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THE FORUM. THERE are two or three articles of considerable interest to English readers in the June Forum. Ouida's onslaught on royalty and Professor Thomas Davidson's article

" The Democratisation of England” are noticed elsewhere.

THE NOTE OF NORWEGIAN LITERATURE. Mr. Björnstjerne Björnson concludes his appreciative sketch of contemporary Norwegian authors, dealing with Jonas Lie, Alexander Kjelland, Arne Garborg, Mrs. Amalie Skram, and Knut Hamsun. Mr. Björnson regards as the distinctive glory of Norwegian literature that it is a literature with a purpose. He says :

By its works Norwegian literature acknowledges that it shall take a part, and the greater part, of the common responsibility; that a book which does not clear away or build up in such a way that it tends to increase our power, enhance our courage, and make life easier to us, is a poor book, however perfect its art may be. Simply to get an opportunity to 'say this to the world, I have undertaken to write this sketch, the only one of the kind I have ever written or shall write.

This distinguishing mark of wholesome responsibility, characteristic of Norwegian literature as a whole (the exceptions are always set aright by general consent), is partly due, I believe, to the fact that it is the conscience of a plain democratic people, and partly to the circumstance that most of the poets were children or grandchildren of peasants.

A HINT FOR THE C. 0. S. Mrs. Josephine S. Lowell, writing on the “True Aim of Charity Organisation Societies," says:

The aim of a Charity Organisation Society should be to get people to do far more in every way for those in distress than they have ever thought of doing. It should teach them that people ought to give more time, thought, and money than they are in the habit of giving. Every different case of distress can be dealt with in the same spirit, but it is not necessary to go into details. The principles of the Charity Organisation Societies can be summed up in two texts : "Man shall not live by bread alone,”—which applies to the poor as much as to the rich ; and “What shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul?”

AMERICA'S DUTY TO ARMENIA. The Armenian preacher Mr. Mangasarian, of Chicago, publishes an article entitled "Armenia's Impending Doom : Our Duty.” Mr. Mangasarian says :

In my humble opinion, it is the duty of America and Europe to intervene for good. The doctrine of non-interference is dangerous and unworthy of our religion and civilisation. When I think how some of our best men and women maintain a studied silence and turn a deaf ear to the cry of agony from the cities and villages of Mount Ararat, a terrible sadness comes over me. My hand shakes so that I cannot write; the tears fall hot upon the page before me; I feel a stifling sensation in my breast, something like a lump rises to my throat, I shudder and gasp for breath! If we fail to save the starving Armenians, they will perish. But that is not such a dreadful thing after all. Something worse than that will happen to us; we will die a moral death.

And he quotes Mr. William Watson's sonnet, de clares that he is the Laureate of humanity, and remarks :

In what other country has there been raised a voice so pure and sonorous, so mighty and moral ? The Armenians are hopelessly doomed unless the English-speaking people hasten to their assistance.

THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN IN TURKEY. Miss M. Patrick, of the American College for Girls at Constantinople, describes how the matter stands in Turkey to-day. In this field, as in many others, the American missionaries have done excellent work :

The Women's Board of the United States has established throughout Asia Minor an extensive system of schools which has done much to popularise education for girls. The first of these was founded in Constantinople in 1840, and at present there are sixteen high schools under American supervision in different parts of Asia Minor. The teachers in many of them are from various women's colleges in the United States, the course of study is comprehensive, and the methods of teaching,

are modern.

Consequently, their influence is strong and widely felt. None of them is a free school, but a limited number of scholarships is provided in all for those who wish to cducate themselves as teachers. The only cosmopolitan school among them is the American College for Girls in Constantinople, although there are others in which three or four nationalities are represented.

A NOVEL REMEDY FOR DROUGHTS. Mr. E. V. Smalley, writing on “ Our Sub-Arid Belt,” in which agriculture is practically impossible without irrigation, mentions an ingenious method that has been invented by a South Dakota farmer for the purpose of combatting the excessive dryness which renders whole districts unfit for settlement:

His idea is to make better use of the moisture that falls in showers by storing it, so far as possible, just below the roots of the growing crops and preventing its too rapid evaporation. To this end he bas invented a sort of cultivator that packs the ground a few inches below the surface so that a considerable amount of water will be held above the subsoil. Then, acting on the known fact that capillary attraction and consequent evaporation take place much more rapidly when the surface soil is firm and baked by the heat than when it is loose, he stirs up the surface by repeated working with another sort of cultivator. This second process is easy enough with corn- and root-crops, but he proposes to employ it with wheat, sowing the grain in rows and tilling the fields by a machine specially designed for this purpose.

