed the interview.


notice, and returned, telling that they had heard somebody sing:

* Then they came ou the idea that it might have been the President, and they went out again, and found him almost dying of hunger and thirst; even to such an extent that they had to take the water away, lest he should kill himself by drinking too much at a time.”

All this is narrated by the man who was then Kruger's intimate frienıl at Rustenberg. “When we took him with us,” continued the old friend, "he was so weak with hunger, thirst, and fatigue that we could hardly keep him on his horse.

“Ever since then he showed a more special desire for the Bible and religion. He was a changed man altogether. He lived for religion, telling us that the Lord had opened his eyes and showed him everything. His enemies often talked about this sudden change, but he never took any notice. They often made fun of him, but he let everything pass in silence. “ This incident was the turning point in his life."

HOW HE AMPUTATED HIS THUMB, He is a strict member of the Independent Congregational Church. Mr. Bigelow tells many stories of him for which I have no room; but I must mention his account of the famous amputation of his thumb, which seems to have been a much more serious operation than is usually believed. Every one knows that he cut off his thumb, but it was generally believed he did it when he was left by himself on the veldt. The truth is different. When his thumb was shattered by the bursting of his gun, the flesh began to mortify, and the doctor who was called in insisted that it would be necessary to amputate his arm half-way up. To this Kruger objected, on the ground that if he lost his arm he would never be able to handle a gun again. “Then," said the doctor, “I must cut off your left hand.” Kruger objected, whereupon the doctor departed in wrath, saying he would have nothing to do with the case. On hearing this, Kruger got his jack-knife, sharpened it carefully, so that it became as sharp as a razor, and then laid his thumb upon the stone, and cut it off himself at its extreme joint; but to his chagrin the flesh would not heal, so he again laid his hand upon the stone, and this time carefully cut away all the flesh about and above the second joint of the thumb, and this time the flesh healed, and his hand was spared. Much later in life, when he was in Lisbon, he was greatly troubled by an aching tooth. After bearing it for a time he took out his penknife and cut the tooth out of his jaw, Kruger is evidently very tough.

So Mr. Bigelow concludes his paper by comparing Kruger to Ulysses, and Field Marshal Blucher and Andreas Hofer. He alone, says Mr. Bigelow, is equal to the task of holding his singular country together in its present state. non

When Mr. Bigelow met Mr. Paul Kruger he says he embraced him in his great bovian gaze, and wrapped him in clouds of tobacco. His first words were not reassuring.-“ Ask him," said Kruger, “if he is one of those Americans who runs to the English Queen when he gets into trouble.” Mr. Bigelow says that the Boers have such an exaggerated impression of their prowess that they seriously believe that if America had gone to war with England, the United States would have done well to have invoked the protection of the Transvaal Republi.. They no longer speak of making war with England. They refer to such an event as going out to shoot Englishmen as they might go out for antelope and other game. There is no life of President Kruger to be found in the Transvaal, and the President will no longer allow himself to be photographed. Dr. Leyds had in vain endeavoured to secure material for a biography, but to the amazement of every one Oom Paul consented to be "drawn," and the result we have in this paper, which is one of the most interesting in all the December magazines.

A SPORTSMAN FROM HIS YOUTH UP. Little Paul was seven years old when he shot his first big game, and eleven years old when he killed his first lion. His first battle with human beings was waged when he was oniy thirteen. Kruger is descended, not from a Hollander, but from a German, and he spells his name, not Krüger (with two dots), but Krüger. The curious thing is that the English pronounce it rightly while all the Boers pronounce it as if it were written Krieger in German, with the pronunciation of the English " ee. father fired the first shot at the English under Sir Harry Smith at Boomplatz in 1848. When a boy he was full of daring, and helped in building the first church at Rustenberg. He stood on his head at the highest point of the uppermost beam, to the alarm and scandal of the whole community. This, however, was but a small thing in his way, for an old friend declares that he had frequently seen him stand on his head in the saddle holding on to the stirrup-strap with his hands, while the horse was in full gallop. He is a man who writes with difficulty, and who reads very little excepting the Bible. He has a text for every trouble, and he says that no other book but the Bible has ever influenced him. In his own phrase he has no chance to read books. He was always campaigning or fighting lions. Mr. Bigelow asked which he preferred, African lions or British lions ? "No choice,” he said gravely; "they are both bad.” In his seventeenth year he acted as a substitute for the magistrate known as a Field Cornet, and from that time onward he has steadily pressed upwards until he is now at the top of the tree.

