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WHY GERMANY IS GAINING GROUND,
boy Kallu of the early Aryan period, and the school
“ WAKE UP, JOHN BULL!” room is, as far as possible, transformed into the likeness
EXAMPLES AND WARNINGS FROM ABROAD. of a one-story log house built on the side of the walls,
THERE seems to be good reason for believing that where the boy tended his sheep, and made fire by the
ministers have taken to heart the warning so clearly rubbing of sticks, and counted his flocks and herds.
expressed by public opinion during the recess in favour This marks the next step in advance from that of the
of pressing forward à Secondary Education Bill next hunter. This is how the children are impregnated with
session. Whatever exaggerations there may be in Mr. something of the poetry and culture of ancient Greece :
Williams' book " Made in Germany," the substance of ACTING THE PART OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS,
which is republished in the penny pamphlet “ Wake \'p, In the next room the scene had shifted to Greece. Abont
John Bull, issued from this office, there is no denying the walls hung representative specimens of Greek art, in
that Germany is forging ahead. The Daily News, Mr. photographs, bas-reliefs, and statuettes. The Apollo Belve Ritchie, and Sir Thomas Farrer have endeavoured to dere, the Venus of Milo, Diana, Mercury, Hebe, the Sleeping belittle the significance of the facts and figures brought Ariadne, Aurora, Clytie, Niobe, and many others embodied together by Mr. Williams, but one and all have to admit concretely the motto on the board, “ The True, the Good, and that there is great need for action, and I am glad to see the Beautiful.” As I came in, a little boy, perhaps eight that a Secondary Education Bill is to be introduced next years old, was telling the story of Baucis and Philemon with
session. Three months ago at headquarters it was not exquisite clcarness and precision of phrase, and then another
expected that this would be done. Lord Rosebery and related the story of Rhocus, and the children “ acted it out,"
Mr. Balfour have both borne strong testimony to the a little girl taking the part of the dryad, a boy that of Rhæcus, another that of the bee, while three or four boys
need for improving the method of training our people. acted the role of the playmates of Rhocus. This “acting
According to the Duke of Devonshire, the Secondary out " I found to be a favourite means all through the school
Education Bill is to be one of the Ministerial proposals for representing the stories told. The children take any parts, inanimate and non-sentient as well as human. In fact, the nature-work is very commonly reproduced in this fashion. The Greek doll and Greek house, as well as a Greek temple,
Dr. Dillon, writing in the Fortnightly Review on built by the children, represented some of the hand-work in
“ German Policy” incidentally calls attention to the fact this room. Greek words were written upon the blackboard
that Germany is undoubtedly beating us, not because (in Greek characters) to show how Cleon wrote; illustrations
German goods are cheap, but because German education of scenes from the “Iliad” and “ Odyssey," the characteristic
is better than ours. In this country the great idea is to Greek border, and sketches of the flowers, leaves, and insects pay for passing examinations, whereas, says Dr. Dillonespecially beloved of the Greeks, also adorned the blackboard. In Germany, love of knowledge for its own sake, apart from OLD ROME AND OLD ROMANCES.
its practical and profitable utilisation, is studicusly instilled
and successfully communicated to the rising generation, and There is a Roman room in which Horatius, the Roman the result is writ large, among other things, in the vast strides boy, is the hero. Roman life is reproduced, and the made by German commerce throughout the world. Their military and patriotic spirit is cultivated, and the ethical country bristles with technical schools, with commercial principle of power through law forms the ethical order of training colleges, and with special educational institutions for the study. From Rome they pass to the country of old
every kind of theoretical learning and practical skill, from the romance, where the children are modelling a relief map
method of dairy farming to the theory of transcendental in clay representing the scene of King Arthur's death.
