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have never been any more Red Indians on the American continent than there are at the present moment. He says:
There exists no substantial proof that the red man is disappearing befora the encroachments of civilisation, but that inany solid facts indicate that there has been no material diminution of the Indian population, or at least in the quantity of Indian blood, within the historic period.
We should therefore, in the interest of truth, relegate the theory of the disappearance of the race of North American Indians to its proper place among the disproved fallacies of history,
As there are only about a quarter of a million in the United States to-day, he scouts the notion that there were ever any more than that number in times past. It is not claimed that there were more thar a million, but it would seem that there is good reason for believing that the actual number was never so great. Nothing could illustrate more forcibly the difference between civilisation and savagery than the fact that a continent which now feeds 70,000,000 of persons, and will before long be feeding 200,000,000, provided inadequate sustenance for centuries to 250,000 Indians.
THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. THE North American Review for November has several interesting articles, some of which are solely of interest to American readers. Mr. J. A. Taylor strings together the usual farrago of quaint and amusing epitaphs. Mr. Himmelwright defends the erection of buildings of twenty-five stories. He thinks they are fire-proof in fact as well as in name; and he makes a calculation that in some of the great building: of Chicago as many as eight thousand persons arə einployed in one way or another, which, if a family of five were allotted to each, would give a population of forty thousand, who are fed from day to day by money earned in one of these large buildings. Professor Thurston has an interesting paper on “ The Animal as a Machine," which brings out very clearly how little, with all our science, is known as to the force which works our own bodies. Professor Thurston says :
Some force--no one knows precisely what--and some energy, equally unidentified, cause contraction and relaxation of muscles and transformation of the unknown form of energy into mechanical power and muscular force and work. Where this energy of primary form is originated, what is its course, and how it affects the muscle, no one can say. Probably substantially all the internal, automatic work of the living machine is performed in respiration and the circulation of the fluids of the body through their miles of narrow channel anl capillary ducts. This is work of friction, and all of it must be reconverted into heat; it constitutes a large part, if not the whole, of the heat thrown out of the system. The animal machine is not a heat-motor, or a thermo-dynamic engine, which deduction may be accepted as very nearly, if not absolutely, certain. The consequent conclusion thus follows that it is an engine operated thermo-electrically or by some other less familiar, very possibly entirely unknown, process of energy-transformation.
Professor Thurston calculates that the food of an adult man is about equal in working power to a pound of coal, which in its turn is cqual to one-fifth of a horsepower for twenty-four hours. As one horse-power is equal to twenty-four man-power, an ordinary day's work of an ordivary man only amounts to one-fifth of the potential energy that is stored up in the food which he consumes, or which is equivalent to one pound of coal. What becomes of the other four-fifths? It is not wasted, but is used up by the machine itself, for the human machine, unlike all others, perpetually renews its parts.
CORNHILL. The December number of Cornhill, though full of good matter, is not up to the high standard set by several previous issues. It is predominantly historical.
MATTHEW ARNOLD'S CHRISTIANITY. It opens with a paper on “The Greatest of Anniversaries,” by Rev. H. C. Beeching. This is a statement of the Christian religion which is well written, but which owes its distinction to the fact that it is a criticism of Matthew Arnold's version of Christianity as set forth in the pages of Cornhill many years ago. He argues against the idea that Christianity is Stoicism touched with emoiion, contending that the revelation given by Jesus was theological and dynamic rather than moral:
The Christian religiou, unlike Stoicism, centres in a Person. Its precepts of morality are excellent, its law of love to all mankind is such that it makes it possible and easy to keep them all-but how will it be found possible to keep the law of love? The answer is, through love to Christ. This, and not “inwardness," not "self-renouncement,” was Christ's method and secret. We love Him because He first loved us, and in Him we love our brethren. .
GOLDWIN SMITH ON GEORGE III. Mr. Goldwin Smith writes a character sketch of George 111., which shows less than the author's wonted brilliancy. He thus sums up the moral of his story :--
To what the world will advance or refert from this system of government by party, the caucus, the platform, and those moral civil wars which we call general elections, nobody yet foresces; but it may safely be said that personal government -by a sovereign without responsibility-has been tried at sufficient cost and has most decisively failed.