HIS CONVERSION. His conversion occurred when he was thirty-two years of age, and the story of it is thus described in the words of an intimate friend :

One time he (Kruger] had a struggle with religion, and became troubled in spirit. Of a night he gave his wife a few chapters to read in the Bible, and then went suddenly away for some days, never coming home. This was about 1857 (when Kruger was therefore thirty-two years old). Some men went out to look for him, and when in the mountains they heard somebody sing, but did not take any special

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CHRISTMAS would scarcely be Christmas to many people without Raphael Tuck and Sons' charming novelties for the season. It is truly a wonderful collection of new patterns which they have sent in for our inspection this year-a collection in the production of which a whole army of artists, engravers, printers, and packers must have been engaged. There are cards and calendars, boxed goods and booklets, toy books and texts, and in every series the same dairty and artistic display. The platino panels, the mezzotint and photogravure portfolios and the collotype leaflets will be amongst the most popular of the cards, but it is impossible to enumerato even the best. Every stationer's shop will be gay with them before these lines are printel.


from Denver the following summary of the cause of the Republican victory :

(1) The fear of avarchy; (2) The “honest” dollar; (3) Thin dread of a financial and commercial catastrophe; () T. belief in approaching prosperity ; (5) The enormous campaign fund expended by Mr. Hapna, the Republican manager, believed to amount to at least £2,000,000 (two millions); (6) The poverty of the Democratic Party exchequer, which from first to last expended about £100,000; (7) The wizlom of the Gold Democrats in throwing practically the whole of their votes for Major McKinley, and ignoring the rather futile candidature of their own nominee, General Palmer. This third Party played a most important part, and probably decided the issue in the critical States.


OBSERVATIONS FROM MANY STANDPOINTS. As miglit be expected the magazines are full of article; concerning the Presidential election. On the whole there is a tendency on the part of the writers in the periodical press to approve the choice of the American people.

1.- DR. ALPERT Shaw's JUDGMENT. I give the first place as usual to the judgment of Dr. Albert Shaw in the American Review of Reviews for December. He almost alone among American editors seems to have preserved the judicial balance. Dr. Shaw says:-

Whatever else was demonstrated by the course of the campaign and the result of the election, there was shown beyond all question the essential conservatism and sagacity of the American people. The pessimists who have been pronouncing universal suffrage a failure, and popular self-government a disappointing experinnent, can tind no confirmation of their views in any fair interpretatios of this last election. Speaking broadly, the whole American people can be better trusted to govern the country honestly, wisely and with patient self-control, than any selected element or section of the people could be trusted.

Even if it were our opinion—which of course our readers know it is not-that a popular verdict in favour of the free coinage of silver would in fact have resulted advantageously for the country, we should novertheless look upon the outcome of the election last month as a magnificent vindication of the capacity of the American people for self-government. No great popular verdict was ever given in a fashion more do liberate, intelligent and untrammelled. The American people simply declared at the polls that they could afford to keep on the hum-drum, safe side. The 7,000,000 men or more who voted for McKinley were not acting under any alictation or dure:s. Whatever moral coercion of employed mnou by employers may have been attempted, it could not have affected the result to any appreciable extent. Nor was this a vote-buying campaign on either side. Never since the war have the voters in so large proportion carried their honest manhood into the campaign, or based their action so wholly upon their sincere convictions. It does not follow in the least that the country is satisfied with all things as they are, or that public opinion would vot favour many judicious reforms. But it is demonstrated, once and for all, that the country will not sanction economic experiments so fundamental in their nature as the free coinage of silver would be under existing circumstances. The verdict is conclusive.