He illustrates his theory of capillary attraction and evaporation in dense surface soil by showing how much more rapidly a fine-grained sponge will suck up water than will a coarse-grained one, and how much more rapidly it will give out water when the two sponges are saturated and placed on a board in the sun to dry.

THE POLICY OF TERRITORIAL EXTENSION. Mr. W. G. Sumner exposes with uncompromising vigour the inconsistency of those Jingo Protectionists who are perpetually declaring that to promote Free Trade with Canada would be ruinous to American industry, and then are threatening to conquer Canada, which would at once establish Free Trade between all parts of Canada and the country which had annexed it. Colonisation, he points out, is a burden, and under a Free Trade system an unnecessary burden :

Any extension will not make us more secure where we are, but will force us to take new measures to secure our new acquisitions. The preservation of acquisitions will force us to reorganise our internal resources, so as to make it possible to prepare them in advance and to mobilise them with promptitude. This will lessen liberty and require discipline. It will ipcrease taxation and all the pressure of government. It will divert the national energy from the provision of self-maintenance and comfort for the people, and will necessitate stronger and more elaborate governmental machinery. All this will be disastrous to republican institutions and to democracy, Moreover, all extension puts a new strain on the internal cohesion of the pre-existing mass, threatening a new cleavage within. If we had never taken Texas and Northern Mexico we should never have had secession. The sum of the matter is that colonisation and territorial extension are burdens, not gains.

OTHER ARTICLES. Professor W. S. Pratt writes on * The Isolation of Music”; Senator J. H. Mitchell pleads for “ The Election of Senators by Direct Popular Vote”; Professor Black



mar sets forth how many of the promises of democracy have failed in their fulfilment in the American Republic; and Mr. Higginson reproduces part of the original MS. of Keats's.“ Ode to Melancholy,” showing the poet's corrections in course of composition.

OTHER ARTICLES. Those who are interested in the agitation for securing the adoption of the Referendum in this country may be interested in the article on "The Direct Legislation Movement and Its Leaders,” which is written by Mr. E. Pomeroy. Mr. W. P. St. John, President of the Mercantile Bank of New York, lays down what he thinks will be the best platform for the American Independents at the next Presidential election. It consists of four planks: (1) Free coinage of silver; (2) The restoration of the mercantile tariff; (3) The adoption of the initiative of the Referendum; and (t) We condemn Clevelandism utterly. There is another article in favour of Bimetallism by A. J. Utley. Mr. H. W. Dresser has a somewhat disappointing paper on the Mental Cure and its relation to mankind, and the editor discourses on Whittier as a prophet of freedom.

THE ARENA. The Arena for June opens with a frontispiece of Whittier, the Quaker poet, and contains the sixth part of Professor Parsons' attack on the telegraphic monopoly, on which some remarks are made elsewhere.

AS THE LEADER OF MODERN THOUGHT. Dr. Samuel John Barrows has an article on Celsus, in which he claims that he anticipates that the Pagan critic of Christianity had the best of it in his argument with Origen. The following is Dr. Barrows' reply to his own qustion as to what part of his argument with Origen might claim to be for theology to-day :

1. His arraignment of the deification of Jesus. His scientific objections to the doctrine of the resurrection of the borly. 3. His demonstration on scientific grounds of the untenability of the Mosaic cosmogony,

4. His exhibition of the mythical character of the Eden legends on which Christian theology is built. 5. His argument that the Hebrew prophecies were not fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth. 6. His belief That mythology was a comparative science, and that Jewish and Christian mythology must be tested by the silme laws which are applied to the mythology of other religions. 7. His claim that the miracles of Christianity must be tried by the tests which we apply to all similar manifestatiors. 8. His protest against the claims of Judaism or Christianity to exclusive inspiration. 9. His claim that Jesus must be ruyarded not as a special incarnation of God, but as one of many messengers sent for the inspiration and guidance of mankind. 10. His recognition of a universal basis and a tniversal inspiration for all religions. These seem to us but modern reaffirmations of the thought of Celsus. If we ask what is still valid in Origen's refutation, we shall find it not in his allegories, not in his philosophy, not in his speculations, oot in his tedious exegesis, but in his claim that the moral fruits of Chrisuanity are the best vindication of its place in human history. The divinity of any religion is best shown in its worth to humanity. Not through its metaphysics, but through its ethics, has Christianity reached the beart of men. Hero they stand, the living thought of Celsus and the living moral faith of Origen; and the revolution that is going on in Christianity to-day is simply the attempt to reconcile the intellectual and scientific rationaiism of Celsus with the moral taith of Origen.

