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JULES SIMON.

nuances of what is considered good behaviour by the

A DIATRIBE AGAINST LIGHT RAILWAYS. people in the midst of whom they are travelling.

Ouida," under the characteristic title of “ A Highway OTHER ARTICLES.

Robber, ” assails the light railway. She maintains the Mr. Cunninghame Graham gives us another of his light railway is not a light railway, that it is being prosketches of early Spanish travellers in South Africa. His moted on false pretences, and that it proposes to attain subject this time is Alvar Nunez. Mr. Prothero pub- its end by plundering the public of its highways and lishes some " New letters of Edward Gibbon,” the his. destroying the beauty of English scenery. She says :-torian; and Sir Edward Braddon, the Prime Minister of

If the public want new railways, if the farmers desire steamTasmania, contributes an article which gives the history power as a means of carrying their produce for sale, by all of the Federation movement in Australasia. Before this means let them have it; but let them (or the State, if its year runs out the meeting of an Australasian convention interference be deemed desirable) purchase land and make a to draw up a scheme of Federation will be immediately

road apart for their transit. To use and encumber the common impending. Sir Edward hopes that it is possible in the highway, and imperil the lives of all those who frequent it, is next two years that Australasia may be under one flag

the sacrifice of all the elementary principles of equity. and under one government.

In the course of her vehement invective against tram

ways, as she prefers to call light railways, she does not THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW,

hesitate to make assertions that are to some extent The first place in the Fortnightly Review is taken up by

contradictory. For instance, she says :Olive Schreiner's “Stray Thoughts on South Africa.” It

The tramway has many practical drawbacks; it tends to

starve the country and over-supply the towns. In many parts well deserves the place it occupies, which is noticed else

of the Continent the country has nothing left to eat, except where. So also is Dr. Horton's article on our education

what is of inferior quality, the best of everything goes to the system.

nearest city, or goes to foreign lands. The tramways would THE GROWTH OF LORD SALISBURY.

enormously increase the temptation to send everything to the Mr. Escott, who remains faithful to his first love, thinks cities. that the crowning proof of Lord Salisbury's genius is And yet she asserts that the light railways cannot be that he has made friends with Mr. Chamberlain. The used for the conveyance of produce, and therefore that article is interesting, although it is little more than a they will do nothing to relieve agricultural districts :review of Mr. Traill's book. Mr. Escott says:

On the Continent most of these tramways are for passengers A Disraelian study of Robert Cecil is to be found in Julian only, to whom some small bag or parcel is alone permitted. I Ferrars, brilliant, haughty, reserved, industrious, who, when never remember to have seen any Continental tramway used as straitened in his private circumstances, still contrives to supply a grain, hay, or cattle train. his wife's wardrobe, not less splendidly than in their prosperous days, out of the proceeds of his writing in that periodical, “ an organic law of which it is that the most opulent contributor

Mr. Albert Vandam contributes one of his interesting should be paid as liberally as the neediest.”.

personal articles about Jules Simon. He says:Most people have regarded Lord Salisbury as a party Jules Simon is a kind of King Lear-or, to keep strictly man, whereas Mr. Escott insists that

within French nomenclature and within the truth, the Père

Goriot of the Third Republic. For Jules Simon had no outThe independence of party shibboleths was the keynote

bursts of all-devouring fury, like Shakespeare's majestic struck by Lord Robert Cecil, at St. Stephen's, about the period of his resistance to Lord John Russell's Oxford reforms.

figure; Jules Simon was nearly throughout like Balzao's too

accommodating hero. The fact of the retired and doting In fact, Mr. Escott even discovers a resemblance between

tradesman's fondness for his daughters did not justify his the ideas of Lord Salisbury and those of Lord Randolph senile concessions to them, his ignoble complicity in their Churchill. He says:

liaisons, his too-accommodating protection of their lovers, who The unprejudiced union for the sake of a national idea, of to a certain extent batten and fatten upon him and them. patriotic politicians on both sides, was the object never lost sight Jules Simon, like Goriot, had his reward. He “established " of by Churchill. That it is the goal whither events are gradually his daughter, the Third Republic, as Goriot "established ” his bringing us, was Robert Cecil's underlying conviction, when girls, and for a while he was the honoured, petted guest in the he wrote his Oxford essay, to say nothing of a good many new ménage. Then came the decline and downfall, which other essays and articles besides. Poor Randolph Churchill's the most superficial observer of the history of the Republic for precipitateness alone prevented his full participation in the the last nineteen years will be enabled to work out for himself practical triumph led by Lord Salisbury of this political without my aid. thought. Mr. Escott thinks in time Lord Salisbury will win a