esthetics. Their best statesmen are practical psychologists : Then an eight-year-old girl took Tennyson's “Mort
their average ambassadors not only know the language, history,
and literature of the countries to which they are accredited, d'Arthur," and read it aloud to the class, which it was
but likewise the commercial advantages which may be obtained noted always preferred to use the archaic rather than the
for German merchants there. System, order, thoroughness, modern prosaic terms. From the age of chivalry they characterise everything they set their hands to, with the gole pass to another room, to the Renaissance, with Columbus exception of colonial enterprise, which needs that clearness of as its central figure. The first half-year of the fourth eye and steadiness of hand that only actual experience can grade is devoted to the Puritans in England, Holland and confer. America. Cromwell, Hampden, Milton, Bunyan, William And the result, says Dr. Dillon, is that it is the bitter of Orange, and Miles Standish are the heroes.
truth, however much it may be gainsaid by optimistic A study of sociology is pursued in the eighth grade. In ministers, that our commercial defeat is the result of the first half-year the state is the special subject for study, commercial inferiority. its ethical core being the idea of justice, as a necessary outgrowth of the intertwining of the individual with the co-opera
THE YELLOW MAN WITH THE WHITE MONEY. tive social structure. The formal side of this study is German competition, however, is the competition of commonly taught under the head of "Civil Government." the skilled, highly trained, and competent producer, and The meaning of these forms becomes intelligible in connection we can compete by making our people equally skilled with the generalisations previously made ; and the thought of and equally competent, but there is no such possibility justice is elaborated in a somewhat detailed study of the * Divine Comedy.” In the second half-year the central idea
of levelling up or levelling down with regard to the is love, instead of justice, and the social institution is the
threatened competition of the Asiatics. family, not, as before, the state. The family is studied as a
In the North American Review for November, the co-operative unit, and the fact of love and family relationship
United States Minister of Siam, the Honourable John is frankly recognised as the highest spiritual co-operation.
Barrett, sets forth what he considers to be the plain truth Love-stories of the pure sort are read and told in class-—“Paul
about Asiatic labour, He has studied the subject careand Virginia,” for instance, “ Evangeline,” “The Tempest,” fully for years. He is not an alarmist, for he devotes the and one or two others—with an attempt to preserve and even first part of his paper to exposing the falsity of all of the increase the sacredness of the family relation in the minds of alleged facts upon which much of the scare was based, the children.
but he is constrained to add his testimony to the reality Altogether it reads like a fairy story, but if so, it is a of the dangers with which we are threatened by the fairy story of real life, for the work is going on to-day. competition of the Yellow Man with the White Money.
The cost of keping a big healthy labourer, well fed, be pot exceed 2.l. a day in China, and 51. in Jajan, and probably costs much less. Japan is subsidising steamships running to Australia, the Unitel States, and South Auvericale believes that Shanghai is destined to be the New York of China, and Hankow its Chicago. The number and size of modern manufactories in Shanghai, he says, is surprising. There are six cotton mills, eight cotton gins, and twenty steam silk spinning mills, to say
and tirentu steam silk spinning mills. to say nothing of one paper inill. Nearly all these are foundcl with Chinese capital. The most interesting experiment that he reports from China lie found ---in Wuchang, the capital of Hupeh Province, in the heart of China, the home of the celebrated Viceroy Chang Chih Tung, and opposite Hankow, on the Yangtse. Here is an immense establishment controlled by the Viceroy, employing 3,500 hands, running 10,000 spindles. It occupies four large buildings, with two more in course of construction, lighted by electricity and heated by steam, constructed of pressed brick, with corrugated-iron roofs, provided with machinery of the latest designs, and poweriul engines.
Employees iu such a factory in Massachusetts would earn $1.25 to $t, gold, per day. Employees in this factory in Hankow or Wuchang, to the number of 3,500, receive on an average 150 cush, or 15 cents, siler, per dey; that is, only 8 cents, gold! And the Viceroy was thinking of reducing the wages because the mills were not profitable! The manager, an Englishman, stated that they did not pay.
