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tragedy were all supplied from life. The pen of the authoress has been dipped in her own heart's blood, and her page is blotted with many tears. The scene between the stainless but human wife and her guilty husband is original and almost unique. For the wife to remind the husband that she also is a creature of like passions with himself, and that she, although equally tempted has, neverthless, not slipped, is a mode of proceeding which in olden days would have been deemed utterly inconceiyable. But in Miss Brooke's hands the scene is conceivable enough, and infinitely more true to nature than the usual interview between icicled virtue and lawless passion.
abundant means to support children, should be unable to find some among the great crowd of unwanted little ones to supply the blank in their hearts and homes occasioned by their having no children of their own.
If there'exists a woman of means, or a few women of means, who would take up this work, which you have proved to be really needed, and who could carry it on under more convenient conditions than arc possible in a publisher's office, where much other work is being done, they would be abundantly rewarded. This practical experiment proves the need and success of the work which can be done. Even the case which opens up the vista of possible difficulties in the future was perfectly bonâ fide. The foster-mother took the child from pure motherly love. Very likely she thought that if there was a child in the home her husbind would be attracted from his gambling; but gambling is such a vice that, when once it lays hold of a man, neither wife nor child can stay the victim in his downwarid path. The little girl thus unmoored is likely to find a still better home with clients who have been waiting a long time for a child to suit them.
I do hope you will lay it on the heart of some woman or women, who are able to rise to the human sympathy required to carry on this work, to take it up where you are obliged to lay it down. You can commend the work to the loving care and co-operation of women, having proved what can be done.
THE BABY EXCHANGE.
TO BE DISCONTINUED. I am sorry to have to announce that next year I shall not continue the Baby Exchange. The risks are to great. I have made an honest attempt to see if it were possible to act as intermediary between the owners of superfluous babies and childless homes. I have proved its possibility, and there can be no doubt as to the urgent need for some such agency. But the sudden and unexpected return of one of the adopted children on my hands, owing to the adopting father, whose character had been vouched for by unimpeachable authorities, falling before temptation and losing bis means of livelihood, compelled me to reconsider the position. I have no hospital or institution to serve as temporary resting-place for the inevitable percentage of “returns." Yet some such home, it becomes more and more evident, is indispensable for the proper working of the Exchange. I have, however, other work to do than founding and managing such an institution. Neither have I any desire to find myself after a time saddled with the sole responsibility for the maintenance and e lucation of unwanted babies whose parents have disappeared, and whose adopted parents, despite all legal undertakings to the contrary, return the adopted child upon my hands.
Hence, although I shall continue from time to time to arrange for the adoption of such children as are already on offer, I shall not in future advertise the Exchange or endeavour to extend its operations. As I have already said, the risk is too great.
The following is the report handed me by the la:ly managing the Exchange as to the net result up to date :
In the fourteen months we have carried on the work systematically we have got thirty-five children, i.e., nineteen girls and sixteen boys, successfully adopted. These children Svave been adopted by true lovers of children, who have taken them as their own children purely for love's sake. Therefore one hundred and five people have been benefited-seventy foster parents and thirty-five children. Even if we deduct the few unmarried people who have adopted children-and they are very few, not more than five-we still can count that the homes of sixty-five people have been brightened, and a hundred lives benefited for life, by the work of the Baby Exchange. That is not a bad record for fourteen months.
In the course of this time we have had one hundred and twenty-two applications for children from fouter parents, and one liundred and sixty-five children on our books. The reason we liave not been able to satisfy the cravings for children of more of these would-be parents, is the immense amount of correspondence involved in each case, als) the confidential nature of the work, which compels the work to be entirely done by the one person put in charge of it.
That the work nee is doing, and is absolutely good, when done as it has been done by this bureau, is abundantly proved by this department in the short time it has been in existence It seems shocking that people who have loving hearts and
THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD "CAUCUS.” “Caucus" is one of those words which everybody uses, but of which very few cau tell whence it has come. An explanation of its origin is given in the New England Magazine for November, by C. W. Ernst, who writes of “ words coined in Boston.” That mint of speech seems to have been early active.