If in view of facts now known the campaign were to be tried over again, it is not likely that the Southern vote which was cast for free silver on November 3rd could bo polled again. In short, although Mr. Bryan carried a large number of States and will have a respectable vote in the Electoral College, the cause he advocated was one that in its very nature could not survive a defeat. Mr. Bryan scems not to have comprehendled this fact, for he has announced bis intention to devote the coming four years to the free-silver propaganda in preparation for the campaign of the year 1900. He will not find it so casy as he imagines to reassemble that army which had enlisteil for ninety days only, and which was dispersed on November 3rd. He will find, for example, that Tammany, ardent as it was in the silver cause for a few brief weeks, can never be rallied again under that bauner. It is a lost cause so far as practical politics is concerned, and the sooner Mr. Bryan discovers that fact the better it will be for his future career, His gists anil aptitudes are varied, and he may yet perform useful service and attain honours worthy of his ambition, if he does not allow a single idea-a fallacious one at that-to take complete possession of his mind.


Mr. Maxse, the editor of the National Review, who crossed the Atlantic in order to be able to follow the fortunes of Mr. Bryan on the spot, sends to his Review

MR. F. H. HARDY writes on the “ Lessons from the
American Election” in the Fortnightly Rerier for
December. The following are his conclusions :-

Three lessons of deep import and wide interest may be drawn from the recent contest.

First, the “masses” in both Europe and America are less poisoned with class hatred than the anarchist or socialist would have us believe.

Second, a great nation over sea has awakened to the fact that national independence must not blind them to the interdependence of nineteenth century commercial life; that they must realise that hurt to one member of the family of nations brings in time injury to all.

Third, that a vote is not prized by the class of citizen best fitted to exercise the franchise, and, as a necessary conse. quence, good citizens must be driven to the polls by a political " machine," controlled by “ professional” politiciaus.

As touching exclusively the life of the Republic, I think the Election has done great good. It has startled the sluggard into a new conception of his duties as a citizen. There is another fruit of this campaign which works for better commercial relations between the two English-speaking nations. And it is simply this. We have found England right, ourselves wrong, on a great economic question. We now see that England's repeated warnings as to the result of currency tinkering had sound basis in truth. A very natural sequence of this common view on currency matters will be a new disposition to give careful, open-minded study to English views on Free Trale. The McKinley-Bryan campaign opened under the influence of a most bitter anti-English feeling, to which thousands surrendered their judgment. That campaiga has closed, I firmly believe, with the American people entertaining a higher regard for English opinion than was erer entertained before; consequently there now exists a tirmer basis for international friendship.

4.-A VINDICATION OF PROVIDENCE. The Honourable T. C. Platt wrote an article in the North American Review for November on the “ Effect of Republican Victory” before the election, in which he says :

The election of McKinley will settle many things. It will clear the air: it will be the beginning of a new era in the development of this country. The nightmare of Populisin, Anarchy, and Socialism will have been banished, and will not return to trouble our sleep in the future.

The gem of the article, however, which would have delighte i the heart of Matthew Arnold, is the following sentence:-

The country has passed through a fearful period during the past four years. It has been an experience to try the souls of men, and make one almost lose faith in the ever-watchful care of Divine Providence. Millions of dollars have been lost, and there has been almost a complete st: ation in every line of business.

It is indeed difficult to continue to believe in the ever-watchful care of a Divine Providence which allows

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American citizens to lose so many million dollars. The true functions of Providence have seldom been more clearly defined from the point of view of the Almighty Dollar.