A GOOD IDEA FROM MEXICO. Mr. Clarke concludes the interesting series of papers which he has been writing on Mexico. There are many odu things in the Land of the Noon-day Sun, and one or two of them might be adopted with advantage in this country. Among others is that of issuing tickets for entertainments by what may be called time coupons. Vr. Clarke thus describes how it works in Mexico:

One of the novelties to be seen is the horseracing at night by electric light at the Indianilla race track near the city. At some of the theatres they have a plan of charging a real (twelve and one-half cents) for each act, and as there are usually five and the burlesque afterpiece, one who cares to we it all pays seventy-five cents. Thus one who does not like the play, pays for the acts he sees and quits, and those coming in late only pay for as many acts as they attend. Where the stat is more than seventy-five cents, it is at the same rate of one-sixth of the whole charge for each act. While this custom is a convenience to the audience, it is said that it pays the management also, as many go who would not be willing to pay for a whole evening without knowing that they would te pleased.

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. The North American Review for June is a' capital number. I quote at some length from the more important articles elsewhere.

ITALIAN IMMIGRATION TO AMERICA, Dr. J. H. Senner, U.S. Commissioner of Immigration, has a very interesting article on “Italian Immigration, which dissipates ruthlessly the scare recently got up by the American press as to the flooding of the country by Italian immigrants. In the first four months of this year, only 27,000 Italians landed in New York. Of these nearly 14,000 had either been in the United States before, or were joining families already settled in the country. In the previous two and a half years the number of outgoing Italians had exceeded the number of new arrivals by some 25,000. Dr. Senner says that the Italians who come over young are soon Americanised. In New York all the Italian priests in their religious services, their Sunday-schools, and even in their confessionals are obliged to use the English language if they hope to be understood at all by the second generation. Dr. Senner thinks that it would be well to impose an educational test for male immigrants over sixteen years of age, but this is chiefly because he thinks that illiteracy is invariably coupled with a low standard of living which leads to a low standard of wages.' Dr. Senner's conclusion as to the results of his experience as Immigrant Commissioner is thus stated :

I have come to the conclusion that the final solution of the “immigration problem” is not to be found in the application to immigrants of any additional test of eligibility, but in a wise distribution of the desirable immigrants among the localities where they are especially needed and their employment in the kinds of work for which they are peculiarly fitted A National Land and Labour Clearing House, to be established in connection with the great immigrant station at Ellis Island, with branches at the other stations, would, in my opinion, if properly conducted, prevent all possible dangers from immigration.

A. P. A." HAS DONE. Mr. Traynor, President of the American Protective Association, now in the tenth year of its existence, blows its trumpet lustily in an article entitled “The Policy and Power of the A. P. A.” According to Mr. Traynor, there never such an association. It is the strongest and purest political force that the Western world has ever known. It has a meinbership of nearly 2,500,000 persons, who influence at least 4,000,000 votes. This is a statement which had better be told to the




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marines than printed in a responsible and a respectable dreams are often largely a revival of inherited memories. roview like the North American. Although the “Ā. P: A.” As migratory birds inherit the memory of the route commands 4,000,000 votes, they only succeeded in which they must follow across oceans and continents pledging 100 members of the present House of Repre which they have never had an opportunity of exploring, sentatives to support the platform of the Order as a 60 every human being inherits the memory of all his whole or in part, and Mr. Traynor has the honesty to ancestors, which, however, are latent, excepting in sleep, admit that many of these did not lose any time in when they are fitfully revived. She maintains that repudiating their principles as soon as they were elected. those whose ancestors have always lived in Europe and “With the exception of about a score, the representatives America never dream of anything happening in Asia, of the A. P. A. in Congress are among the weakest and Africa or Australia. This is a generalisation which the least reliable members of the Order." Mr. Traynor seems to be based upon very inadequate foundation. threatens that, if the two great political parties refuse Her article is, however, very interesting, and together publicly to recognise and endorse the essential prin with Mr. Hargrove's will be found noticed at some length ciples of the “A. P. A.," the latter will start an in Borderland. independent presidential candidate. Let us hope that they will, and then we shall see how many of these 4,000,000 votes they can really control. Yet this