Mr. Barrett does not think Japanese competition is likely to be so formidable in the long run although it may be more speedily felt:
Japan in July boasted of sixty-five cotton-mills with approximately one million spindles. In 1893 there were forty ; in 1890, thirty; in 1888, twenty. The highest wages paid to native employees in the cotton-mills are seventy-five cents, silver, per day, the lowest five cents (female labour); the average twenty-five cents for fairly-skilled male labour and eighteen cents for similar female labour. Large numbers of women and children earn only five to ten cents.
HOW THE AMERICANS BEAT ('S. While these warnings abound with regard to foreign com: petition with the British manufactures, evidence is not wanting as to an increase in the severity of the competition which is choking the life out of British agriculture. This touches on the second section of the pamphlet “ Wake up, John Bull," wbich einbodies the finding of the Recess Committee in Dublin against which I am sorry to say Mr. Jolin Dillon has lifted up his voice. In the North American Reriero for November, Mr. W. S. Harwood writes an article, " What the Country is Doing for the Farmer," from which it appears that severe as American competition in food supplies has been in the past it is likely to become much more severe in the future. Mr. Harwood gives a very interesting and substantial account of the efforts that have been made to give the American farmer a scientific education and to promote a scientific study of what may be called the latest possibilities of agriculture. .
Connecticut established the first experiment station in the United States in 1875, and there are now forty-six stations in the United States, several of which have sub-stations for the carrying on of field experimental work. Each station receives the sum of 15,000 dols. per annum from the general government for its maintenance, and there are various bequests from private individuals and from individual States increasing this amount landsomely in some instances. It requires about eight hundred thousand dollars per year to pay the expenses of the stations.
Mr. Harwood mentions one very interesting statement which if it be verified, will show that money spent in experiment stations is about the most profitable in vestment which can be made. He says :
The investigations have shown that it is wholly feasible to pro luce a type of wheat, absolutely origival in nature,
which will increase the yield of wheat in this country, and perhaps in the rest of the world in similar latitudes, by an enormous percentage.
The work that has been done in these experiment stations is very varie 1, and covers every department of farm operations. He says :
Thirty stations are studying problems relating to meteorology and climatic conditions. Forty-three stations are at work upon the soil, investigating its geology, physics, or chemistry, or conducting soil tests with fertilisers or in other ways. Twenty stations are studying questions relating to drainage or irrigation. Thirty-nine stations are making analyses of commercial and home-made fertilisers or are conducting field experiments with fertilisors. Forty-eight stations are studying the more important crops, either with regard to their composition, nutritive value, methods of manuring, and cultivation, and the best varieties adapted to individual localities, or with reference to systems of rotation. Thirty-five stations are investigating the composition of feeding stuffs and, in some instances, making digestion experiments. Twenty-five stations are dealing with questions relating to silos and silage. Thirty-seven stations are conclucting feeding experiments for beef, milk, mutton, or pork, or are studying different methods of feeding. Thirty-two stations are investigating subjects relating to dairying, including the chemistry and bacteria of milk, creaming, butter-making, or the construction and management of creameries. Botanical studies occupy more or less of the attention of twenty-seven stations, including investigations in systematic and physivlogical botany, with a special reference to the diseases of plants, testing of seeds with reference to their vitality and purity, classification of weeds and methods for their eradication. Forty-three stations work to a greater or less extent in horticulture, testing varieties of vegetables and large and small fruits. Several stations have begun operations in forestry. Thirty-one stations investigate injurious insects with a view to their restriction or their destruction. Sixteen study and treat animal diseases or perform such operations as the de-horning of animals. At least seven stations are cugiged in bee culture, and three in experiments with poultry. The influence of the graduates of these agricultural institutions upon the farmers in the vicinity to which they go after being graduated is very great.
At present there are nearly five thousand students in agricultural colleges :-
Nearly four thousand have been graduated since these institutions were established. Nearly eleven millions of acres of land have been granted to these institutions by the general government. The value of the buildings and grounds of the various institutions is about sixteen millions of dollars; of libraries, a little over one million of dollars; of scientific apparatus, two million five hundred thousand dollars; while the the annual revenue amounts to over four millions of dollars.