5.—THE ISSUE FOR 1900. Vr. G. W. Steevens, writing in Blackwood on Presidential election as I saw it,” explains the result by saying “ Business spoke and the nation obeyed." He predicts that the battle will have to be fought over again in 1900. The economic issue will not change as a purely political one would. The campaign of 1900 will be a

war against the trusts.” He advises the United States to cleanse itself from corruption and greed, and to cultivate a middle class. For, he concludes :

If this memorable election means anything, it means the opening of the assault of poverty and discontent upon the dominion of riches. Masquerading to-day behind a vain anıl trivial irrelevancy, it yet shows its black and vengeful face under the mask. To-morrow it will rush to the onslaught stark and hideous and very wicked, but with much wickedness to avenge.


GOING ONE BETTER THAN RÖNTGEN. Mrs. M. GRIFFITH heads her lively paper in Pearson's "an electric eye, the marvellous discovery of an Eastern professor which distances the Röntgen rays as they distance photography.” The Eastern professor is Jagadis Chunder Bose, M.A. (Cantab.) and D.Sc. (London), professor at the Calcutta Presidency College, from whom these words are quoted :

We hear little and see still less. Our range of perception of sound extends through only eleven octaves, there are many notes which we cannot hear. Our range of vision is still more limited, a single octave of cthereal note is all that is visible to us. The lights we see are few, but the invisible lights are many.

He has discovered that these invisible lights penetrate earth, wood, pitch, brick, granite, and still retain their active properties. These electric waves have different angles of refraction for different bodies; and by discerning their refractive angle, we have a test of the genuineness of the substance through which they pass :

The great difficulty in these investigations was the detection of the invisible light. It was necessary to perfect an artificial “electric eye" that could see the invisible. The electrical eye is worked on somewhat similar principles to the real eye; there is a sensitive layer on which the invisible light falling gives rise to an electric impulse, which is carried by conducting wire and proluces a twitching motion to a part corresponding to the brain. This movement is made manifest by the magnified motion of a spot of light reflected from the moving part. It is wonderful to watch the movement of this spot of light in response to the invisible light acting in the artificial cye.

This invention has, besides its critical value, a practical value of a wide range :

Again, for signalling purposes at sea, these ether waves have a tremendous future before them. At present there is no light which is powerful enough to penetrate a thick fog on a stormy sea to any distance, but rig up an electric generator on the lighthouse which can flash the ether waves through the fog, as easily as the sun's rays can pierce a clear atmosphere, and we see the possibilities of electric waves.

Every slip must be provided with an electric eye, and as it comes within the sphere of influence of the ether waves from the electric lighthouse the “eye” will see" the invisible light and the captain of the ship will realise his dangerous position.

Such a discovery seems to come fitly enough from the East and from the land of the Mahatmas.


A ROMANCE IN ART. PERIIAPs the finest thing in the Century for December is Lee Bacon's account of Virginie Demont-Breton, “the strongest woman figure painter in France,” and president of the union of women painters and sculptors. ller story is a prophetic suggestion of the enrichment of life we may hope to receive from opening all careers to female talent. The lady is a daughter of the eminent painter M. Jules Breton, and granddaughter of de Vigne, another noted artist. Her husband is also a painter. She fell in love with him at first sight, when she was fourteen, and he, a youth of nineteen, came to her father's studio. After two years had passed she saw him again. The third time he came he proposed to her, while she was sitting to him for her portrait. Their life-work is thus the same, and forms a romance in art. She is above all others the painter of motherhood-real mothers and real children, not idealised abstractions-as the beautiful reproductions in the Century attest.

Mme. Virginie Demont looks back to her earliest childhood to find the first traces of the maternal instinct, the power in almost all of her important pictures. She cannot remember a time when she did not think of children--of her own childr. n that were to be. The children who now exist influenced her life long before they were born. When she became a mother the little ones resembled strongly the children she had depicted in her paintings years before. She hay lately written:

Maternity is the most beautiful, the healthiest glory of woman; it is a love dream in palpable form, and comes smilingly to demand our tenderness and our kisses ; it is the inexhaustible source whence feminine art draws its purest inspirations.” Love is the inspiring motive of almost every one of her pictures.