Professor R. Lanciani has a very interesting account mighty association, which declares that it is opposed

of the extent to which the Romans of the Republic chiefly by the illiterate elements of the nation, is so economised space by building into the sky. The teneweak that to avoid ruin it has to take shelter in ment houses under Augustus were run up to 70 feet in secrecy! Mr. Traynor says:

height, while in Berlin to-day the maximum height is Nearly every member of the A. P. A. who made himself

36 feet, in Vienna 45 feet, and in Paris 63), and those prominent in the movement retired absolutely ruined in

heights are only permitted when the street is as broad as politics and purse, and while hundreds of thousands sympa

the buildings are high. Tenement houses, however, were thised and accorded to the Order their passive support, only a

not so lofty as the Imperial palaces, one of which rose small percentage dared brave the storm of disaster that

150 feet above a street which is only 12 feet across, while inevitably followed membership in the Order. These con another was 180 feet. In modern Rome the new houses ditions led to the enforcement of absolute secrecy both as were run up from 100 to 120 feet high, and the Act of 1888, to membership and place of meeting, but to no purpose. which fixed the maximum of height at one and a half times

It is singular, to say the least, that an association the width of the street, suddenly arrested building speculawhich is strong enough to run a presidential candidate

tion. Mr. Lanciani admits that in Rome overcrowding is not capable of holding its own against the boycott of a is healthy rather than otherwise. The healthiest district pack of illiterate Irishmen.

in Papal Rome was the Ghetto, where 6,000 Jews were

massed together in very lofty buildings. They know WHY MURDER THRIVES IN THE UNITED STATES.

something about crowding, too, in Italy; for a recent The Hon. I. C. Parker, Judge of the United States municipal law of the city of Milan has ordered that no District Court of Arkansas, writes a very startling paper more than fourteen people should sleep in the same on “How to Arrest the Increase of Homicides in

room! Another interesting point in this article is that America.” It is a more damaging indictment of the way Nero deserves the chief credit for re-building Rome on in which Republican institutions are worked across the sound principles. “He set the whole city on fire, and Atlantic than anything that has been published of late did it so cleverly that, although of the fourteen wards years. Judge Parker maintains that in the States murder

into which Rome had been divided by Augustus, three is increasing, and will continue to increase until "the

were annihilated, and seven for the greater part lestroyed, man of crime," as he calls it, dominates American society,

not a single life was lost at the monstrous conflagration." unless something is done to check this ghastly growth. The imperial architects had, therefore, a clear field for a During the last six years there has been an average of healthy, habitable city. twenty homicides a day, year in and year out, in the United States. The daily average of executions is two,

IS THE WEST LOYAL ? and the average of lynchings three; but last year the Recent articles having raised the spectre of a possible number of persons killed had risen from twenty to thirty war between the Western States of America and the per day.

Five years ago the daily average was only East, Senator H. M. Teller, of Colorado, contributes a twelve. A community in which murder increases nearly brief paper entitled “The Loyal West.” He maintains threefold in five years is clearly retrograding towards that the West is certainly not going to secede because barbarism, and what makes matters worse is that Judge the East believes it is destined to dominate the West. Parker attributes this deplorable result to the direct If the East were to try to secede the West would action of the Appellate Courts. There are many other prevent it. Every year the centre of population goes causes, such as the indifference of the people to the

westward, and in a few years it will be west to the enforcement of the criminal law; but the chief cause is

Mississippi River. the fact that the Appellate Court has become the greatest of all promoters of crime by its constant, strenuous efforts to contrive by every technical pretext to quash a con

REV. P. W. Ditchfield in Gentleman's recalls many viction.

exciting incidents in the career of highwaymen on TWO ARTICLES FOR “BORDERLAND."

