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The Century. The December number of the Century is one which appeals more to American than British readers, but which has also plenty of interest for both. The principal paper is Horace Porter's recollections of campaigning with Grant, in which lie bears witness to Grant's remark. able coolness in trying times. Mr. Smythe holds out roseate prospects for California, looking forward to its development by small in place of large owners. Incidentally he observes that Americans in the East and Middle States know more of Europe than of California-another proof that the sea unites, does not divide. Mr. W. A. Coffin weaves together the souvenirs of a veteran collector, of the name of Avery, with pictures and autographs from many famous artists, among whom may be mentioned Meissonier, Munkacsy, Menzel, Rosa Bonheur, and Cruikshank. Miss H. E. Smith recalls the story, with appropriate portraits and pictures, of a group of American girls belonging to a wealthy family early in the century. The ancient devices of girls' education possess a quaint interest to-day, notably the backboards to improve the figure, and the weights carried on the head to develop a stately carriage. Miss A. S. Lewis asks, what language did Jesus speak ? and answers Aramaic,
New England Magazine. A SKETCH of John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians, with many quaint reproductions of pages from his books aud letters, takes the first place in the very excellent November number of the New England Magazine. The writer, Jr. de Normandie, declares him a modern saint, with a missionary spirit and earnestness as wise as St. Paul's, and a charity and sympathy as sweet as St. Francis d'Assisi; and prophesies that he will be regarded as one of the most commanding figures in carly American life. A New England village amid the Southern Pines of North Carolina-"one of the two areas where consumption is unknown”-is affectionately described by B. A. Goodridge. Pinehurst, as it is called, is a model village, owned and laid out by Mr. Tufts of Boston in 1895, as a sanatorium for people of refined tastes and small n.cans.
Seribner. The Christmas Scribner is admirable. The first place is given to an article by Cosmo Monkhouse upon “ Sir John Millais,” which is copiously illustrated, with excellent reproductions of many of Millais's most famous pictures. The article was written before Sir John Millais died. Mr. Monkhouse declares that for a period of nearly fisty years Millais has sustained his reputation as the greatest painter of the day. I cannot say that I can congratulate the editor upon the innovation made upon the printing of Kenneth Graham's charming account of a child's first visit to a circus in blue and gold. It is a novelty, and that is all that can be said for it. There is an amusing attempt to describe the impressions of one of the raiders in Holloway Gaol, who professes to tell us what the Honourablo Reggie Blake thought about it. Bobby White will be credited with these three pages, which are very vivid and life-like. There is a good paper by Agnes Repplier on “ Little Pharisees in Fiction," which can be recommended to the attention of Sunday-school teachers and others. Fiction is very strong, and at least two of the stories deal with Borderland subjects. There is one gruesome story about a square diamond, which had the power of summoning its former possessor when it was closely examined. As this gentleman had the faculty of turning hiniself into a wolf upon occasion, the diamond was not a possession to be coveted,
ART WINTER NUMBERS. ROBERT Louis STEVENSON AS AN ARTIST, Last month we called attention to the Art Annual, the winter number of the Art Journal which was devoted to the life and work of Mr. Marcus Stone. Since then we have received two other art winter numbers. The Studio has issued a second “extra," in continuation of the special “ Studio Serie; " begun at Christmas, 1891, with “ Christmas Cards and Their Designers," by Mr. Gleeson White. The new number is altogether excellent, but it is specially but it is specially interesting for the Robert Louis Stevenson articles. The first is a description of Le Monastier, a mountain town in France, by Stevenson, who visited the place in 1878, and the illustrations are leaves from Stevenson's sketch-book. This is followed by a critical note on Stevenson as an illustrator, by Mr. Joseph Pennell. The other illustrated articles aro Famous French Artists at Home, by Mr. Gabriel Mourey; Architectural Sketching, by Mr. Arnold Mitchell; Beautiful Modern Manuscripts, by Margaret Armour; the Samplers, by Mr. Gleeson White, etc. Mr. James Stanley Little's article is on the Ideal Life of a LandscapePainter. The November Studio is also a good number, an interesting feature being reproductions of some of Lord Leighton's studies.