A POET IN STONE. The Bishop of Peterborough's address on Saint Edward the Confessor, which was delivered on the festival of the saint's translation, is now given in full :
Edward was a poet, whose poem was written in stone. “He sang of what the world would be when the ages had passed away." He set up the palace and monastery of Westminster as a symbol of that Divine order which must bring barmony into the world's affairs. ... Rulers and statesmen have nothing to learn from his achievements. But his gracious spirit, his fine feeling, his love of righteousness, his care for justicethese are qualities which can never be out of date.
OTHER ARTICLES. A vivacious account of the marvellous life and adventures of Beau Brummell by Mr. A. H. Shand, and a chatty paper on Duelling in France by Mr. J. PembertonGrund, are articles worthy of special attention. The Private Diarist tries to gibbet the Temple, but not succeeding to his desire, wishes Matthew Arnold back again to play censor.
English Illustrated. The English Illustrated Christmas number is full of good things. Clark Russell writes on “ Pictures from the Life of Nelson”; Melton Prior gives his “ Impressions of Constantinople”; Andrew Lang gossips about Jeanne d'Arc; Mr. Zangwill tells the story entitled “The Conciliator of Christendom,” which is rather a touching narrative of a poor Jew who died in abject poverty, but who nevertheless died happy in the belief that his work on Judaism and Christianity was about to be translatel and published in English. It would seem as if war stories were coming into favour. Mr. R. W. Chambers tells the tale that is bloody enough under the somewhat strange title “In the Name of the Most High.” There is a story of British Battles, and Stephen Craue has a tale entitled "An Indiana Campaign."
THE GERMAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, There is rather an interesting article about the German Social Democratic movement, which gives a glimpse of its Liebknecht and his paper, the Vorwaerts, which he edits for a salary of £360 a year:
The Vorwaerts is a halfpenny paper with a daily circulation of fifty thousand, and its profits are large.
It is difficult to carry on the work of social agitation in Germany :
For every German Socialist meeting (even the smallest local gathering) twenty-four hours' notice has to be given to the police in the district. At the commencement of the meeting the police-officer marches in, with sword by his side, and seats himself by the chairman. He takes copious notes of the proceedings, and has the power to dissolve the meeting at a minute's notice.
The writer of the article entitled “Modern Oxford ” shakes his head over the university. He describes it as he sees it, and then says:
Such being the social conditions and intellectual bias of Osford, it is little wonder that there is no study of political or social science at the university in any positive or realist sense.'
THE PROGRESSIVE REVIEW. The Progressive Review for December contains a poein hy Mr. Alfred Hayes, which is distinctly above the average, addressed to the expiring century.
THE DYING AGE. After describing the Age, Mr. Hayez asks questions which will ever obtrude themselves in the midst of 07: constant jubilation over peace, progress and prosperity.
Of what avail to tame the liglıtning's speed,
If health no more be labour's meed,
If love be smothered, honour spurned,
What boots it to have turned
To know, when worms destroy
What profits it to heap
The pure sky and the sweet air's kiss,
Outstrip the storm and lose the boon of sleep? PARISH COINCILS AND THE HOUSES OF THE POOR. One of the writers in the Review, discussing the question of “ The Housing of the Poor in Their Own Districts," makes a practical proposal which is worth noting. His idea is to suggest that parish councils shoull have powers for providing cottages similar to those they now possess for providling allot
A parish council can provide allotments without reference to or consent from any other public authority, provided that it can carry the business through by voluntary i cal agreements. But if it is unable to do that, and desires t» use its compulsory powers, then the consent of the county council must be obtained.