When true mothers with liereditary genius for art turn painters, we may expect in time a portrayal of motherhood diviner than anything that even Raphael or Murillo bas produced: and Madame Demont-Breton may be hailed as a welcome pioneer in this direction:

The walls of the twin ateliers . . . attest to the industry of both husband and wife . . . Each studio is supplied with its upper and side lights; husband and wife work siile by side.

În Madame Demont's studio the walls are covered with studies and pictures of children of all ages and conditions, from the infant in arms to oller ones clinging about the mother's knee. Some are asleep, others taking first steps, others digging in the sand or dipping in the waves. Each figure of each picture is studied over and over, first in ono attitude then in another, in one drapery, then in another, first in one combination of colours, then in another, until the general harmony is gained. The love of childhood in all its phases in depicted everywhere. The Virgin and Child is a frequent theme with Virginie Demont, and her career can scarce closo before she gives to the world a Holy Family worthy to hang side by side with the best examples of the masters of Italian, Flemish, or Spanish art.

The Warden of the Browning Hall, York Street, Walworth Settlement, sends me the following appeal: “ Christmas is here again. The shops are crowded with good things to make Christmas a glad time for young and old, and to the children of the rich Santa Claus will assuredly come bearing rich freight of gifts. But to muy a home in Walworth Christmas means not a festival, but pinching times, for work is slack and money scarce, when food and fire and clothing are most needed. The readers of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS last year gare our big family of six hundred children a bappy Christmas. This year the family is much larger, and needs everything for Christmas-toys, sweets, books, clothes, boots--or the wherewithal to supply them.”

PRIDE OF ANCESTRY IN A DEMOCRACY, necessary to have separate societies for Cavaliers and A IIINT FROM THE UNITED STATES.

Puritans, but it would be just as well if something could

be done in this country to give the ordinary common MR. EDWARD PORRITT contributes to the Leisure Ilour

man, whose forefathers fought in the rank and file at for December a paper full of information, but little known

Naseby and at Marston, some of the realising sense of on this side of the Atlantic, as to the growth of hereditary

their connection with the glories of our past that has aristocracy in the United States. It would seem that the

always been enjoyed by the hereditary aristocracy. The celebration of the centenary of the Declaration of the Inde

Americans have given us in this matter a useful hint, pendence led to the founding of various societies such as

and I should not be surprised if sooner or later we were the Sons of the Revolution, and Sons of the American

to found in this country a society of " Sons of the Empire," Revolution, as well as the related society of Daughters of

or of “ Men of the Commonwealth," or of some other title the Revolution and Colonial Dames, all of which were

which would tend to link together men and women of all founded for the purpose of marking off their members

classes, who could trace their descent in direct line from from the common herd, of marking off as it were, certain

men and women who played a part in the stirring scenes families belonging to a hereditary class, superior, at least,

of our past history. The aristocracy and gentry hare too by ancestral achievement to the millions who have no

much monopolised the benefit of tradition of ancestral ancostors. Mr. Porritt says of the Sons of the Revo

valour; it is equally the inheritance of the whole people. lution:The purposes of both societies arc social, educational, and

A CHILDREN'S PARADISE ; patriotic. Their aim is to perpetuate the memory of the men OR, A FAIRY TALE OF THE NEW EDUCATION. who, by military, naral, or civil services, achieved tho inde

In the Forum for November Miss Gertrude Buck, of peulenco of America, and to further the celebration of the anniversaries of such events as Washington's birthday, the

the University of Michigan, contributes an article Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, the Declaration of

entitled "Another Phase of the New Education." The Independence, the capitulation of Saratoga and Yorktown, title is not very attractive, but the article is charming. and the formal evacuation of New York by the British army It is the first popularly-written description that I have ou December 3, 1783.