Bagshot Heath and in Berkshire generally. He reminds Mr. Hargrove, the new President of the Theosophical us that Dick Turpin's famous ride to York on Black Bess Society in the United States, gives a very rose-coloured is a myth, or rather a compounding of the ride to Turk on account of the flourishing condition of Theosophy across a bay mare of the highwayman Nicks about 1676, and the the Atlantic. Mrs. Elizabeth Bisland, in an article capture and execution of Dick Turpin at York' in 1739. entitled “Dreams and their Mysteries," sets forth with Harrison Ainsworth, in his "Rookwood,” was the fiction a good deal of eloquence and ingenuity her theory that



Returning to Egypt, Ali Gifoon once more went to the I HAVE to congratulate Mr. St. Loe Strachey upon the

Soudan, and was quartered on the borders of Abyssinia for brilliant success he has achieved in bringing out the

some sixteen years. Then the Mahdi arose, and he relates his

experiences of the rebellion and his final escape. On return first number of the new series of the Cornhill Magazine,

to Egypt he was posted as an officer to the loth Soudanese The Cornhill in its time has had many vicissitudes. It Battalion under Donne Bey, and in 1889 was promoted youswas the first magazine to achieve a great popularity, as bashi (captain) into the 12th. In all the actions and expeditions many as 124,000 copies of the first number were sold, which have taken place at Suakin, at Tokar, and on the Nile por is it surprising considering the fact that Thackeray frontier in our own time, Ali Gifoon had been to the fore. On edited it, and gathered around it so brilliant a staff of the line of march he leads the singing which carries the artists and writers. Among the contributors for the battalion along over miles of desert. year 1860 were Tennyson, Ruskin, Lockyer, Mrs. Browning, Captain Machell has done good service in tapping the Swinburne, Lord Lytton, and Adelaide Procter. Among mine of this veteran. It would be well if commanders of the other contributors were Washington Irving, Sir John other native troops in various parts of our empire would Herschell, G. H. Lewis, Matthew Arnold, FitzJames take as much pains to ascertain the history and the Stephen, Harriet Martineau, and Anthony Trollope. opinions of the men under their command. Several years later the Cornhill renewed its youth by

AN ARTICLE BY MR. GOLDWIN SMITH, coming out at sixpence under the editorship of Mr. James Payn. It has now renewed its youth by taking Mr. St.

Mr. Goldwin Smith contributes a brief article on Loe Strachey as editor, and has reverted to tlie price of

“Burke.” It is too short to enable him to deal adeone shilling, at which it was published under Thackeray.

quately with the theme, but one or two sentences may be It has been enlarged and improved. The July number

quoted as indicating the line taken by Mr. Smith. is capital from every point of view, with an up-to-date

As a whole, the “Reflections on the French Revolution," feel about it which gives the best promise for the future

considering the fearful gravity of the crisis and the dangerous success of the new editor.

character of the passions to which the appeal was addressed,

can hardly be regarded otherwise than as a literary crime. THACKERAY AS AN EDITOR.

The general view of the subject is not only inadequate, but false. Mrs. Ritchie contributes the first article, in which she

Speaking of Burke's association with Fox, Mr. Smith utilises fragments from the volume of correspondence

touches upon the question of the connection between which poured into her father's hands during the two

private morality and politics. years that he first edited the Cornhill.

Fox's character had been formed at the gambling table, and It was in the spring of 1862 that my father ceased to be

Napoleon was right in saying that he would never, if he could editor of The Cornhill Magazine, although he went on writing

help it, employ a gambler. The recklessness of the gambling,

We for its columns to the end. After his death “ Denis Duval”

table was brought by Fox into the arena of public life. was published, with a note and introduction.

are asked whether we would have refused to accept a good It was not till

measure from Mirabeau because he was a debauchee. We after my father had resigned the editorship in 1862 that George Eliot and Mrs. Gaskell joined the ranks of The

would not refuse to accept a good measure from Satan, but we Cornhill · Romola” was brought out in the July number of

have a shrewd though old-fashioned suspicion that Satan's the same year, 1862, and Mrs. Gaskell's novel of “ Wives and

private character would appear in his public conduct, as Daughters” followed in 1864. Later on came Meredith and

that of Mirabeau unquestionably did. Hardy, and some of Mrs. Oliphant's finest work. Honoured hands had been at work for The Cornhill during all these There is an excellent article on “ Animal Helpers and years! Leighton's drawings for “ Romola” are well known. Servers,” by Mr. C. J. Cornish, in which he describes Besides Lord Leighton's illustrations to “Romola,” some of

ces animals have been trained to render to Richard Doyle's delightful cartrons had appeared there. Sir John Millais had been making striking designs for Trollopo's