THE ART OF MR. SANDYS. The winter number of the Artist is a sympathetic “consideration ” of the work of Mr. Frederick Sandys as a painter rather than as an illustrator. The writer (Mrs. Esther Wood) describes him as a Pre-Raphaelite in every essential quality, though he was in no way associated with the beginnings of the movement in England. She continues :
A classicist by nature and temperament, yet steeped in the same romantic mysticism that inspired the Pre-Raphaelito Brotherhood, he is stronger than any of them in the present. ment of a dramatic crisis, though he has little of the brooding sensuous warnth that breathes from nearly all their paintings. He deals less than they with the subtle intimacies of passion, and more with its typical effects and expressions. A useful feature is the list of pictures with which the “Sandys" munber concludes, while the reproductions of the artist's works add greatly to its attractiveness
THE NEW P.R A. The December number of the Magazine of Art discusses the work of several artists --M[1. George W. Joy, by Mr. Joseph Anderson; Lord Leighton's sketches, by Mr. A. Lys Baldry ; Adolphe Artz, by Mr. R. Heath; but the most interesting at this moment is the notice of dir. Poynter, the new P.R.A., by Mr, Spielmann.
The Windsor. THE December Windsor is a good number, with plenty of varied reading. An ex-member of the Government gives an interior view of "A Day in the Life of a Britishı Statesman," along with a choice assortment of Downing Street gossip. He tells us that “ Lord Salisbury writes almost everything with his own hand. Mr. Balfour dictates to a shorthand clerk.” Mr. Bright is described als having been “ the laziest of mankind at official work," but “an ideal hand at receiving deputations." Mr. T. Artemus Jones initiates the reader into some of the mysteries of the Press Association and Reuter. Mr. Robert Donald tells the story of the London School Board and its work.
"THE HISTORY OF THE MYSTERY."
THE CONSPIRACY AND THE CONSPIRATORS. SY " Annual" this year is no mere romance. “The W.G.Schreiner-Mr. Lyndall. The Leonards—The RerM History of the Mystery” is a political revelation E. H. Garrett-E. Loftie. nariis.
Vr Beit-Mr. Weit. that would never have been permitted had it not Mr. Beit-Mr. Weit.
Mr. Hammond-Mr. Drumlicen that the appointment of the Select Committee ren
Mr. L. Phillips-Mr. Lionel mond.
Colonel Rhodes — Colonel Captain Heaney – Captain Mered further concealment impossible. Believing that all
Cecil. the facts were certain to come out in the worst possible
Special. manner both for the reputation of England and of Mr. That which I make quite clear is that, whether rightly Chamberlain, I have here endeavoured to set forth the
or wrongly, Mr. Rhodes and Dr. Jameson were firmls truth in its right perspective, and to clear up the mystery convinced that Mr. Chamberlain approved of the meawhich has hitherto appeared to be impenetrable as to the sures which were taken in advance in Bechuanaland connection between Downing Street and Dr, Jameson, to secure the success of the insurrection in Johannesbetween Cecil Rhodes and Joseph Chamberlain.
burg; and that, although Mr. Chamberlain knew nothing The form into which I have thrown the narratire
of the actual raid, he stands in this matter side by side is that of a purely imaginative account of what might with Mr. Rhodes, who also was entirely unaware of the have been achieved if Johannesburg had been fortunate raid until the day it took place. enough to possess a great cditor, such as my heroine, Jeance Lefly. There is not much difficulty in disentangling the fact from fiction, or of seeing where I am writing from authentic documents and where I am relying upon my imagination. Jeanne Lefto the heroine, with her assistant Una Milson, and Signor Aurelio, are of course purely mythical personages. So are Holroyd and Max Liebnicht, Una's lovers. But, with these exceptions, there is hardly a person in the romance wlio is not easily recognisable under his pseudonym.