THE SECRET OF GERMAN SUCCESS. Mr. B. H. Thwaite, writing in the Nineteenth Century for December on the “Cominercial War between Germany and England,” gives many instances and illustrations of the way in which German science and German thoroughness have succeeded in beating the English out of the market. He says:
The main secret of Germany's great industrial progress may be summed up in the words, polytechnic education and philosophic training.
The refined precision and the advanced scientific attainments of the controllers of German metallurgical processes have enabled the day-by-day production of finished metal in sheets, the thinness, pliability, and evenness of structure of which are admittedly impossible of attainment in Staffordshire. Our casy laissez-faire policy, and reliance on an assumed supriority--because our fathers succeeded we ought to succeed --- will not do.
But Mr. Thwaite is no alarmist, and he concludes his article with words of encouragement.
ON THE UNEMPLOYED.
THE ALL-DEVOURING GRAVE MR. W. R. BOUSFIELD, M.P., writing in the Contem
AND ITS ANNUAL BILL OF FARE. porary, expresses a common feeling of disappointment
Mr. Holt SCHOOLING finishes his series of pictorial over the Report of the Select Committee on the Unem
statistics on “ Hatches, Matches, and Despatches" in the ployed. The Committee has, he holds, not geappled seriously with the problem; has not recognised the
Pall Mall Magazine for December. His first point is to different kinds of persons unemployed; has shown no
show a strange sort of gallantry on the part of the King
of Terror, who all through allows to a woman a greater symptom of knowing there are such questions as
expectation of life than to a man. these :
At birth she has an advantage of three years and three How are we to deal with the lazy vagabonds who form the
months, and fifty years later the surviving woman is still a lowest substratum of the unemployed? Can anything, and if
beiter life than the surviving min to the extent of one year so what, be done for the man who has permanently lost his
and nine months. Even at the advanced age of ninety an old employment, and wants helping to a new trade? How can we help the man who, through misfortune, is rapidly becoming
woman will, on the average, outlive an old man by three
calendar months. “ unfit,” and sinking into the lowest class of unemployed ?
WHEN MOST PEOPLE DIE. Can agencies of this class do anything for those who becomo temporarily unemployed in the winter? Most of the “con
The people of England and Wales die, it appears, at siderations” of the Committee regarded as having any bearing on these and similar questions are simply ludicrous. They go
the rate of over 1,500 a day, or 65 an hour, or more than chiefly to show that schemes of this kind cost money-which
one a minute. They die fastest un ler the age of five, we might perhaps have expected.
and next fastest between 65 and 74. WHAT HOLBORN GUARDIANS DO. Over against the Committee's objection to farm and labour colonies, the writer sets the successful working by the Holborn Guardians of Mitcham Workhouse, which is simply " a farm and
ENGLAND AND WALES labour colony manned by paupers." Not taking the cost of maintenance of paupers into account, the workhouse showed a profit for the year of £100. The whole of the produce of the farm, of the shoemaking and tailoring departments, was consumed in the Guardians'own establishments. Properly organised the produce of such labour should come into the open market only to a very small extent.
The writer finds that “the chief merit of the Report is that it recognises that the problem is
4.5 one for practical experiment, and that it recommends the Local Government Board to encourage such experiments.” An Elizabethan statute empowers guardians to “set the poor on work" and to defray the expenses thus incurred, among
2.2 which, however, wages are not specified. This defect is partly made good by an Act of
13 George III.
40 42 THE ONE THING NEEDFUL NOW.