He suggests that the large Chow dog from stories, and Frederick Walker illustrating the “Story of

Northern China inight form the basis of a new breed Elizabeth,” which story was published under my father's

of cart dogs for minor traffic. They are immensely editorship.

strong in the shoulder and have far greater pulling Mrs. Ritchie speaks with enthusiasm of the publishers

power than any of the breeds that in Holland and of the Cornhill, in fact everything relating to the

Belgium are used for drawing carts. Mr. Cornish also Magazine appears to her in a rosy-coloured light.

suggests that the reindeer might be introduced with advantage as a draught animal in the Highlands.


says: One of the most remarkable features of the Magazine The only animal which can travel at speed over heather and is the autobiography of a Soudanese soldier, dictated in boy is the reindeer. Comparing his experience of the powers Arabic to Captain Machell, late of the 12th Soudanese of draught of the reindeer on the “ tundra ” of the Arctic Regiment. Ali Effenili Gifoon, who at the present

coast with the performance of ponies on the Scotch moors,

Mr. A. Trevor-Battye declares that the former are in every moment is fighting against the Dervishes on the Nile,

way superior for the ordinary draught work at a Scotch is a remarkable man, whose memoirs are well worth

shooting-lodge. They can travel at speed over the roughest publishing. In the July number we have the first

heather, will swim or flounder over the wettest bog, still chapter.

drawing their sledge, and would convey shooting parties, dead Born on the banks of the White Nile some sixty years ago, game, or provisions to and from the most distant and difficult he hunted, fished, and fought, a naked savage, until he was ground at a speel of from ten to twelve miles an hour. The about twenty-one years old. Then, falling by mischance into experiment of breeding young reindeer hos already succeeded the hands of the Baggara Arabs, he was handed over a slave,

at Woburn Abbey, and before long some trial teams will be as part of the Governinent tax, and became a soldier.

working in the Highlands.

OTHER ARTICLES. After fighting the Khedive's army in the Soudan for some years he was moved up to Egypt, and was sent as Miss Kingsley, who writes with a charming, but someone of the negro battalion lent by the Khedive to what too discursive pen, describes the “ spooks" of the Napoleon III. to Mexico, where he did good service. West African Coast, who seem to be even more fearsome


many ser



creatures than any of those which abound in more

UNITED SERVICE MAGAZINE. civilised lands. Mr. Strachey begins the publication of

ADMIRAL SIR V. Hamilton has the first place with an “Pages from a Private Diary," which he declares is as

article on the “ Manning of the Navy” in the United Sergood a private and intimate journal as any of those that

vice Magazine for July. Admiral Hamilton says that were kept in the last century. Very few people have time

for his position in life the British man-of-war's man is as enough to make such lengthy entries in a private diary

well off, if not better, than any class of the community, as are to be found in this publication. A private dairy whereas the British merchant seamen are among the written for public inspection is usually a very poor thing worst off, and the most unprotected

portion of at the best. Sir M. E. Grant Duff, who is culpably idle

the community. He thinks that it is quite imwith his pen, translates som jokes from an old French

possible that man-of-war's man should descend jest book, and Mr. Charles L. Graves publishes “ The

to employment in the merchant service under its Malwood Eclogues,” suggesting that Sir William Har

present conditions. Nearly half a million of British court, in preparing a new edition of Virgil, would turn first of all to the Pollio, Virgil's passionate appeal for a

money paid to merchant seamen is mis-spent or

stolen.abroad. The article, which is somewhat discurnew leader! Mr. Merriman is to begin a new serial as soon as Mr. Norris's “ Clarissa Furioso ” is concluded.

sive, then deals with the improvement that has been

effected in midshipmen. After Mr. Merriman's story is done, Mr. Stanley Weyman

He says that when he was

commanding in China in 1885, he was surprised and Mr. Crockett are to have their turn. I can see the

and gratified to find how immensely the seamen had advantage of announcing this in advance, but a judicious improved in the last eighteen years.