Mr. J. D. Bourchier, a personal friend of the late place in popular affection beside Lord North, Lord Mel

distinguished Greek statesman, writes a very interesting bourne and Lord Palmerston.

character sketch of Trikoupes. It is more than a THE ART OF THE YEAR.

character sketch, it is a brief biography and a sketch of Mr. Claude Phillips, writing on the exhibition of paint modern history of Greece. It is in vain, therefore, to ings in the French Salon this year, comes to the following summarise it here, but the following anecdote will appeal conclusion:

to many who care nothing about the vicissitudes of Greek The great exhibitions of Paris and London, supplemented

· parties :by those more private and intimate ones in which some of the bright particular luminaries of painting allow themselves to

Many years ago Trikoupes was voyaging in a sailing vessel

off the Greek coast when a dog fell overboard. Trikoupes shine, furnish a very fair and sufficient summary of the state d art at the present moment. Is it not clear that we have

requested the captain to lower a boat in order to save the

animal's life, but the captain, not recognising his passenger, reached a limit beyond which the study of open-air effect, of light under natural and artiticial conditions, cannot well go;

refused. Trikoupes at once threw off his coat and leaped into

the sea. beyond which the eye, puzzled by the subtlety or the audacity

The captain was, of course, obliged to lower the boat, of pictorial statement, will refuse to be convinced, and even

and thus the dog was rescued. the most passionate lover of experiment and all-round expan

Like all other men who have risen in the world, sion will cry out for mercy ?

Trikoupes never shrunk from hard work :

TRIKOUPES.

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One of the most remarkable of Trikoupes' characteristics was his unwearied industry. He worked incessantly from early morning to midnight, returning home from his office or the Chamber

to snatch a hasty meal, and denying himself the repose of the mid-day siesta. He took his food at irregular hours, and never seemed hungry; he never drank wine; he never smoked. He was unmarried, but his modest home in the Academy Street was shared by his sister, a truly remarkable woman who devoted her life to his cause.

AN ALTERNATIVE LAND BILL FOR IRELAND. Mr. W. E. Bear, writing on “ The Muddle of Irish Land Tenure,” makes the following suggestions :

Instead of a Bill to amend the muddle of land tenure in Ireland--the “topsy-turvydom,” Mr. Gerald Balfour termed it in introducing his Bill—it appears to me that a clean sweep should be made of the tenancy provisions of the Land Acts, for the purpose of replacing them by a simple and comprehensive measure, applicable to all classes of agricultural or pastoral holdings in Ireland, excepting genuine and well-defined demesnes, home farms, holdings let by landlords to persons in their employment during service, allotments, and town parks. All agricultural and pastoral holdings in Ireland would be let on perpetual leases at rents revaluable every thirty years, but variable annually in proportion to the average prices of farm products for the preceding year, just as the tithe rent charge varies in accordance with the average prices of corn for the preceding seven years.

THE NEW REVIEW. The New Review for July is an exceptionally good number. Mr. Gladstone's “ Man-making and Versemaking,” Mr. Wilfrid Ward's “ Talks with Tennyson," and Cardinal Vaughan's “Popular Education and Religious Liberty”_each of them sufficient to make one number distinguished-are noticed elsewhere: as also Mr. J. F. Runciman's paper on Beethoven. Lord Herbert Stephen discusses the value of Criminals' Confessions, and brings forward many striking illustrations from recent criminal history. Mr. Maxwell Gray contributes a melodious soliloquy on "The Stream's Secret." Mr. Wilfrid Scawen Blunt supplies a tentative discussion of the various facts and theories relating to the origin of the Arabian horse.

A STRANGE ARGUMENT AGAINST ARBITRATION. Dr. Emil Reich writes on what he calls “ The Lawlessness of Arbitration in the Venezuelan Question.” He is manifestly mightily annoyed by the agitation for arbitration, and resents exceedingly the intrusion of nonexperts into a region sacred to the expert. He thus sums up“ the final upshot of the whole question

The dispute between Venezuela and England is a matter of settled law and ascertained history. There are no obscure points giving possible rise to settlement by Arbitration. Everything is as clear as daylight. England can prove her claim within the line drawn on the sketch-map to this article.up to the hilt. The Venezuelans can under no circumstances surprise any one with “new” evidence, “new” maps, or documents. The whole of the pertinent evidence is known and has been so for several years. Arbitration, therefore, so far as this term has any legal sense at all, is neither called for nor necessary. As long as we remain within the province of Law and History, there is no need for Arbitration.