It will be news to most of us that Massachusetts, which was, from 1634 to 1684, a Commonwealth, in name and fact, was the first civil government on earth to call itself by that name:
Ten years later, in 1619, Cromwell and England followed the precedent of Massachusetts and Connecticut, and an Act of Parliament made England “a Commonwealth anl a Free State.”
AN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TRADE UNION. The famous word which has become so current in politic3 arose about the middle of last century :
The finance debate of the forties, when the Land Bank tried a hand at the issue of paper money, occasioned the word eurus. which has become a part of the English language. To express confidence in the bills of the Land Bank, Sam Adams, the father of the patriot, organised a labour meeting. The mechanics of those days were generally paid in what we call store orders. To get their wages in money, if only in paper bills, seemed attractive. So the calkers formed a labour union and trust,the word trust is theirs,-binding themselves " under a penalty for the performance of their agreement," which was to the effect that they would tako wages in merchandise or money only, money to include the notes of the Land Bank. This novel trust was perfectelon Sunday, February 8, 1710, old style, and duly announc.d in the papers of the time. The effect may be imagined
A labour union was a novelty in Boston ; a labour trust occasioned something like consternation, particularly as it undertook to sustain the ominous Land Bank. Under British law, such a trust was a crime. To get rid of the Land Bank, which was at the bottom of all this oftending, the Boston merchants appealed to Parliament for relief, aud obtaine l it. Yet the calkers held together, and their cast-iron agreement became a by-word for any agreement from which there was no receding. The phrase "calkers' agreement” was carried into politics, and by 1760 we read of “the old and true Corcas," meaning the mechanics, also of “the new and grand Corcas," meaning a committee of merchants who had adopted the method of the calkers. By 1763 we find the present spelling of caucus, the origin of the term falling into oblivion.
[For Complete Index to the Contents of November Magazines, see the “Monthly Index to Periodicals.”
Abbreviations of Magazine Titles used in this Index, which is limited to the following periodicals.
A.C. 0. American Catholic Quarterly Review. F.
N. Sc. Natural Science.
Naut. M. Nautical Magazine.
N. E. M. New England Magazine
·N. I. R. New Ireland Review,
New R. New Review.
New W. New World.
N.C. Nineteenth Century.
N. A. R. North American Review,
P. E. F. Palestine Exploration Fund.
P. M. M. Pall Mall Magazine.
P. M. Pearson's Magazine.
Phil. R. Philosophical Review,
P. L. Poet-Lore.
P. R. R. Presbyterian and Reformed Review,
P. M. Q. Primitive Methodist Quarterly Review, C. F. M. Cassell's Family Magazine. Jew, Q. Jewish Quarteriy.
Psy. R. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical
Prog. R. Progressive Review,
Psychol R. Psychological Review.
J. R. A. S. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society. Q.J.Econ. Quarterly Journal of Economics.
J. R. C. I. Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute. Q. R. Quarterly Review.
Rel. Reliquary and Illustrated Archäologist. Ch. Q. Church Quarterly. Jur. R. Juridical Review.
R. R. A. Review of Reviews (America). C.R. Contemporary Review,
St. N. St. Nicholas.
Sc. G. Science Gossip.
Sc. P. Science Progress.
Scots. Scots Magazine.
Scot. G.M. Scottish Geographical Magazine.
Scot. R. Scottish Review,
Serib. Scribner's Magazine.
Str. Strand Magazine,
Sun. H. Sunday at Home.
Sun. M. Sunday Magazine.
T. B. Temple Bar.
T. M. Temple Magazine.
U.S. M. United Service Magazine,
W.M. Windsor Magazine.
W.H. Woman at Home.
Y. R. Yale Review,
Young Man. F. R. Fortnightly Review.
Y.w, Young Woman. Abyssinia, see under Africa.
Arnold, Matthew, G. Le Grys Norgate on, TB, Dez. Adrertising: The Evolution of the Poster, by Agnes C. Sage, Lipp, Dec.
Arts de sa nao in the valley of the Upper Euphrates, hy vw Africa (see also Egypt, Egypt and the Soudan, Tunis):
Asia Mis The Italian-Abyssinian Treaty, by F. Harrison Smith, USM, Dec.