ever seen of the practical carrying out of the “culture To secure admission to the Sons of the Revolution, docu

epoch” theory of education. This theory is based on the mentary proof must be forthcoming that the candidate is of

principle that as every child repeats in his own developColonial ancestry, and that one of his ancestors served in the ment the history of the race, therefore his education Revolution, either in the naval or military forces or in a

should follow as closely as may be the lines of progress civil capacity Such services must have been rendered drawn by the civilisation of the race. between April 1775 and April 1783, between the outbreak Miss Buck describes the working of the normal school at Lexington and the end of the war.

at Detroit under Miss Scott. The general system she Unlike the Society of the Cincinnati, membership in the characterises as follows:newer societies of the Revolution is open to the descendants of

A certain period in the history of world-civilisation, studied men who were of the rank and file of the Colonial forces, and of men whose services to the Revolution were of a civil

in all its aspects and relations, constitutes the central core or character. Up to the end of 1896 between thirteen and

nucleus for the work of a given grade, from this differentiating

all the various branches of study—the history (political, fourteen thousand members had been admitted to the two

industrial, social, and religious), the literature and language. most important societies.

the art, the ethics, the natural science, the number er These societies have, Mr. Porritt thinks, not been

arithmetic, the drawing, and music. without their uses. He says:

All this sounds very ambitious. Perhaps it would be well They have given the Stars and Stripes a more prominent

to see what is actually done to this end in the Detroit school. place in the daily life of the American people than ever before.

A CLASS OF HIAWATHAS. These are the public results of the new movement. On the And this is how it is done. In the first grade, children members, the Revolutionary Societies have conferred a social distinction, somewhat difficult to make clear to people in an

between five and six are introduced to the life of primitive old and settled country like England, but one which is greatly

men, the savage, the hunter, the nomad. Every day the prized in the United States, especially in the smaller and

teacher tells them a story about Hiawatha, only one inci. more provincial centres of population. Each of the societies

dent being selected for each day, but everything is gone publishes an annual. In this are the names and full pedigrees into with the greatest minuteness and detail. On the day of the members, and among the members themselves the of Miss Buck's visit the subject was the scene where, with Revolutionary Society Annuals are prized in the way that his bow and arrow, Hiawatha went into the forest, and a Debrett and Burke are popularly supposed to be prized in rabbit leaped out of his pathway saying, “ Do not shoot England by the people whose names appear in those volumes. me, Hiawatha." The children have to do everything as To understand how cager people are to be of these societies,

if they were little Hiawathas. They have bows and it is only necessary to pay a few visits to a public library. The librarians tell, with a little impatience at having to make

arrows, and dress their dolls in the exact costume dethe admission, that 75 per cent. of the people who use the

scribed by Longfellow. Animal and Indian pictures reference library do so solely in order to make genealogical

cover the walls. They have to make models in clay of rescarches. Town histories, town records, which give the

everything they describe, and, in short, they have to live names of those who took part in the Indian wars, and the

as Hiawatha did as nearly as they can, the object being military lists of the Colonial period, are the volumes in to stimulate their natural curiosity, to reproduce their demand. These books are hunted through with the greatest observations truthfully, to be brave and uncomplaining, earnestness by people who are anxious to be of one or other of and to feel a kinship with all animal and plant life. In the Reyolution Societies.

addition to this, of course, they learn both reading and It would be an interesting inquiry to find out whether writing, simple arithmetic, and a great deal of natural in this country it would be possible to establish a society, history, but it is all bound up in Hiawatha, who becomes say, of the direct descendants of men who fought in the the hero of the class, which lives his life and follows his Civil Wars for the purpose of commemorating the great example, principles that were then contended for. It might be In the next room we pass from Hiawatha to the

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