The following list of
Hon. Jos. Blastus,
"NOT SECH A BID KELETON, AFTER ALL !"
PRIZE ESSAYS. T HAVE to announce that in response to the appeal for judge had made a mistake, that my essay was as good as I essays on the best 100 books for an ordinary man's that of the fellow who got the prize, and that anyhow the
library, I have received about 470 essays. 470 stimulus to write the essay was worth more than the voting papers, each of which contains 100 votes, repre- value of the prize. There is also an excellent quatrain of sent a mass of work which cannot be thoroughly gono Lord Houghton's, which I quote, not because I consider through in the brief space between the receipt of the the small prize I offer as anything great, but because it essays and going to press. I must therefore hold over embodies the true principle which we should take with the announcement of the prize-winner until January uns when we enter upon any of the struggles or competi
The competition that was limited to school teachers as tions of life :to the formation of a library, has only elicited froin
If what shone afar so grand thirty to forty essays, the result of which will also be
Turns to nothing in thy hand, announced next January.
On again, the virtue lies I have this month only time to deal with the essays
In the struggle, not the prize. sent in by competitors who have entered for the prizes I had originally intended printing the prize essay and announced for the best essay in cach of four classes as giving some extracts from the unsuccessful competitors, to“ How I came to like reading.” There have been one but I find that space this month is too crowded, and, hundred and fifteen essays sent in, but they are very besides, the essays are too good to be dismissed in this uneqnally divided according to categories.
fashion, therefore, out of this humble beginning there • No definite sum was offered for this competition. All as evolved, in my mind, the project of publishing a that was stated was that a small prize would be offered. whole book devoted to the subject. The title is not yet Ilare therefore thought it would be best to allot £10 for fixed upon, but the gist of the book is to be: “ What this comretition, and to divide it between the different looks to read, and how to read them," and I shall draw classes according to the number of competitors in each. freely upon the life histories of my 100 odd competitors. As the adult male class contains nearly one-half, I have When I shall get this book to press I cannot exactly say allotted £5 for them, and divided the other £5 among the --that depends upon many things, chiefly upon the othior three classes, which together only make up about available time I have at my disposal--but I think that an equal number of competitors. I lave read all the the result of this competition, together with the plébiscite · essays myɛelf, which was no liglit task, considering the of the 471 for the best 100 books, and the school teacher's variety of handwriting, and I must honestly say I am (ssays, will enable me, with the aid of other books that
cxtremely pleased with the result of the competition. have been published, to construct a volume, which will · The writers hare, almost without exception, confined be palpitating with actuality, to use a familiar phrase,
themselves to the subject in hand, have said what they full of living interest, and calculated to be of real use have to say, and then left off. The result is I have more to those who want some help as to what they should reall, than one hundred human documents, or fragments of and how. autobiography, many of which are of extreme interest, One word more as to the net result of the impression and I have been much puzzled in deciding, when so many left upon my mind by the autobiographical confessions were so good, as to which was the best. After reading of my hundred competitois. First and foremost, most and re-reading to see which were among the first from people learn to love reading by being read aloud to
the point of view of excellence, and consulting friends when they were children; it is the spoken voice (whiel · whose judgment I value, I have decided to make the attracts to the printed page. Secondly, that those who · following awards :
have not been taught to like reading from their childClass 1.-Men over 18 years of age. - (55 competitors.) hood, seldom learn to like reading unless they ars ST. C. Phillips, 3 Bangor Road, Roath, Cardiff.
hungered to it. That is to say, that quite an un (Edw. WILLMORE, 55 Chestnut Avenue, Forest Gate, E. astonishing proportion of those who have written their Class 2.-Males under 18. (14 competitors.)
experiences attribute their love of reading to G. D. ALLEN (171), 21 Denmark Road, Barnsbury, N.
the time when they had either a long illness Class 3.-Ladies over 18. (38 competitors.)
or were for some reason or other, cut off from the
ordinary dissipations of every-day life. If you want to H. M. Davidsox, 18 Mercheston Terrace, Edinburgh.
mako a man appreciate reading, you should set him up Class 4.-Girls under 18. (6 competitors.)
on a desolate island with nothing at all to do except to CHARLOTTE EMILY Manx (17), 15 Gleb, Road, Bedford.