In other words, we ought not to submit to arbitration because our case is so absolutely strong !-a somewhat novel argument. Dr. Reich is prepared to allow us to arbitrate only as a matter of policy, but with this proviso:

England can accept Arbitration consonant with her honour in one way only, that is, by laying it down that the principle of Effective Occupation must be recognised as the les of the Arbitration.

Dr. Reich's confidence that our case is as clear as daylight will only strengthen the popular demand for arbitration.

If the Irish landlords do not like this, Mr. Bear would summarily replace them by the State.

THE ORIGIN OF ÆSOP'S FABLES. Professor Max Müller prints his lecture on

coincidences” which he addressed to the Royal Society of Literature. In it he discusses at some length the coincidences which are to be found, not between Eastern and Western things, but chiefly between the Buddhists and Christian religions. Incidentally, however, he refers to Asop, and it is interesting to know that in the Prosessor's opinion, Æsop's Fables came to us from India. He says :

I was formerly more doubtful as to the Eastern origin of the fables of Æsopus and Phædros, but following up the subject with a perfectly unprejudiced mind, I have become more and more inclined to admit that India was the soil that produced them originally, and that the principal characters in these fables, and the whole surroundings, are Eastern rather than Western. We know very little about the origin of fables in Greece The very name of Æsopus has been explained by Professor Welcker as meaning svarthy. From India, by way of Persia and Lydia, a burnt-faced Æsopus may well have carried these fables to Alexandria, or to some equally accessible mart that was open to the Greeks of Ionia' and Athens. Here at Alexandria Babrius, who composed the oldest Greek version we possess of Æsopian fables, may have laid in his stores, while Phædrus, the slave of Augustus, rendered them popular afterwards over the civilised world.

A VIVID and enthusiastic account of the Indian Imperial Service Troops appears in Blackwood for July. The writer regards these native auxiliaries as not only an effective arm of defence, but also a proof of the deepseated loyalty and goodwill of the princes and chiefs of India.

A GLIMPSE into the nature of the recent persecutions in Russia is given in the account furnished to the Sunday at Home by a Baptist preacher who was torn from wife and family and banished from Tiflis to a remote part of Poland. In the same magazine Isabella Mayo sketches Winchester, with pictures of its cathedral by Edward Whymper, and D. Alcock outlines the life of the late authoress of “The Schönberg-Cotta Family."

HUXLEY, Schleiermacher, Ian Maclaren, Thomas à Kempis, Marie Corelli, are some of the authors passed under review in the Primitive Methodist Quarterly. The medley is suggestive of the times we live in. Joseph Ritson describes the federation of the free churches of this country as one of the most momentous events of the century's close. Mr. Guttery's onslaught on the Education Bill has been rendered superfluous by events.

In the English Illustrated Magazine there is an elaborate paper on “Intermarriages of England and Denmark,” illustrated by pictures of those who have intermarried. Chester Holcombe writes on " Li Hung Chang, his place and part in modern Chinese progress.” Mr. Wembly writes on Engine Drivers, and the two chief stories are contributed by Mary E. Wilkins and R. W. Chambers The latter story, entitled “The Maker of Moons," is very strange and gruesome.

THE NATIONAL REVIEW. THE Vutional Review is a fair average, like most of the July magazines.

THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR JAMESON'S RAID. It is disfigured by the publication of an elaborate article which is devoted to an attempt to prove what is not trae, viz., that Mr. Cecil Rhodes ordered Jameson to cross the frontier. Mr. Maxse's argument is very ingenious and very elaborate, but it has the misfortune to lead up to a conclusion which is false. Mr. Cecil Rhodes knew that Jameson proposed to cross the Transvaal frontier on the morning of the day on which he crossed it, but Jameson crossed on his own responsibility. Mr. Rhodes wrote out a telegram telling him to stay where he was, but the telegraph wires being cut, the telegram could not be delivered. Mr. Rhodes may be blamed as much as we please for preparing to take advantage of the anticipated insurrection, but there his responsibility ends, and it is a responsibility which must be shared by some persons who are much dearer to the Maxsean heart than Cecil Rhodes.