15 Without further legislative powers there is
10 already room for a wide range of experiment:
The essential condition for such progress at the present moment is ample freedom for the various
11 authorities to work on their own lines. That we shall
12 have foolish as well as wise attempts is certain, but the survival of the fittest schemes, and the extinction of the unfit, will result, and the evolution of successful methods of treatment is certain, if only there be a sufficient variety of schemes for natural selection to work upon. But it must be natural selection, and not merely the selective fancy of the officials of the Local Government Board. The writer suggests that guardians with
WHITE: Death rate from 12.5 to 13.9.-(1) Rutland, (2) Middlesex (excluding London), organisations of labour under them like that
(3) Surrey, (4) Bucks, (5) Sussex, (6) Westmoreland. at Mitcham might admit to their workshops
LIGHT GREY: Death rate from 14.0 to 14.9.-(7) Berkshire, (8) Oxon, (9) Essex, (10)
Herts, (11) Kent, (12) Hants, (13) Hunts, (14) Dorset, (15) Beds, (16) Worcester. on wage-payment able-bodied applicants for MEDIUM GREY : Death rate from 15.0 to 15.9.-(17) Northants, (18) Derby, (19) Suffolk, outdoor relief, who were able and willing to (20) Wilts, (21) Cumberland, (22) Leicester, (23) N. Riding, Yorks, (24) Cambs, work. The wages should be chiefly in kind;
(25) Lincoln, (26) Somerset.
DARK GREY : Death rate from 16.0 to 16:9.-(27) Gloucester, (28) Notts, (29) Cheshire, and if the plan succeeded, for these “first (30) E. Riding, Yorks, (31) Salop, (32) W. Riding, Yorks, (33) Norfolk. class applicants” franchise disabilities might Black: Death rate from 17. 0 to 18.6.-(34) Monmouth, (35) Northumberland, (36) Warbe abolished.
wick, (37) Loudon, (38) Devon, (39) Staffs, (40) S. Wales, (41) Cormirall, (42) Terefor 1, (43) Durham, (44) N. Wales, (45) Lancs.
Out of every hundred deaths that occur, there die :-
8:1 5 - 9 2.9 55–61
9.8 10-14 1.6 65–74
11:8 15-19 2:3 75-8+
2.7 85 years and upwards . 2:1 25-31
Total 100.0 OUR MOST FATAL FOES. The ten most fatal classes of disease are, as arranged in order of destructiveness :
1. Diseases of the respiratory system (bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.).
2. Diseases of the nervous system.
These " enemies are represented in Mr. Schooling's picturesque way as darts of different lengths, striking at a map of England. No. 1 is more than twice as deadly as any other class. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are nearly equal. There is a great drop to 5, then a smaller drop to 6, 7, 8, and 9, which are about the same; No. 10 again marks a drop of about one-half of 9.
REMARKABLE LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. The enormous saving of life due to sanitation appears in the last thirty years. The death rate per thousand, which was pretty much the same from 1838 to 1870, has dropped since the latter date from 22:4 to 18.7 in 1895, as may be seen from the following table for England and Wales :Period.
Periol. 1000 living.
1000 living 1838-40
18.7 IS THE LIFE SAVED MOST OR LEAST PRODUCTIVE ? This means a saving of 120,000 lives a year, or 10,000 a calendar month. Nor is the saving merely in the unproductive years of life. Out of a gain of nearly a million and a half years to every million of males born, one-third of a million years are gained by men aged 25-34, and two-thirds by men between 25 and 64. The figures are : Age perioil. Years of life gained.
Years of life lost. 0-14
varying success in different nations. The following table
Number of births to every hundred deaths.
171 German Empire .
138 Austria Hungary
101 The six Powers combined
110 THE RACE BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE UNITED KINGDOX,
It is interesting to observe that the United Kinglon. after peopling or appropriating one-third of the habitalet globe, is still the most fruitful. The race between Franse and the British Isles in respect of hoine population, which began with France in a preponderance of two to one, is now decided in our favour:
When this century opened France had a population of 27 to 28 millions; we, in 1801, were under eleven billions in England, Wales, and Scotland, with, say, four millions more in Ireland. In 1891 France's population was 381 millions, and the population of the United Kingdom was also orer 3 millions. În 1896-—a census year for France-our population is from 39 to 40 millions, and the result of the Frencii Census for April, 1896, shows a population of only 381 millions— that during the course of the century, and before its close, this country has turned the 1801 home population [of about one-half of France's 1801 population) into an actual majority.