Yorke, GJ, Nov.
Athletes, by Hon. R. H. Lyttelton, M P, Dec.
Balfour's (A. J.) “ Foundations of Belief,” Prof. St. G. Mivart on, A CQ, Oct Causes of Agricultural Unrest, by Prof. J. L. Laughlin, A M. Nov.
Barrie's (J. M. Book, “Sentimental Tommy": Alaska : Notes on the Yukon Country, by Alex. Begg, Scot G M, Nov.
Greenwood, Frederick, ou, Bkman, Nov. American History, see Contents of American Historica! Review.
Munro, Neil, on, Bkman, Nov, American People (see also Women):
Unsigned Article on, Black, De. American Provincialism, by Caroline M. Beaumont, Bkman A, Nov.
Passompierre, François de, Charles Whibley on, New R. Dec. Anagrams, A. Inkersley on, Lipp, Dec.
Baudelaire, Charles, C. E. Meetkerke on, GM, Des. Arbitration, International, see Peace and Disarmament.
Benson, E. F., Interview, by R. Blathwayt, GT, Dec. Arc, Joan of, Andrew Lang on, EI, Dec.
Bethlebem, see under Palestine. Archæology, see Articles under Greece (Ancient); and Contents of Antiquary, Bible and Biblical Criticism (see also Contents of Expository Times, Komiletic Bye-Gones.
Review) : Architecture, (see also Contents of Architectural Record, Architectural Review, Can We have an Infallible Rerelation ? by Rev. T. E. Allen, A. Nov. Architecture):
Jesus and the Apostles, by Prof. J. R. Bucbanan, A, Nor.
Bible in Schools, Religious Education :
Nat R, Dec. Armenia and the Armenian Question (see also Articles under Turkey):
The Education Bill from the Old Nonconformist Standpoiut, by H. M. The Immediate Future of Armenia, by W. K, Stride, F, Nov.
Bompas, FR, Dec.
Bimetallism, see under Finance.
Contents of Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, United Service Birds and Man, by W. H. Hudson, Long, Dec.
Sea-Birds at Home, by R. B. Lodge, W M, Nov.
Bismarck, Prince, see under Germany.
Hickling Hall, Norfolk, Rev. A. H. Malan on, P MM, Dec. The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, by “A Cornet of Horse," P M M Bloadin; Interview, by W. B. Robertson, CFM, Dec.
Books: The Army Medical Department, Black, Dec.
A Raid among Books, Black, Dec. Armitage, Dr. T. R., A. Hirst on, Sun M, Dec.
On the Selling of Books, by J. Shaylor, N C, Dec.
Bose, Prof. J. C., M. Griffith on, PM, Des.
"Scotus" on, Free R, Dec.
('alifornia (see also Contents of Orerlan ? Jonthly):
Our Great Pacific Commo9 Wealth, by W. E. Smythe, CM. De:
A Sesond Das in Teneriffe, by Mary Cholmondeley, MP, Dec.
Impressions of the Canary Islands, by Hannah Lynch, GW, De:
Quarterly Review, Irish Ecclesiastical Recorel):
"Cathi 125" CR, Dec.
Laces, Rev. T., CR, Dec.
Children's Seuse of Fear, by Mary J. Harrison, A, Xov.
Some Peking Politicians, br Prof. R. K. Douglas, NC, D
De ember 25th, by Rev. H. C. Beeching, C. Des.
A Midle-English lativity Play, by J. Corbin, Harp, De:
"Catholi, us," CR, Dei:
Lices, Rev. T., CR, Dec.
Some Famous Primates, by Rev. W. Fowler, Q. De.
Sun M, De..
Nat R, Des
Motor Carriages and Cycles, by G. R. Fleming, G W, Dec.
Linton, Mrs. Lynn, ou, LR, Dec.
Malmesbury. Susal, Countess of, on, LR, De:::
Buck, F, Sor..
Wright, EI, De:
Election Trials in Great Britain, by Sir Charles W. Dilke, NAR, Xor.
Eletricity Direct from Coal, by Dr. W. Jacques, Harp, Dec.