A PROPOSED NEW RATING BILL. The new editor of the Cornhill in an article devoted to an exposition of the injustico of local rating, makes the following suggestion on his own account, as to the way in which these injustices should be overcome :

In the first place, the Government, in lieu of its present doles, should hand over certain taxes to the local authorities. The first of these would of course be the land tax. Next they should hand over for local taxation purposes the Imperial Inhabited House Duty, and the right to levy licences on Public-houses and also all the licences which could conFeniently be localised, as indeed is partially done now. Instead of the present rates the local authority should be empowered to levy a Local Inhabited House Duty on dwellinghouses of all kinds, and also a fixed rate of say one shilling in the pound upon all business premises and buildings, including, of course, all agricultural buildings. The result of this arrangement would be that all new calls upon the local treasury would fall on the Local Inhabited House Duty, while the other payments would remain fixed. The result of maintaining the present Imperial Inhabited House Duty as a separate tax would be to produce a form of graduation. At the present moment the Imperial Inhabited House Duty orly falls on houses above £20 a year in value. Under the plan proposed, then, the owners of the better class houses, though not burdened more than at present, would always contribute considerably more to local taxation than their poorer neighbours. The other point to be noticed is that purely agricultural land would escape taxation aitogether, though the buildings used to carry on the trade of agriculture would be rated just as are the buildings used to carry on the trade of a miller, a brewer, or shopkeeper. This would give no advantage to agriculture, but would put it exactly on the same footing as other rural trades.

THE POPE AND ANGLICAN ORDERS. The Archdeacon of London devotes several pages to a very elaborate breaking of the butterfly, the pursuit of which has afforded Lord Halifax and his friends so much innocent amusement of late years. The Archdeacon asks:

What would be the result if Lord Halifax were successful, and the Pope recognised the validity of Anglican orders ? Directly, nothing at all. English clergymen on joining the Church of Rome would still require re-ordination. Our Ordination Service, even if regarded as conveying the succession of Orders, would, it is understood, be considered defective for Roman purposes. Members of the English Church would still be excommunicated, because that Church repudiates the doctrines of the Council of Trent, the supremacy of the Pope,

his infallibility, and the Immaculate Conception. Unti) those doctrines should be admitted by the English Church its members would still be formally schismatics and heretics. The aspiration of receiving absolution from Roman priests and of cominunicating at Roman altars would still be unfulfilled.

No doubt all this is true, but Dr. Sinclair does not appreciate the craving which the pseudo-priests of the Anglican Church have for recognition by the Pope. It is just the same kind of thing that we can see in any village, where the pushing wife of a local tradesman is beside herself with joy when she gets an invitation to the Hall. It is not that she cares for the five o'clock tea, but for the squire's lady to recognise her existence improves her status in her own eyes, and that, after all, is what Lord Halifax is after.

WHY WE NEED CHANGE OF AIR. Dr. Louis Robinson, who is great in discovering the whys and the wherefores of everything, devotes an article to the discussion of why it is that change of air does us so much good. It is not that the air that we breathe is bad, for a change to worse air often does us good. He says :

Often the mere removal from one part of a town to another will result in an immediate and manifest improvement. I know of an instance in which a gentleman, a sufferer from asthma and bronchitis, whose home was in a healthy part of Surrey, obtained very great relief by a short residence among the slums of Seven Dials. Children seem especially benefited by a change of air; so much so that it is often found advisable to remove them even during a severe illness.

Animals as well as men require charge of air, and if we were truly humane we should send the inmates of the Zoo to the sea-side every summer. Dr. Robinson says :

It is well known that wild beasts in travelling menageries, in spite of the rough and limited accommodation which they have to put up with, are more healthy and live longer than those which have all the care which science and money can provide in the Zoological Gardens.

Leaving beasts on one side, the real reason why men need change of air is because, for countless generations, our ancestors were compelled constantly to move about in pursuit of the game on which they lived. It is only in comparatively recent times since agriculture began that men ceased to be nomadic :

If, therefore, a race of nomads, to whom vagrant habits had become a second nature, were compelled to live permanently in one spot, one would expect that some evil consequences would ensue, and that these would be especially liable to show themselves when the general vitality had been lowered by disease. And, conversely, it seems reasonable to conclude that a renewal of the conditions to which the constitution of man was originally adapted would contribute to the recovery of a normal state of health.