WOMAN'S PLEA FOR THE FRANCHISE.
HOW IT FARES IN THE UNITED STATES. THE Bishop of Albany, Dr. Doane, contributes to the North American Review for November an article which he calls “Some Later Aspects of Woman Suffrage." There is very little in it to call for special attention, but the Bishop places upon a pinnacle a certain Mrs. W. Crannell, who appears to have attended both the Republican and Democratic Conventions of this year in order to speak against the plea put forward by other women for the franchise. Both Conventions refused to admit a plank in favour of women's suffrage into their programme. The Republicans put in a clause which meant nothing; the Democrats did not even do that. And why, asks Bishop Doane:
Mrs. Crannell knows; for, under God, it was due to her quiet, clear, strong, dignified presentation of the argument against woman suffrage that the plank proposed by Mrs. Blake was not introduced into the Republican platform; and thai the whole thing was treated, in the Democratic Convention, with “a silence that was almost contemptuous."
In the Forum for November, Dr. W. K. Brooks writes an article which he calls “Women from the Standpoint of a Naturalist.” The only good thing about the article is the title. One does not need to be a naturalist in order to repeat such platitudes and fallacies of the dominant male as these :
If one who is not an expert in social science may be permitted to have an opinion, it seems clear to a zoologist that the only plea for female suffrage which can be admitted is the claim that it would benefit the community as a whole by strengthening democratic constitutional government.
Many thoughtful persons are convinced that the average woman is far more likely than the average man of the same condition in life to act upon some other motive than mature disinterested judgment, and that the enfranchisement of women might add to the number of votors, already far too numerous in our country, who are led by tradition or self-interest or emotion, rather than by intelligent zeal for the welfare of the whole nation.
1,439,139 years per million males
born, CRADLE versuS COFFIN. The race between the cradle and the coffin is run with
THE TWO FIRST DUTIES.
IS MANKIND PROGRESSING ?
to science and invention; and fourthly, there is the Tuis large question is investigated by Elisée Reclus in intellectual advance seen in our analysis and synthesis of the long and thoughtful paper which opens this month's nature and mind; "psychology has become an exact Contemporary. The writer begins by defining what he science." means by progress :
APPROACHING THE CAPITAL PROBLEM, Whether progress brings happiness or not, it ought above all M. Reclus now moves to his main question :to be understood as a complete development of the individual, Thus admirably furnished with tools by its progress in the comprehending the improvement of the physical being in knowledgo of space and of time, of the intimate nature of strength, beauty, grace, longevity, material enrichment, and things and of man himself, is mankind at the present time increase of knowledge—in fine, the perfecting of character, prepared to approach the capital problem of its existence, the the becoming more noble, more generous, and more devoted. realisation of a collective ideal? Certainly. The work, if So considered, the progress of the individual is identified with not of assimilation, at least of appropriation of the earth, is that of society, united more and more intimately in a power nearly terminated, to the profit of the nations called civilised, ful solidarity.
who have become by this very fact the nurses and educators THE BLISS OF THE SAVAGE.
of the world; there are no longer any barbarians to conquer; He next considers the condition of primitive or savage
and consequently the directing classes will soon be without the
resource of employing abroad their surplus national energy. peoples, and compares it with that of civilised nations. He points out that the former is simple and consequently readily coherent and conformable to its ideal; while the
The internal problems will come to the front. The latter is, though immense in range and infinitely superior
first is that of bread for all: the second is education for in the forces at work, yet incoherent and inconsistent.