11. H. Hart, A J Soc, Nov.
Reformation, James I., Gunpowder Plot, George III., Indian Mutiny);
Normandy, by M. Hennessy, ACQ, 0.t.
Abstract and Practical Ethics, by J. H. Muirhea I, AJ Soc. Nov.
Coolidge, A H, Oct.
bankers' Magazine, Board of True Journal, Yale Rerine):
lu Firework-Land, by W.J. Wintle, WM, Nor.
Pi tures in Fireworks, by W. G. Fitzgerall, Str, Vox,
Training Young Foxhounds, by Young Stewart, EI, Dec.
An Old Virginia Fox-Hunt, by D. B. Fitzgerall, Lipp, De..
The Absinthe Blour in Paris, by H. P. Pugh, Lud, Des.
Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower ou, PM M, Dec.
Prince Bismarck's Seret Treaty, by W., FR, De
The German and the German American, by Josiah Flynt, A M, Nov.
The Making of a Glass Bottle, by J. S. Fletcher, Lud, De..
Glasswork, CJ, De..
Porter, H., on, CM, Dec.
Hamlet, see under Shakespeare.
Howells, W. D., OD, Harp, Dec.
liomes an l Shelters:
Almshouse Life, by Mrs. Emma Brewer, Sun H, Dec.
M. Hill, WR, Dec.
Christmas in Children's Hospitals, by W. Mudford, Lud, Dec.
The lionsing Problem iu Rural Districts, Prog R, Dec.
by W. H. Tolman, YR, Nov,
Willcox, A J Soe, Sov.
Idols, Str, Nov.
The Impeoding Famive in India, by T. M. Kirkwood, F R, Dec.
Oli Memories of the Indian Mutiny, by Gen. Sir Hugh Gough, PMM, Dec.
The Situation in Ireland, W R. Dec.
The Molly Maguires of Ireland, Mac, Des.
The Italiau-Abyssinian Treaty, by F. Harrison Smith, USM, Des.
James I., 0. Smeaton on, WR, Dec.
Journalism as a Profession, by W. N. Shansfield, W R. De
Kent: A Kentish Arca lia, by Linda Gardiner, T B, Dec.
Samuel, Herbert, on, Prog R, Dec.
Tbe Plain Truth übut Asiatic Labour, by J. Barrett, NAR, Nov.
The House of Lords as a Court of Appeal, by M. MacDonagb, GW, De
Is the Public Taste in Literature Correct? Symposium, I, Nov.
Tyburn Tree, by Fran is Watt, New R, Dec.
Looking down on London, by F. M. Holmes, CFM, De..
Nansen, Dr. F., C. C. Adamson, McCI, Des.
Sport, Lizans; aud Contents of Irish Naturaliil, Satural Tience,
Nature Vules, Science-Gossip):
and United Serric Jagzine):
Light iu Durk Places, by Jacob A. Riis, CM, De.
Progressive Legislation in New Zealand, Prog R, De..
Some Remarks on Mo lern Nurses, br Emma L. Watson, Nat R, Dec.
Bethlehem, S. S. McClure on, McCI, Dec.
Geikie, Dr. Cunningham. TM, Dec.
Wallace, Elwin S., St N, De..
Lords (House of, Ireland):
Government,” W M, Nov.
A Queen's Minister's Busy Day. Cos, Nov.
B. W. C. OD, W R, Dec.
F. Goldsmil, GJ, Nov.
The Abba de Broglie ou Positivism, by Rev. W. H. Kent, Ir ER, Nov.
Relation of Sociology to Psychology, by S. N. Patten, AAPS. Nov.
Macdonald, Hugh. D. Brown Anderson on, Scots, De.
The Medical Crisis of the Lighteenth century, by Dr. C. W. Cram, A, Nov.
Hamaker, Chaut, Nov.
Missionary Review of the World):
The Englislı Trappists, by T. E. Pemberton, P M, De.
Queen Victoria (see also Articles un ler Royal Family):
Sunday with Queen Victoria, Q. Nos.
Race Problems of America:
The North American Indian, by J. Worden Pope, A. Nov.
A Legend of the Sarajoes, by W.C. Duxbury, Cos, Nov.