, master the contents of a library. The third point that I must confess that the task of deciding which essayist is brought out very clearly by a great number of the is to receive the prize is a very unpleasant one for myself. essayists is that penny dreadfuls, no matter how“ bluggy" I remember so often having competed for prizes when I they may be, do their readers no harm. At any rate was a juvenile essayist and being disappointed, that I quite a large proportion of those who describe how picture to myself only too vividly the sadness which iny they learnt to like reading, give a well-defined position decision must occasion to many persons, over whose life to the penny dreadful, which they declare they devoured
I regret to cast even a passing shadow. I can only con- voraciously but without feeling any ill-effects. But I 'sole those who have not succeeded by assuring them that must adjourn what I have to say about this until my
I only once won a prize essay myself, and was a defeated book comes out. Meantime I will express my sincere · candidate in an indefinite number of competitions. I thanks to the essayists who have contributed, out of
commend to them the consolation which I then took to the wealth of their own personal experience, to the help myself, viz , that it was quite an even chance that the and guidance of the readers that are to come.
A CHRISTMAS PLEA FOR POOR LAW CHILDREN.
CINCE the publication of the now notorious Report of as a separate body, perhaps as a Committee of the D the Departmental Committee of Inquiry into the London County Council-under whose care all the
Condition of the Metropolitan Pauper Children, London pauper children should be placed, and who a great deal has been sail and written on the subject should have possession and control of all the buildings generally. It will not be forgotten that the Committee, at present used for them. By this change it was hoped which included statesmen like Mr. Mundella and Sir John three objects would be accomplished :Gorst, experts like Mr. Wm. Vallance and Mrs. S. A. 1. More children would be boarded out in families or Burnett, and professional inspectors and examiners such placed in charitable homes small enough to allow their az Sir Joshua Fitch and Dr. Edward Nettleship, were characters to be studied, tastes formed, and natures unanimous in condemning Barrack Schools-or indeed developed. any system by which children were brought up in large 2. Certain of the large barrack schools could be sold numbers together. They formed the opinion, based on or otherwise disposed of, while others could be used for the cross-examination of seventy-three witnesses, that the certain classes of children who need either strict disfamily life was best for children, and that the artificial cipline, special trade instruction, or peculiar hygienic system by which children of the same sex and the same conditions. class, often with similar antecedents and undesirable 3. The children could be classified. At present the memories, were reared together, apart from the natural widow's child, carefully protected from evil, has to joys and wholesome stimulus of a family, had resulted associate with the little street rebel whose knowledge of in making them stunted and undeveloped in body, dull, wrong is only equalled by his capacity for imparting it. sullen and mechanical in mind, and often listless in Each Union only has one school, and, therefore, all spirit. These qualities joined, as they not unfrequently children, healthy, sickly, clever, stupid, innocent or are, to a temper which some witnesses describe as “ quite corrupted, have to go to that school-to join not only in demoniacal," a very inadequate education, and a technical the same lessons for periods when they are under training that is “ practically useless," makes it difficult observation and control--but to spend together all the for State-supported children to take their places in the many uncounted hours which are passed in play-rooms, labour markets of the world or to hold their own as enclosed yards or long dormitories, where it is impossible skilled and useful citizens.