MR. KEIR HARDIE AND HIS PARTY. Mr. Keir Hardie and Mr. Herbert Samuel cross swords over the right policy of the I.L.P. Mr. Hardie, as usual, thinks that the stars in their courses are fighting for him, and that the Liberal Party is so dead that nothing remains to be done than to establish the I.L.P. in its place:
Public opinion is swinging round to our point of view. Temperance people, land restorers, and others are feeling more anl more sympathy with the fighting spirit shown by the I.L.P. It may take a quarter of a century before the I.L.P. becomes the dominant factor in politics in Great Britain ; but when the end has been accomplished the common people will indeed be established in the seat of power. The alternative to being independent is to trust to Liberalism, and, as I have shown, Liberalism is impotent. It has served its day; and no man in his senses would dream of uniting the acting living present with the dead or dying past.
He might, says Mr. Hardie, have made a bargain with the Liberal Party by which he could have secured a seat in East Bradford, but:
Anything savouring of an alliance, or a fusion, or a compromise, with either the Liberal or the Tory Parties would destroy the faith of these men and shatter the I.L.P. movement. It is probable that had I cared to meet the Liberals half-way in East Bradford, no Liberal candidate would have been brought forward, and I might have won the seat, partly on the strength of Liberal support. But it would have been a costly victory.
THE ITALIAN REVIEWS. In the Civiltà Cattolica (Nov. 7th and 21st) the most noteworthy articles are two on the recent condemnation of Anglican Orders, well-inforiced and well-argued, wbich may be taken as sumining up the most rigid Catholic point of view. But it was perhaps indiscreet of the Jesuit author to dwell at the outset on “the unanimous applause and the sincere expressions of satisfaction and gratitude" with which the English Catholics received tho decision.
To the Nuova Antologia Edmondo de Amicis contributes in a sympathetic and gossiping strain personal impressions of both Jules Verne and Victorien Sardou. The former, whom the Italian author appears to hold in somewhat extravagant literary estimation, he describes as possessed of a kindly face, without any artistic vivacity, and a simple, unaffected manner, and as living the life of a bon bourgeois at Amiens, going to bed every night at cight o'clock and rising at four o'clock to write his tales of adventure, and being apparently more proud of the fact that he is a municipal councillor than the author of eighty volumes of romance. What struck him most in Sardou was “his strange, pale, clean-shaven face, with his long nose and pointed chin, strongly-marked and irregular features, lit up by a pair of pale grey eyes, at once sparkling and thoughtful, whose eager glances seemed to be in harmony with the rapid movements of his thin sinuous lips, subtle yet benevolent, on which hovered the vivacious and gently jocular smile of youth. To look at he might be sixty-to listen to he is far younger."
Continuing his articles on “ The Kingdom of Minos," Sgr. Mariani declares the Christian population, according to the only recent census, to be over 205,000, whereas the Moslems only number 73,000. He protests strongly against any European suzerainty, whether of England or of France, over the island, and declares emphatically that autonomy is the only alternative to annexation to Greece, which is what the Cretan Christians would prefer.
The Rassegna Nazionale contains, amongst other articles, one on the Catholic rural banks of Northern Italy, which have produced much controversy of late, and a long and solid article on “Empirical Finance," in which the writer, F. Bervaldo, takes a very unfavourable view of Italy's financial condition.
THE IMPORTANCE OF GREECE.
THE REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.
had an excessive influence on his public actions. It is, It must be admitted that neither number of the as Count Prokesch von Osten said, the faculty which Rerue des Deux Mondes for November is of surpassing
Bismarck lacks—the power of distinguishing things from
LA NOUVELLE REVUE.