all, or bread for the mind. These once solved, not in the Thus the simple Negritos are superior to us in goodness, present beggarly manner, “the sense of justice being justice, reverence, truth, and are absolutely devoted to
satisfied by the participation of all in the material and the common interest. The Aleutians are much more intellectual possessions of humanity, there would come to highly civilised, with knowledge of art and science, yet every man a singular lightening of conscience," the sense show similar innocence, remaining in "a state of peace
of cruel inequality being a poison in the cup of all and perfect social equilibrium”:
human joy. It is, then, established by the observation of facts and the
THE REDEMPTION OF THE BODY, study of history that many tribes, so far as the material satis If ever-and it appears to lie in the path of evolution-if factions of life go, arrive at a state of perfect solidarity, both
ever the great organism of mankind learns to do what social by the common enjoynient of the products of the earth, and by
organisms of not very large dimensions did and are doingan equitable distribution of resources in case of dearth.
that is to say, if it complies with these two duties, not to let Community of work and of life carries with it a sense of
any one die of hunger or stagnate in ignorance--it will then distributive justice, perfect mutual respect, a wonderful
be possible to attempt the realisation of another ideal, which delicacy of feeling, a refined politeness in words and in acts, a
also is already pursued by an ever-increasing number of practice of hospitality which goes as far as the complete
individuals--the ideal of reconquering from the past all that abnegation of self and the abandonment of personal property.
we have lost, and becoming again equal in force, in agility, in The man in a state more nearly approaching nature than
skill, in health, and in beauty with the finest, strongest and the civilised man also possesses another immense advantage.
most skilful men who have ever lived before us." He is more intimately acquainted with the animals and the M. Reclus observes that “those of our young people plants, with the powerful scent of the earth, and the gentle or who are brought under very good hygienic conditions terrible phenomena of the elements. . He feels in perfect and undergo physical training, grow in form and strength unity with all that which surrounds him, and of which, in his equalling the most handsome savages,” while far surpassway, he comprehends the life as is all things moved with a
ing them in intelligence; and concludes that man need rhythm which he himself obeyed.
not become “only an enormous brain swathed in wraps THE WOES OF THE CIVILISED.
to keep him from taking cold.” The advance towards civilisation involves the destruc
A NEW RETURN TO NATURE,” tion of the isolation which makes this social and natural
The modern man may also reconquer the real intimate unity easily possible, and the integration of smaller into
comprehension of nature which the savage enjoys; he larger groups. But“ no union, pacific or forced, of two
can re-enter the primitive cradle, relishing more keenly ethnical groups, can be accomplished without progress the return to the kindly maternal earth because of the being accompanied by at least a partial regress.” The light shed over it by science. centre of gravity is displaced; a new organism replaces
Complete union of Man with Nature can only be effected by the old; industries and habits are altered, and the evolu the destruction of the frontiers between castes as well as tion of structure must recommence. Hence worse inei between peoples. Forsaking old.conventions, it is necessary dents appear in our own civilisation than are found in
that every individual should be able, in all brotherliness, to the savage state.
address himself to any one of his equals, and to talk freely of
all that interests him. These, then, are the losses of the human movement
Has humanity made real progress in this way? It would hitherto.
be absurd to deny it. That which one calls “the democratic What are the gains ? M. Reclus answers,
tide” is nothing else but this growing sentiment of equality Firstly, humanity has arrived at self-consciousness.
between the representatives of the different castes, until The habitable and navigable surface of the earth is com recently hostile one to the other. Under a thousand apparent pletely explored. Travel, colonisation, and trade have changes in the surface, the work is being accomplished in the
made man the citizen of the planet.” The whole world depths of the nations. watches the human drama as its centre shifts year by year So M. Reclus answers his question with a compreor periol by period. Secondly, as geography conquers hensive affirmative, “Humanity has really progressed space, history has conquered tiine. The race is unifying from crisis to crisis and from relapse to relapse, since the itself in point of duration as of extension. Thirdly, we beginning of those millions of years which constitute the have the prodigious development of modern industry due short conscious period of our life.”.
FOUR IMMENSE GAINS.