A GOOD WORD FOR AMATEUR ARTISTS. Mrs. Earle writes an article the object of which is to encourage our girls to follow any bias which they may have towards painting. She says :

Mr. Ruskin's teaching, the constant reading of art criticisny, above all the more thorough grounding now insisted upon iD every branch of education, has opened girls' minds and increased their diffidence. They have a far more widespread and intelligent interest in art, but the actual number of amateur workers has greatly diminished. These influences, by educating the taste and increasing the knowledge of a large section of the public, have combined to deter those who, in former days, would have been only too ready to dabble in water-colours. They are now withheld by an exaggerated sense of the difficulties of the undertaking, or by a consciousness that they lack time or opportunity to learn to any purpose,

Unfortunately, this diffidence principally affects the more sensitive and poetical of the young people. Those who have real artistic tastes leave the practice of amateur art to the less intelligent and the less imaginative, and so give the enemy an extra reason for blaspheming. For the sake of these, and just because encouragement is needed, I wish to point out some of the reasons why their courage should not fail.

CYCLING IN THE DESERT. Mr. D. G. Hogarth, who was the first man to take a bicycle into Upper Egypt, describes his experiences of cycling in the desert. His experience certainly seems to have justified the belief that a camel will find in the bicycle its most dangerous rival:

Progress is easy enough on the camel paths, if dust and sand do not lie more than a couple of inches deep upon the firm surface; and the times that you make will be incomparably less over long distances than any four-footed Egyptian beast can accomplish. The seven hours that lay between our camp and Mendinet-five miles of sheer desert, three of desert half reclaimed, some sixteen of dyke-road, in two places impracticable on account of sand—I could cover without great exertion in two hours and a half, the wind blowing across west to east, as it will blow nine winter days out of ten in Egypt. - It was not on the dyke-roads, however, so much as in the open Desert that I used my novel steed. There it ran over all sorts and conditions of giound; over pebbly stretches, where the round stones sink into their soft sand-couch beneath the tyre, over dust laid lightly on the native rock, through wind-blown sand-waves, if ridden slowly and heid very straight, and at racing pace on the salt-pans or hard, clayey deposit in the beds of torrent courses. Given a wind not directly adverse, nothing stopped the wheel altogether except loose sand laid deep, in which it “skidded” as in mud, or soil impregnated with alkali, where a treacherous film overlies a consistency of

soft soap.

CANADA AND THE EMPIRE. Principal Grant replies with some gravity and not uncalled for warmth to Mr. Goldwin Smith, to whose foreboding prophecies the recent events have given very conclusive answer. Principal Grant says:

Last Christmas, when Mr. Cleveland's message threatened invasion, in connection with the Venezuela dispute, doubtless we could have arranged by negotiation for peace with the States, and haye kept entirely out of the quarrel. The thought did occur to one man, and he was quietly ignored. I know of only two newspapers, among our thousands, which advocate separation. The tone of those two was as stout and calm as that of all the others. Like the Scots round their King at Flodden, no one failed the Old Mother. Every man and woman accepted the necessity, and without a word of complaint began to prepare for war. Homes in England were safe, and ours in peril. What of that! Britain hard been threatened, and therefore we, as part of the British Empire, accepted our responsibilities. Already the scare has cost us three millions of dollars, and no one has uttered a murmur against the expenditure.

THE PROPOSED IMPERIAL ZOLLVEREIN. Mr. J. G. Colmer, a Canadian, says:

It can hardly be believed that Mr. Chamberlain will have long to wait before he is asked to summon an Imperial Conference to consider the question. There is no doubt as to the feasibility of closer commercial relations between the Colonies and the United Kingdom if the matter is approached in a broad spirit of compromise. Certain principles will have to be kept in mind in the negotiations if they are to bear fruit in the near future. The scheme must be simple, and it must be moderate in its incidence in the United Kingdom. It must upset as little as possible the Free Trade theories which prevail in the United Kingdom, and the fiscal system that has been in fórce for so many years. The same remark applies to the fiscal conditions in operation in the Colonies, and certainly no scheme will have any chance of acceptance in the Colonies

which involves the giving up of any of the powers of selfgovernment which they now possess. While any closer unior between the different parts of the Empire must inevitably be on a commercial basis, out of such an arrangement will surely grow an Imperial Council giving the Colonies a voice in Imperial Councils.

THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW. THERE is not much calling for special remark in the July Westminster. The education question is well to the fore. Mr. Richard Waddington discusses the voluntary school problem and suggests that the Education Authority of the late Bill should be made responsible for secular education in all schools. “ Each school could have its local managers as have the schools under the London School Board." Teachers could be appointed by a similar arrangement between authority and managers, and should be allowed right of appeal to the courts on dismissal. E. M. S. treats of the religious education of children and applies Herbert Spencer's psychology to the question. The writer advocates beginning with moral education and letting that gradually pave the way towards knowledge of its spiritual basis. Special stress is laid on teaching children to learn sympathetically about other religions than their own; and Edward Clodd's “Childhood of the World” and “ Childhood of Religions” are strongly recommended as text-books. But in everything we must advance from simple to complex, from indefinite to definite, from concrete to abstract, from empirical to rational, and must aim at fostering self-development. Mr. Joseph McCabe finds “the preliminaries of faith in rational theology and in Christian evidences. Mr. Harold Thomas considers “the signs of the times," and his diagnosis of the situation is "egotism.” The series of letters on the Sunday opening of museums is brought to a close with a proposal, supported by Canon Barnett, for a testimonial to Mr. Mark Judge. Mr. Walter Lloyd is not alarmed by Mr. Gladstone's overtures to the Papacy, is quite sure his own Unitarianism is safe, and does not expect from the Church of England, as a whole, much support for papal leanings. Mr. Maurice Todhunter canvasses the wisdom of Professor Mayor—"the greatest of living Latinists"supporting Archbishop Plunket's endeavour to introduce Protestantism into Spain. Robert Ewen proposes people's banks and plentiful paper money as a means to popular prosperity.

THE “LADIES' REVIEW" OF CONSTANTINOPLE.—A correspondent of the Robert College sends me a brief note of the appearance of a journal started in the Turkish capital exclusively for ladies. The editor of the Ladies' Review, which is the translation of a Turkish title “Khammlara Makhsons,” is a man who from his boyhood has been much interested in the condition of women, and has decided to take this

means of endeavouring to improve their condition. His name is Abdul Hakki Hamid Bey. He was a student of Tripoli; his appearance is said to be striking and his style simple and forcible. It is to be hoped that it will not be brought against him that he has been decorated by the Sultan. He has a staff of lady contributors, one of whom has published a volume of serious verse which is said to resemble the poet Young in his “ Night Thoughts." My correspondent adds that the circulation of the Ladies' Review is about 3,500, ard it appears twice a week. In Constantinople and Smyrna it is calculated that there are no fewer than fifteen women who write

for the press.

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. The Contemporary Review for July is a fair average number. I notice elsewhere an anonymous article on Home' Rulo, Mr. Spielmann's plea for a “ Reform for South Kensington Museum," and Mrs, or Miss Mulhall's interesting paper on “Girls' Schools on the Continent.” There are several articles which can only be mentioned; among these, there is the best natural history paper that Phil Robinson has ever written. It is an account of the result of his close observation of the nesting of two pairs of rooks near his house. There was only one nest, but the two hens took turns at sitting on the nest, and two cocks shared the task of feeding the sitting birds, but as soon as the eggs were hatched, the supernumerary pair took no further share in rearing the brood. Miss Caillard's article on “ Transcendentalism and Materialism” is too transcendental for the general reader. An article on Ovid and Natural History is interesting and brightly written, but the article on “Money and Politics" is somewhat disappointing.

THE FRENCH IN NORTH AFRICA, Mr. A. E. Pease writes a somewhat discursive article concerning the future of Northern Africa. He has been travelling in the neighbourhood of Abyssinia and Somaliland, but the most interesting part of his article is that in which he gives his reasons for making over the whole of North West Africa to France. He met in his travels a Frenchman explorer, who gave him a very interesting description of Sahara. He told him that

The interior of the Sahara was so different to the desert I knew so well, sometimes a boundless sea of sage-green level, sometimes a rolling ocean of sand-hills sprinkled with vegetation, sometimes like an interminable river-bed of boulders and grave), and sometimes a labyrinth of mighty sand dunes. He told me of forests, mountain-ranges, great trees and swamps, of the civilisation of the Touaregs, of their literature, of their mode of life, and their methods of warfare. He had satisfied himself of the existence of crocodiles cut off in ages long ago from water courses that have disappeared, and, stranger still, of red deer, apologising for asking me to believe a thing that was opposed to all pre-conceived theories of their habitat.