THE November numbers of the Nouvelle Revue contain To the first November number M. Fouillée contributes
noticeably less than usual that calls for comment. The a very charming and well-informed study of the genius
revived interest which French people are taking in the of the French nation, both in other ages and to-day. The little kingdom of Greece finds expression in two articles most typical quality of the French of to-day is, he thinks, which may be bracketed together. a certain ideal of generosity, and he adds, truly enough, that it is not from an excess of love and devotion for
The first, entitled “In Greece,” by M. Stephanopoli, ideals that nations go wrong nowadays. On the contrary, the editor of the Messager d'Athènes, is in the first scepticism, prosaic utilitarianism, financial corruption, November number; the other article, which is in the the narrow politics of parties and interests, the selfish second November number, is called " Young Greece," struggle of classes—such are the evils which must every and is by Malle. Bovet. To give place aux dames, Mdlle. where be combated in the name of ideals. If France
de Bovet is attracted by the piquancy of the contrasts in should renounce her worship of the ideal, of the spirit
Greece. The country, she tells us, is extremely young
and at the same time fabulously old, and she apparently of unselfishness, she would lose without any possible
went to see it-a thing that has occasionally been done compensation that which has always formed her true
before. Malle. de Bovet's style is somewhat luxuriant, moral strength. This kind of declaration is too vague,
even for the glorified guide-book sort of article, and the but if M. Fouillée means that France sorely needs the reader is irritated by her habit of constantly dragging creation of a healthy public opinion, he is unquestionably
in bits extracted from the classical dictionary. M. Staright. The average Englishman judges France by the
phanopoli's article is of a different kind. He has somenovels of the boulevards, by Panama, and by the scenes thing to say, and says it well. He endeavours to in the Chamber which the newspapers report with gusto, show that Hellenism is a real force, and declares and he has not the saintest notion of the real France,
that Turkey has all along recognised the fact, as is energetic, frugal, prudent, highly moralised, highly shown by her efforts to win the sympathies, or at cultivated, wbich lies below the surface scum.
least to secure the benevolent neutrality, of GreeceGERMANY'S BURDEN.
efforts in which the Ottoman Government received the
assistance of France and Russia, who urged Greece to Count Benedeiti concludes his interesting observa
bebave with prudence and moderation. M. Stephanopoli tions on Cavour and Bismarck, which he began in
is convinced that England's machinations throughout the second October number of the Revue. He attri
the Armenian troubles would have been more successful butes the crushing growth of German armaments to Prince Bismarck, who inconsiderately broke up
if Lord Salisbury had realised from the first the the good understanding which subsisted between the
importance of Greece and the Greek populations of Courts of Berlin and St. Petersburg, and drove Russia
Turkey in the great problem of the Eastern Ques
tion. He is enthusiastic over the splendid resources into the arms of France, a providential agreement which, Count Benedetti thinks, is the sole pledge, at the present
of Greece. In that case it is perhaps permissible to hour, of the peace and security of Europe. These views
inquire why she does not pay her debts. M. Stephano
poli has an answer ready. Poor little Greece, he says, had are particularly interesting in view of Bismarck's recent
to spend so much in fomenting the Cretan insurrection of in the Hamburger Nachrichten and elserevelations
1865, and then the Russo-Turkish War came and she where, and the significant debate in the Reichstag which followed. Count Benedetti is evidently expectant
had to arm for her own protection, while her efforts perhaps it would not be doing him an injustice to say
to get Epirus and Thessaly assigned to her by the
Berlin Congress were thwarted by the infamous interhopeful-of disaster for Germany, staggering under the weight of her enormous military budgets, honeycombed siderable discount in the City.
ference of England. Naturally, “Greeks "are at a conwith socialism, and split up by a widespread spirit of particularism which not all the Emperor's flamboyant
OTHER ARTICLES. uppeals to the memory of his grandfather can crush. Among other articles in the first November number
the following may be mentioned. The recollections of SHOULD THERE BE AN AGE LIMIT FOR STATESMEN ?
General Oudinot are brought to a close. We are given a With Count Benedetti's paper may be bracketed dramatic glimpse of the Emperor at Bautzen, who had an able article by M. Valbert on the Prince de not closed his eyes for seventy-two hours, being seized Metternich and Bismarck. M. Valbert thinks that if in the midst of the battle with an irresistible drowsiness some modern Plutarch were to arise and write full bio and calmly resting for an hour on a portion of the field graphies of the two men, Metternich and Bismarck, amid a perfect hail of bullets. That hour's sleep cost whose careers he has delicately sketched within the limits him dear. Ney, left without precise instructions, lost all of an article, he would come to the conclusion that the the fruits of a most admirable strategic combination. greatest statesmen are wrong to remain too long in The second November number is remarkable for some power; that the years of prosperity and triumph are letters which passed between George Sand and the Abbé followed with fatal certainty by the period of difficulties Rochet. The good abbé talks mainly of religion, at and mistakes. Metternich made serious mistakes because which George Šand frankly shrugs her shoulders. The he ended by believing himself infallible; Bismarck bas letters are not to be compared in importance or interest made serious mistakes because his personal hatreds have with the Pagello revelations.