for supervision to exist, and which too often (as recent The Departmental Committee also found that each trials have shown) are the seed-grounds of corruption child in a barrack school cost £29 5s 6d. a year, or and the practising fields of cruelty and deceit. lls. 0 d. a week, and that the immense sum of £1,281,374 It would not be fair to blame the Guardians or Manahad been sunk in the buildings which they rightlygers for these evils; they cannot help them as things describe as “ palatial.” But although at this rate each are at present organised. It would never do, either on bed has cost £101 5s, 6 l., it was yet found that the grounds of economy or practicability, for every separate schools were crowded beyond what was hygienically Board to establish and manage the numerous and varied desirable. Ophthalmia, a disease which among normal institutions which would be required to meet the needs children of the same class attacks under two per cent., of the many different sorts and kinds of children, were infects children when in these large aggregated schools adequate classification aimed at or insisted on. But if to something like fifteen or twenty per cent. Scarlet the Central Board had all the existing institutions, they fever, whooping cough, measles, and typhoid find under could use them for different purposes-this one for å these conditions excellent soil in which to grow or spread, trade training school; that one for an ophthalmic while expert medical evidence proves the painful fact hospital; another for a discipline home; a fourth for an . that the maladies of malnutrition and lowered vitality “in and out” asylum. Each child could be sent to the are frequent among children who are in no sense starved school which would be most suited to his requirements, or under-fed, but whose dull lives and want of natural and—and perhaps this is the point which specially daily interests deprives them of the nervous vitality commends the scheme to us—such a Central Body would necessary for the wholesome nourishment of the body. be able to advance boarding-out, and stimulate the public If the Committee's advice were followed the amount of conscience concerning its duty to the State-dependent cubic feet now insisted on by the Government would be child, in a way that no individual Board of Guardians considerably onlarged, with the result that instead of each finds it possible now to do. bed costing £104 it would probably staud at £150, while It may be well to consider a little more closely this the annual cost per child would be proportionally boarding-out matter, and how it would be affected by increased --a matter which is of financial importance to being removed from the twenty-nine Boards who are many a ratepayer who is not able to spend 14s. or 155. now left to do the negotiations, and placed into the per week on each of his own children, as he would be hands of one body with whom only all the country then called on to do for every pauper child.
boarding-out committees would communicate. There The Committee recognised and emphatically stated are now 157 boarding-out committees dotted all over their appreciation of the excellent work done by some of England and Wales. They have the care of 1,802 the Board of Guardians, and especially by some of the children, 968 of whom are London children, the reManagers; but in spite of these efforts the State-appointed mainder being country and provincial paupers. Committee unanimously condemned the system as a When a London Board of Guardians decide that they method of rearing the State-supported children, and like wish to board out a child, the clerk has to write, not to a practical body set themselves to discover a method by one central body who would kuow where there was a which it could be abandoned without undue injury to vacancy and what were the local conditions, sanitary, the ratepayers. The metho l they suggested was that a industrial, ethical or otherwise, but to such or several Central Metropolitan Board should be formed-perhaps of the 157 committees of which he has happened to hear.
Too often he gets refusals from various and perfectly legitimate causes. He then, perhaps, continues to write letters to other committees, until in weariness of resultless effort the Board decides to send the child to the barrack school. From the country the confusion is also to be regretted: it adds unnecessary work, uses more money, and involves useless waste of time for the honorary secretary to have to answer many letters politely explaining that there are no vacancies in that village, or that other circumstances prevent the boarding-out committee taking more children.
Again, while some country committees get too many applications, others get too few, and, to quote the Departmental Committee's report,“there can be little doubt that the committees not unfrequently dwindle in size or flag in zeal” from the absence of suitable children as well as other causes. It will be easily seen that these particular drawbacks to the development of this system of rearing the young, which has been declared not only by the English Departmental Committee but by the experience of every other civilised nation, to be the “best system,” would be almost entirely abolished by placing all the boarding-out under one Central Motropolitan Body. It would then be the duty of this Board to communicate with the boarding-out committees; to know whether the various country organisations were working well and harmoniously; to demand and maintain the standard of life to be observed for “nobody's child”; to become acquainted with the industrial conditions of the neighbourhoods or the chances of children being absorbed into the respectable working population; to uphold the actions of efficient committees, and to upbraid and reform those who have been tempted to exercise patronage, or to assist village favourites by means of the State children and the State money. All this a central and public body would be able to do; and as a result the conscience of the people would be quickened with regard to their duty to pauper children.