Mr. A. E. Pease does not think that France cannot colonise:-

The administration, especially the military, is admirable, her system of magnificent roads and bridges, and her reclamation of deserts by artesian wells are splendid monuments of ker rule, and the working of the Bureau Arabe is in the hands of deroted and hard working officers, while where municipal control exists it is marked by public spirit; and if she would only give greater encouragement to European enterprise other than French the annual deficit on her Algerian possessions, notwithstanding her enormous expenditure and huge garrison, would soon disappear as it has in Tunisia. Capital and molonists are the desiderata. I was amazed at what the French have accomplished in Tunisia in a few years; eve oasis, even far routh in the Djereed where I travelled a year ago, was marked with the healing hand, wells sunk, palms planted, the furests in the north protected; and, to my intense surprise, I found even a telegraph station in that unvisited vestige of a line city-Nefta on the frontier.

ANTI-ANTI-TOXIN. Dr. Lennox Browne discusses in an article which is rather weighed down than illuminated with statistics, as to whether or not anti-toxin does any good for diphtheria. Among the figures and the percentages which go to prove that its alleged benefits have been immensely exaggerated, Dr. Browne raises the question whether really the value of the treatment depends at all, or tally appreciable degree, on the presence of the antidotal element, and whether injections of pure sterilised serum

would not have an equally beneficial result. In other words, whether stimolation by transfusion of the blood-fluid is not more responsible for any good achieved than the immunising agent contained in the antitoxic serum.

Two facts support this view—(1) the undoubtedly increased resistance to the disease when the treatment is commenced early, and (2) the inability, even when death is averted, to prevent the paralytic and other sequela expressive of the poisoning of the system by the toxines of the malady:

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT. Mr. H. B. Simpson writes an article on this subject without any definite notions of his own excepting one very clear idea, that no definite conclusions can be arrived at. He says :

The real question is-Will better results be obtained with regard to the diminution of crime by making up our minds to a more rigorous application of the coercive principle? or by attempting further experiments in the way of reformation ? er, lastly, by falling back on the antique theory of retribution ? I do not envy the man who, with the materials at present available, would be bold enough to give a positive and contident answer to such a question.

A NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT IN PERSIA. The Rev. H. R. Haweis reports a conversation with a Persian statesman, who, being questioned concerning the Shah's death, proclaimed the existence of a great religious movement in Persia, of which the outside world knows nothing. He said:

A vast underground agitation is going on throughout our Mussulman population, of which Europeans can gather but the faintest and vaguest idea; but one thing is undeniable, that this movement is daily and hourly gathering momentum throughout the Mussulman world. This new conception of a universal religion and morality, incorporating the results of modern progress, but culled severely and built up from the scattered precepts of Islamic tradition, is just now shaking the old Persian regime to its foundations, and as Persia has been throughout classical time the home and starting-point of all Mussulman innovations, I think it probable that this regenerating movement willspread throughout all Mohammedan lands."

At the close of this interview, Mr. Haweis says:-

I think, on the whole, the Persian was distinctly hopeful about his country and the new Shah, though he intimated that he expected that disturbance would shortly occur and blood be shed not a hundred miles from Teheran.

WHAT CHINA MUST DO TO BE SAVED. Mr. Boulger, in an article entitled “Li Hung Chang," sets forth what he thinks Li Hung Chang must induce the Chinese Government to do if China is to be saved. As these things involve, among other items, the transfer of the capital from Pekin to Hankow, and the construction of a railway from that city to Canton, it is evident that China has a great deal to do to be saved. Mr. Boulger says:

By three practical measures the abolition of the Censors, the reduction of the Viceroys for the concentration of power in the bands of the central Government, and the transfer of the capital to the interior-an immense stride towards the true regeneration of China would be effected.

But even if all this is done, China, although on the way to heaven, will not be safe until she has a standing army disciplined by European officers :

Without entering into details, it might be said that the main idea would be the formation of several corps, specially trained and officered, with permanent camps at Pekin, Tientsin, Shanghai, Nankin, and Canton. live corps of 25,000 men each would suffice as a commencement, and would provide China with the nucleus of an army. Up to the present absolutely nothing has been done in this direction.

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