LA REVUE DE PARIS. The first number of the Revue de Puris is as literary and personal in character as the second is social and political: Perhaps the most notable paper is the curious medical analysis of the genius and character of Emile Zola.
GEORGE SAND AND ALFRED DE MUSSET. The complex and brilliant personality of George Sand, who has sometimes been called the French George Eliot, though probably no two women of genius ever more truly differed the one from the other, has retained a lasting hold on those of her countrymen and women who are interested in literary matters. Only this autumn the burning controversy as to what were the relations between Madame Sand and Alfied de Musset has been reopened with the aid of an aged Italian doctor named Pagello, who is known to have been the somewhat unworthy cause of porhaps the most poignant drama of jealousy the world has ever known, and which provoked from the pens of two great writers some of their finest work. Dr. Pagello has allowed the curiosity of an interviewer to get the better of his discretion; but with the exception of acknowledging that he once kissed and has now told, he has very little new to say. There is no doubt that hé, in his quality of medical man to de Musset, played an ugly part, and George Sand proved once more how unreasoning is the passion of love. The friends and family of the great novelist are now publishing in the Revue de Paris the latteis written at the time of the quarrel by Madame Sand to de Musset, and these long epistles certainly deserve to take a place among the cpistolary literature of the world, for in each of them the writer reveals herself as woman, as worker, as friend, as lover. Immediately following on this curious correspondence are published some exquisite verses addressed at various times by de Musset to Madame Sand, and which form a fitting epilogue to this portion of their story as told by themselves.
A WARNING TO TURKEY. Of special interest at the present moment is a long letter which bears every sign of being authentic, addressed by Fuad Pacha, a one-time Minister of Turkey, to the Sultan the day before his death, which occurred on February 11th, 1869. In it the famous Turkish statesman seemed to have a prevision of all the misfortunes which lay in wait for the Ottoman Empire. Those who are now absorbed in the Armenian question must be referred to the letter, which occupies many pages itself; but one or two passages of this striking epistle may be quoted :
The voice which comes from the tomb is always sincere. Your Empire is in danger; our neighbours are not what they were two centuries ago; they have all gone forward, we alone have gone back. Your Majesty's Empire will be condemned to extinction unless within the next few years you can acquire as much monetary ivfluence as has been acquired by Great Britain, as much knowledge as is possessel by France, and as many soldiers as the Emperor of Russia can command. Our splendid Empire contains all the elements necessary to surpass every other European Power, but in order to accomplish this object one thing is absolutely necessary -We shall have to change all our political and civil institutions. And then, somewhat later :
Among our foreign allies you will always find Great Britain the most powerful and the most to be considered; her friendship is as faithful and solid as are her institutions; she has bestowed on us immense assistance, and we cannot and we shall not be able to do without her help in the future. ... I would prefer to lose many provinces rather than to see the Sublime Porte abandoned by Englandi.
And then, towards the end of this very curious and if authentic-valuablo document:
The Sublime Porte must never tolerate any intrigues having for object that of preaching an alliance between thu Armenians and the Ortho-lox Church. Still, our best policy will always be that of placing the State above all religious questions. In future, our great Empire should belong neither to the Greeks, nor to the Slaves, nor should one religion or one race necessarily predominate. The Empire of the East will only keep itself upright by the fusion and union of many peoples.
This letter, which was written by Fuad Pacha at Nice, was sent tu the then Sultan, but a copy was kept by his dscendants, who have now judged it advisable to publish it.
In the second number of the Revue a considerable space is devoted to a long series of letters addressed by George Sind to Sainte-Beuve.