Aerial Railways, W. A Woodward on, PM De:
Reformation in England, Machiavelli and, by W. Alison Phillips, NC, Dec.
The Queen's Daughters, by Mrs. S. A. Tooley and Marie A. Belloc, WH, 1 Dec.
Christmas with the Royal Family, by Mrs. Sarah A. Tooley, TM, Dec.
Sandhurst, see under Armies.
Savings Banks, by W. W. Wolff, CR, Dec.
Postal Savings Banks, by E. T. Heyn, A APS. Nov.
Some Characteristics of Shakespeare, C R, De.
& Steiner ou Wheels, by J. W. Smith, Str, Nov.
Fast Atlantic Steamship Service, Sir C. Tupper on, Can M, Oct. Shuttleworth, Professor, H, Dec. Siam, J. S. Black on, GJ, Nov. Single Tax, sce under Land. Sitting Down, by Frederick Boyle, New R, Dec. Smith, Alexander, D. Brown Anderson on, Scots, Dec. Smith, W. II., F. B. Powell on, Free R, Dec. Social Evolution and Historical Science, by "A Historical Scientist,” W R,
Dec. Socialism and Sociology (see also Labour, etc., and Contents of American
Journal of Sociology):
A Night and a Day in Spain, by Miriam C. Harris, A M, Nov.
The Garilen of Spain, by Charles W. Wood, Arg, Dec.
of Badminton Magazine and Outing): First Days with the Gup, by Horace Hutchinson, Long, Dec. Sterne, Laurence, Herbert Paul on, NC, Dec. Stevenison, R. L, on Rubert Burns, by John M. Robertson, Free R, Dec. Suicide a sign of Civilisation ? by J. Brand, PM, Dec. Surgery, see under Melicine. Switzerland: The National Exhibition at Geneva, Mrs. Henry Reave on,
Unemployed, see under Labour.
Universities; Housiug of the Working-Classes, Municipal Government;
Pennsylvania, Santa Catalina, Texas, Utah, Venezuela):
The Issue of 1896, by Prof. F. Parsons, A, Nov.
Browne, F. F., Nat R, Dec.
Chandler, W. E., Nat R, Dec. The l'residential Campaign as I saw It, by G. W. Steevens, Black, Dec. Presidential Campaign Buttons, by G. Dollar, Str, Nov. Some Notes on Political Oratory, by H. T. Peck, Bkman A, Nov, The Speaker of the House of Representatives, by Henry H. Smith, Chaut,
Free Coinage Indispensable, by Justice Walter Clark, A, Nov.
Mavo-Smith, Prof. R., RRA, Nov.
Spabr, Dr. C. B., RRA, Nov.
Rozenraad, Tom, Nov.
The First American Silver Mine, G. J. Varner on, Lipp. Dec.
Stimson, Y R, Nov.
N C, Dec.
Modern Oxford, Prog R, Dec.
Iufluence of the College in Americau Life, hy C. F. Thwing. N AR, Nov.
Vaccination, by Dr. S. W. Abbott, NEM, Nov.
The Superfluous Vaccination Commission, by Malcolm Morris, NC, De. Vatican Archives, by C. H. Haskins, A H, Oct. Venezuela :
The Working of Arbitration, by H. W. Wilson, FR, Dec.
Belles of Caracas, by W. N. King, Cos. Nor. Voluuteers: The Dearth of Volunteer Officers, by Col. W.J. Alt, J RUSI,
Temperance and the Liquor Traffic : Total Abstinence, by Rev. Harry Joges,
The Stage and the Beauty Problem, by J. S. Metcalfe, Cos, Nov. 1. "Nobody and Nothing;” A Sixteenth Century Drama, G. L. Apperson on,
Young Turkey, by Karl Blind, FR, Des.
Howe, F, Nov.
Life at Yildiz, by Diran kélékian, CR, Dec.
Wales: The Land of Taffy, by 1. C. Macdonald, Lipp, Dec.
Nov. Nature's Nups, by Hon. Coralie Glyn, H, Dec. Registerei Friendly Societies for Women, by Miss E. S. Haldane, Nat R,
Cycling for Women, see Cycling.
Yildiz, see under Turkey.
Zanzibar, see under Africa.