On many occasions we have urged those who are members of our Helpers' Guild, or readers of the reports of our Civic Church, to consider more closely the needs of the unwanted children of our land. We have felt, and, indeed, often expressed, that a nation has no right to claim for itself the term “Christian ” who has yet to point to a column of its State papers in which is printed the figure 242,000, representing that number of (not degraded and often brutalised adults), but young and, in many cases, unformed and untainted children who are supported by the State in workhouses, in barrack schools, in isolated pauper villages, in giant industrial institutions, because-because why? Not for want of money, but because no English homes could be found for them, no English hearths at which they could have a seat, no English hearts into which they might creep and find a place.
Is this our Christian boast? Is this disgrace to cling still to us? And it is a disgrace not shared by all countries. In an exceedingly interesting paper issued by Miss F. Davenport Hill, it is shown that Scotland finds enough working-class families in which to place eighty-four per cent. of its dependent children. In Switzerland, where much thought and care are bestowed on the State children, seventy-four per cent. are boarded out. In Germany the same system is made compulsory. In the Colonies it is all but universal; and even Russia, so far behind in much which we calí civilised, has recognised that a home life is the best soil in which to grow a chill, and from its vast asylums in
St. Petersburg and Moscow it boards out some ninety per cent. of the ever-changing inmates.
These figures are all the more striking when we compare them with those of London, which boards out under six per cent. of the children chargeable to it; while for all England--taken as a whole and omitting Scotland--the percentage is far lower,
Undoubtedly a Central Metropolitan Board with the care of all London pauper children, would be able to do much to stimulate boarding-out; but the bulk of the work would have to be done by country people, or those living in the suburbs of provincial towns, and this is where our readers could help. “It is useless to hope to extend boarding-out,” say the opponents of the scheme; “not only are there not sufficient poor families respectable enough to be trusted with another person's child, but the ladies who are interested are too few to supervise the foster-parents or befriend the children.” This is a grave accusation against the ladies of England, and one which we trust our readers will do something to make untrue. The method of proceeding is very simple : it is put out quite plainly in the Report of the Departmental Committee, which can be bought at Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode's for 1s. 60.; or if any one should need more detailed help, Mrs. S. A. Barnett or Miss Davenport Hill, or our Helpers' Guild Secretary, will doubtless communicate their experience. All that is needed is for a few ladies to band themselves together as & committee, and then to apply to the Local Government Board to be certified. This, after (we fear) considerable delay, will be granted ; and the next duty will be for the ladies to enlist the working women of the village in their plans. This is essential if real lasting good is to be done; for it is only by every one feeling that the work is done for the child as a Christian duty that it can be satisfactorily accomplished. When the village homes are found, the village foster-parents talked to, and the village teachers prepared, then the next duty is to get the children. We have already shown how much better this could be done by a Central Board than now; but until public opinion demands and gets that Central Board, application must be made to the twenty-nine different Metropolitan Boards, and patience must be exercised; but if success is achieved the object will be worth the waiting. Instead of the child being one among hundreds, unknown, though fed, clothed, disciplined, and drilled, it will be established in a home, able to take its place and share, not only the family's joys, but its hopes and hardships, which do so much to create individuality.
“The child brought up under the ordinary conditions of family and village life is in a position to see the results which follow conduct. He realises that drunkenness is succeeded by poverty, and that indigence is the offspring of thriftlessness.”
We have not spoken of small certified homes, where six or eight children could be housed-admirable substitutes, and in many instances necessary substitutes, for the workman's cottages. All who know unite to hope that more of these will shortly be established, not in clusters or groups, miles away from other habitations, and costing £60,000, as was the effort so unfortunately praised by Mr. Balfour at Etyal the other day. Such pauper organisations are not good; but little homes managed by lalies are very helpful, and all who have tried this way of helping either girls, boys, deficient, halt, maimed, or lamed children, are unanimous in recording the rich harvest the children reap.