FRENCH PRAISE OF TRADES UNIONISM. Of more immediate value is M. de Rousier's very impartial discussion of British Trades Unions. He seems to have studied the subject not only carefully, but with the utmost thoroughness, and on the whole his report is entirely in favour of Trade Unionism. Indeed, he evidently ascribes to it and to the efforts of those who have practically organised the great Trades Unions, all the bettering of the condition of English workers during the last thirty-eight to forty years, although he admits that other things have contributed to the present shorter hours and higher wages. He was also very much struck by the fact that on the whole the Unions and the principles of Trade Unionism are popular in the country, and he pays a very high tribute not only to those men who have built up the unions, but also to most of the labour leaders.
PALL MALL MAGAZINE. The Christmas number of the Pall Mall Magazine is a most sumptuous edition. Besides the usual profuse and high-class pictures in black and white, and a highly ornate coloured plate for frontispiece--Alice Havers' "Sally in our Alley ”—there are in one article--MI. Frederic Whyte's on “ The Queen of Cities ”-a number of coloured representations of Constantinopolitan life mingled with the letter-press. The country house selected for the topographical sketch is Blickling Ilall in Norfolk, the early home of Anne Boleyn, which Rev. A. H. Malan depicts with pen and camera. Mr. J. H. Rollason contributes a curious study in silver nefs or pieces of plate shaped as ships, used to hold wine or other delicacies, the workmanship of the seventeenth century. The best private collection is that of the Dake of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, which is here pictured and described in detail, the article having been revisel by H.R.H. him elf. “A Cornet of Horse" gives an account of the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, the training at which is said to be so severe as to leave few pleasant memories in the minds of its alumni. Mr. The). A. Co k tells the story of the settlement of St. Augustine in Florida by the Spaniards, and shows how vain was the effort of the Spanish colony. He draws froin the failure of Spain the morale: spread free gorernment, loyal independence, free and enterprising trade; keep down the death-rate and send up the birth-rate. Mr. J. Holt Schooling's graphic analysis of our mortality bills claims special notice. Marion Ellistou contributes à singularly touching Christmas dream of Angels Unawares, which will cause more tears of sympathy than the most of similar sketches.
SOME ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINES.
energy of the carbon may be converted directly into electrical energy, and not into heat. Crudely speaking, my invention consists in generating electric ty by causing the oxygen of air to combine with coal beneath the level of a suitable liquid.
The Leisure Hour. The Leisure Tour devotes four pages to the reproduction of an autograph letter of Mrs. Browning. There is an illustrated paper devoted to Nottingham and its industries. Miss Belloc, whose pen is very busy this month, contributes a paper about the “Future Kings of Europe,” which is copiously illustrated with portraits of the little people who will some day sit on the throne. There is a brief paper on the Toys and Games in the past, from which it would seem that three thousand years ago the children had dolls, peg-tops, tip-cat, balls, and swings which differ very little from those which amuse our children to-day.
The Lady's Realm.. TAE Lady's Realm for December gives the place of honour to a charmingly illustrated paper by Mrs. Haweis, entitled “The Empress Frederick and Friedrichshof," which is illustrated, not merely by portraits, but by two sketches by the Empress herself. Miss Belloc's interesting paper on M. Worth is noticed elsewhere. “D." has a paper entitled “ The Return of Dodo," and Sarah Tooley, who does not append her portrait above her signature, as the other writers do, discourses concerning Brighton's society,
Strand. The Strand for December has no very eminent article, but keeps up its reputation for novel and curious subjects. Mr. W. G. Fitzgerald gives an interesting account of Brock's pictures in fireworks at the Crystal Palace and elsewhere. These gigantic pictures, about 600 ft. long and some 40,000 sq. ft. in area, and costing for the first appearance £350, and for subsequent discharges £50 each, came in, it seems, during the FrancoGerman war, and sprang from imitation of incidents in that campaign. “Campaign buttons," buttons bearing a candidate's portrait or motto on each, a favourite feature of the American presidential struggle, are discussed in a lively paper by Mr. George Dollar. There is a taking description of an ingenious toy railway, one hundred feet long, in a clergyman's garden at Windsor, which has stations, signal-system, tunnels, steam rolling-stock, and everything else complete. It ought to prove a valuable educational device worthy of wider vogue. A second paper on idols contains much curious matter, but to tell over the religious beliefs of myriads of our fellow-subjects in the style of a comicrecital which is here adopted scarcely accords with the higher courtesies of public life. The second paper on leaders of the Bar supplies a good deal of interesting chat about Mr. Asquith, Mr. Jelf, Mr. Willis, Mr. Inderwick, Mr. Bigham and Mr. Bompas, the latter gentleman being described as “the perpetual candidate for any and every sort of post."