There publisher should not bind himself too far ahead.

under his command only one black sheep, and he THE FREE REVIEW.

was only light-brown, and has subsequently done well.

Colonel Pretyman describes what passed at Kabul in CONTRADICTION of the conventional always lends a

1879 and 1880, when Cavagnari was killed, and General flavour of piquancy to the contents of the Free Review, Roberts marched to Kabul to avenge his death. The but the July number owes less of its interest to this article on the “ First Invasion of the Soudan describes cause than is usual. “ Democritus,” indeed, inveighs how the Egyptians first became possessed of that region against Drummond, Kidd and Calderwood as representing in 1820. Ismail, the son of Mohammed Ali, was at the “biology with a snuffle.” Mr. W. S. Sparrow charges head of the army of conquest, and in order to prove that woman with a grievous lack of the imaginative faculty. he was doing his work, he used to send boxes of But most articles strike a positive note. Mr. J. M.

human ears regularly to his father at Cairo. His Robertson supplies a study of Shakespeare and Montaigne, regular price was 50 piastres per ear, and not only comparing the first (pirated) edition of Hamlet which

were the ears of all those killed in battle cut off, came out in the same year as Florio's translation of but in intervals between the fights the Egyptian troops Montaigne's Essays, with later editions of the play, and scoured the country ear-hunting. Wherever they found showing how Shakespeare used the French author's ideas

a native with ears, they cut them off, regardless of sex or and even words. Mrs. Walter Grove discusses continu

age. It is satisfactory to know that Ismail was ultiously what children should be told of religion and sex mately burned alive by a native chief whom he had insulted. functions. "A Churchman,” feeling that "the battle of There is an article on “ Britain Impregnable,” by J. C. the future will be between a consolidated Catholicism on

Dunn. He is not in the army. His idea is that we the one hand and the allied forces of Agnosticism and

should, to use his own phrase, “ boerise” the whole irreligion on the other," demands that “the National

country, namely, by devoting £2,000,000 a year to Church” heal its own differences, and declares Home train 1,000,000 men in the use of the rifle. In his own Reunion to be not only imperative, but practicable. village, he says, he is the only man who can use the rifle, “ The only inspired fount of infallibility . is a coin but if rifles were supplied with ammunition, he woull bined concentration of the Church, the Bible, private undertake to enrol 20 to 30, and possibly 50 m n. Then, judgment, and the discoveries of Science, focussed on to waxing more sanguine as he goes on, he declares that, the individual's intelligence." Mr. Tyrrell Baylee, with a instead of 1,000,000 riflemen, he could easily raise view to prevent trades union tyranny, advocates the 5,000,000 or 6,000,000. There is an article on the appointment of "workmen's friends," paid possibly by “ Canadian Rebellion " of 1885. Captain Salusbury the State, to act as local mediators between masters and replies to the “Defenders of the Congo State," who haie

Mr. A. H. Williams urges the abolition of illegiti criticised his attack on the Belgian administration. macy, pleading for a compulsory registration of both

There are other articles dealing with subjects of historic parents, and argues that the legal responsibility for off

interest, relating to the service. spring would act as an important deterrent. He imagines that this one source of over-population would be destroyed. He concludes with the modest demand that it be com

The Secret of the Bicycle's Popularity. pulsory for every male to be legally married as soon as In Scribner's Magazine, writing upon the cycle mania, he reaches a proper age for such a union, and that the which has attained greater dimensions in the United State afford a man the means of subsistence for himself, States than it has ever done in this country, the author wife and offspring.

says that the true secret of the bicycle's firm hold upon

the public and its greatest value, is because it equalises With the July number, the Savoy begins to appear men and women, weak, strong, dwarf and giant, all of monthly instead of quarterly. Mr. W. B. Yeats supplies whom, with comparatively small perseverance, can become the first of three papers on William Blake's illustrations as proficient for all practical purposes as the most (with examples) to the “ Divine Comedy.” Havelock Ellis handsomely endowed athlete of them all. Nothing else continues his account of Nietzsche's ethics, and Edward can compare to the whe as a leaven for the hea lump Carpenter discourses explanatorily on the simplification of joylessness in our streets. The "bike" goes farther of life. Arthur Symons heavily censures Zola's “Rome towards filling the psychic and moral void in city life as an encyclopædic essay and no romance.

than in any other institution.


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