The Woman at Home. This is a double number with some notable features. The first is a series of nearly forty pages devoted to the “Daughters of Victoria.” Katherine Lee writes on the “Empress Frederick"; Sarah Tooley on "Princess Alice, Princess Helena, and Princess Louise”; and Miss Belloc writes on “ Princess Beatrice.” Ian Maclaren finishes the story of “ Kate Carnegie” by marrying Kate to the Free Church minister, a destiny to which she was obviously destined from the first chapter. A paper on “ The Home of our Commander-in-Chief” gives us plenty of inside views of Lord Wolseley's town house, and some pleasant gossip concerning Miss Wolseley, who seems to be a very capable and attractive young lady. There are also facsimiles of two poems by Charlotte Brontë on the death of her sisters, Emily and Anne.
Harper's. Harper's Christmas Number opens with an interesting sketch of a Middle English Nativity play by John Corbin, and a Christmas carol by Nina Frances Layard. The chief feature in the number, however, is a charming sketch of President Kruger by Mr. Poultney Bigelow, which is noticed at considerable length elsewhere. Mr. Remington has a very brightly-written and vivid narrative of “How the Law got into Chapparal by the Aid of the Texas Rangers." It is well illustratel, and is a very instructive account of the way in which á settled society is evolved from a condition of lawless auarchy. There is the usual modicum of fiction, and an interesting story of how tame ducks can be trained to act as decoys. W. D. Howells writes at some length on Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Dr. William W. Jacques explains how he proposes to extract electricity direct from coal. At present we only utilize two and a half per cent. of the energy obtainable and waste ninety-seven and a half per cent. He thus describes his discovery:
My discovery is that if the oxygen of the air be caused to combine with carbon, not directly as in combustion, but through an intervening electrolytic carrier, the storéd-up
Pearson's. The December issue is a strong number. Mr. Sherard's “White Slaves" in Bradford requires special mention, as do Mrs. Griffith's account of Dr. Bose's Electric Eye and Mr. Brand's inquiry into the connection between civilisation and suicide. Mr. Arthur Woodward gives a viracious description of many of the chief aerial railways of the world, which are nearly all made by Englishmen. The longest span occurs on the Pinerolo ropeway in the Italian Alps, and is little short of a mile in length. Among the most famous are those at Hong-Kong, Gibraltar, and Cape Town. Mr. T. E. Pemberton portrays with graphic truth the Leicestershire Trappist monastery; and the almost unknown land of Nepaul, jealously secluded froin contact with Europeans, is vividly sketched by Mi-s F. Billington. Mr. Dudley Heath illustrates the Queen's hobby for collecting miniatures, and J. Malcolm Fraser serves up several interesting curiosities in the way of fancy dress. Mr. J. F. Sullivan's “education board ” in rhyme and picture is too exaggerated, not to say clumsy, to be effective as a skit on School Board extravagance. Mr. Harry Furniss sketches the Bohemian Club with pen and pencil. Mr. Joyce Garraway has contrived to gather together quite a number of pictures by royal artists.
In the Young Wom'ın the chief feature for December is Miss Friederichs'sketch of Home Life at Hawarden," in the illustrated article on Dorothy Drew and Her Mother. William Clarke devotes some thrce or four pages to singing the praises of Mr. Harold Frederick, There is also a sketch of Shan F. Bullock, who is about to write a new story entitled “The Charmer, which is to appear in the Young Man next year,